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# Atmospheric Flight

Mechanics

## Lecture 21 Equations of Motion of

the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
Aircraft Performance and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning

## AE321 Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Effectiveness of Load

Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

Manoj T. Nair
IIST
21.1
Atmospheric Flight
Agenda Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
1 Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn Load Factor, Bank Angle,
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
2 Turning Flight Parameters Maximum Load Factor and
Maximum Bank Angle

## Airspeed and Necessary Condition for Turning Fastest Turn (Maximum

Turning Rate)

Load Factor, Bank Angle, and Aerodynamic Efficiency Tightest Turn (Minimum

## Turning Rate and Turning Radius

Effectiveness of Load Factor in Turning
Maximum Load Factor and Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum Turning Rate)

21.2
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn I Mechanics

## Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn Equations of Motion of

the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters

Turning is performed by banking the aircraft using ailerons Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
The side-slip during turn is kept to zero using the rudder and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
A slip occurs when an aircraft is moving somewhat Effectiveness of Load
Factor in Turning
sideways as well as forward relative to the wind Maximum Load Factor and
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

21.3
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn II Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Since turning requires coordination between the ailerons Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary

and rudder during the turn, it is called a coordinated turn Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

21.4
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn III Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
Important parameters are Load Factor, Bank Angle,
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
airspeed Turning Rate and Turning
rate of turn Effectiveness of Load
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
bank angle Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)

## Important turning flights

fastest turn
tightest turn

21.5
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn IV Mechanics

## In coordinated turn, the aircraft turns in a circular path at Equations of Motion of

the Coordinated Turn
constant airspeed in the horizontal plane Turning Flight
Parameters
The aircraft turns only due to banking Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning

The angle of side-slip is kept to zero by coordinating the Load Factor, Bank Angle,
and Aerodynamic Efficiency

## deflections of ailerons and rudder Turning Rate and Turning

The velocity vector, lift and drag lie in the same plane - Factor in Turning
plane of symmetry of the aircraft Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
The thrust is along the tangent to the flight path at any Tightest Turn (Minimum
instant during the turn
Acceleration is along the radius of curvature

21.6
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn V Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

## V is the airspeed along the circular path

φ is the bank angle
r is the radius of turn
χ is the turning angle (yaw)
χ̇ = d χ̇/dt is the rate of turn (angular velocity)

21.7
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn VI Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
In a steady turn, that has no acceleration along the flight Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

T = D
Resolving forces in the vertical direction

L cos φ = W

## Resolving forces in the horizontal direction

W V2
L sin φ =
g r
21.8
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn VII Mechanics

## The kinematic relation

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn
V = r χ̇ Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
The rate of fuel consumption Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency

## dW Turning Rate and Turning

− = cT Effectiveness of Load
dt Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
This equation will not be used as weight is considered Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
constant for the short duration of turn Tightest Turn (Minimum

## Since only a component of lift balances the weight, the lift

must be greater than the weight
The ratio L/W is know as the load factor (n or nz )

L 1
n = = = sec φ
W cos φ

This shows the relation between the load factor n and the
bank angle φ
Fixing φ fixes n
21.9
Atmospheric Flight
Equations of Motion of the Coordinated Turn VIII Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

## The load factor can also be expressed as

L L T T
n = = = E
W WW W

21.10
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters I Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn
Airspeed and Necessary Condition for Turning Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
From the drag polar and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
2

T = D = qSCD = qS CD,0 + KCL Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
But L = nW and CL = 2L/(ρV 2 S) Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum
2 2
 
n W
T = qS CD,0 + K
q2S2

## CD0 S 2 q 2 − (TS)q + Kn2 W 2 = 0



" 1/2 #
4KCD0 n2
 
(T /S)
q = 1± 1−
2CD0 (T /W )2

21.11
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters II Mechanics
p
Using Em = 1/(2 KCD0 ) Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn
" ( 1/2 )#
n2 Turning Flight

(T /W )(W /S) Parameters
V = 1+ 1− Airspeed and Necessary
ρSSL σCD0 Em2 (T /W )2 Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Only the +ve sign is retained Radius

## In the case of steady level flight n = 1 Factor in Turning

Maximum Bank Angle
For a given altitude and throttle setting, the airspeed Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
reduces in turning when n > 1 Tightest Turn (Minimum

## If the airspeed has be maintained at a given altitude, the

thrust must be increased by increasing the throttle setting
To obtain real values of airspeed, the quantity in bracket
must be ≥ 0
n T n
≤ 1, i.e., ≥
Em (T /W ) W Em

## This is the necessary condition for coordinated turn in

horizontal plane
21.12
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters III Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Load Factor, Bank Angle, and Aerodynamic Efficiency Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
The load factor is obtained from the V equation as Turning Rate and Turning

ρ2 σ 2 CD2 0 Em2 4
Factor in Turning
2ρSSL σ(T /W )CD0 Em2
− SSL
n2 = V Maximum Bank Angle

## (W /S) (W /S)2 Fastest Turn (Maximum

Turning Rate)
 1/2 Tightest Turn (Minimum
ρSSL σCD0 Em 2 2(T /W )(W /S) 1 Turning Radius)

n = V − 1
(W /S) CD0 ρSSL σ V2

## The bank angle φ is

 
1
φ = cos−1
n

21.13
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters IV Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

## φ is related to turning rate χ̇ Turning Flight

Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
W V2 Load Factor, Bank Angle,
L sin φ = and Aerodynamic Efficiency

## g r Turning Rate and Turning

V = r χ̇ Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
  Fastest Turn (Maximum
W Turning Rate)
L sin φ − V χ̇ = 0 Tightest Turn (Minimum

## If φ is zero, the turning rate χ̇ must vanish

Therefore, steady coordinated turn is not possible without
banking the aircraft
At φ = 90◦ , the load factor becomes infinite
So, close to 90◦ , coordinated turn is not possible

21.14
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters V Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
The CL and aerodynamic efficiency is given as and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning

## 2L 2n(W /S) CL CL Effectiveness of Load

Factor in Turning
CL = = and E = = Maximum Load Factor and
ρV 2 S ρSSL σV 2 CD CD0 + KCL2 Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum
CL remains constant as altitude remains constant, V and n Turning Radius)

are constant
So the drag and E would remain constant during
coordinated turn

21.15
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters VI Mechanics

## Turning Rate and Turning Radius Equations of Motion of

the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters

## √ Airspeed and Necessary

Condition for Turning
g gp 2 g n2 − 1 Load Factor, Bank Angle,
χ̇ = tan φ = n −1 = and Aerodynamic Efficiency

## V V Ma∗ aSSL Turning Rate and Turning

where χ̇ is in radians per unit time Factor in Turning

## a∗ = a/aSSL , a is the speed of sound Maximum Bank Angle

Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Using the expression for n2 Tightest Turn (Minimum

( )
g 2ρSSL σ(T /W )CD0 Em2 2 ρ2SSL σ 2 CD2 0 Em2 4
χ̇ = V − V −1
V (W /S) (W /S)2

## The turning radius can be obtained as

V V2 a∗2 a2
r = = √ = M 2 √ SSL
χ̇ g n2 − 1 g n2 − 1

21.16
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters VII Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

21.17
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters VIII Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

21.18
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters IX Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Effectiveness of Load Factor in Turning Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
p Turning Rate and Turning
Note that V = 2nW /(ρSCL ) Radius
Factor in Turning
r 1/2 Maximum Load Factor and
n2 − 1

ρCL n 2(W /S) Maximum Bank Angle

Turning Rate)

## The influence of n and χ̇ and r enters through

r
n2 − 1 n

n 2
n −1

21.19
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters X Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

21.20
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters XI Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum

## The effect of load factor is mostly confined to about n = 3

This corresponds to a bank angle of φ = 70◦
Therefore, beyond this angle changing the bank angle is
not going effect turning rate of turning radius

21.21
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters XII Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

Turning Flight
Parameters
Effectiveness of Load Factor in Turning Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning
and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
by differentiating n w.r.t. V , and putting dn/dV = 0 Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
The obtained Vnm can be used to obtain expressions for Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
turning rate and turning radius Tightest Turn (Minimum

## However, it is undesirable to attempt to achieve the

maximum load factor due to design limitations, flight
limitations or passenger discomfort
In practice, the maximum allowable load factor nm,allowable
is more important

21.22
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters XIII Mechanics

## Fastest Turn (Maximum Turning Rate)

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

The fastest turn has maximum turning rate (dχ/dt)m Turning Flight
Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
The fastest turn is a measure of aircraft maneuverability Condition for Turning
and is regarded as a figure of merit of the aircraft and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning

## The velocity for fastest turn can be obtained by making Radius

d χ̇
dV = 0
Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
This velocity is obtained as Fastest Turn (Maximum
Turning Rate)
Tightest Turn (Minimum
 1/2  1/4 Turning Radius)
2(W /S) K
VFT = = VEm
ρSSL σ CD0

## Fastest turn airspeed increases with

increase in altitude
Fastest turn airspeed is independent of engine thrust
Using this expression turning radius and turning rate can
also be obtained
It is noted that EFT < Em 21.23
Atmospheric Flight
Turning Flight Parameters XIV Mechanics

Equations of Motion of
the Coordinated Turn

## Tightest Turn (Minimum Turning Radius) Turning Flight

Parameters
Airspeed and Necessary
Condition for Turning

## An aircraft’s tightest turn is a measure of its Load Factor, Bank Angle,

and Aerodynamic Efficiency
Turning Rate and Turning
The corresponding velocity can be obtained by dr /dV = 0 Factor in Turning
Maximum Bank Angle
Fastest Turn (Maximum
2K (W /S) Turning Rate)
VTT = p Tightest Turn (Minimum

## The tightest turn airspeed

increases with altitude