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Hormones And The Endocrine System

Endo (Gk) = inside or within

Crinis = secrete

What are you watching there? So which ones have you learned about The skeletal system
The circulatory system The nervous system And so many more It’s wonderful that you know
so much About your body Oh you enjoy music too Did you know There is a body system that
works Just like a conductor of this orchestra? It is this system of our body whose organs
Control and direct the other body systems Well

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Just as the different musicians In an orchestra needs someone to tell them When, how, and
what to play So is it with the organs in our body. Our body organs need someone to tell what
should be done at what time Organs of our body need direction From a central control
system. The endocrine system does this job. It is the central control system. So can you tell
me the name of this system is?

END OF CRYING?

Oh noo! Endocrine system is a signalling system The works in conjuction with the nervous
system To control and regulate the body.

1. Nervous system: Electrical signals


2. Endocrine system: Chemical signals

Hormone

1. Devolopment
2. Metabolism
3. Reproduction
4. Mood

Hormone are produced by the endocrine glands And ends inthe bloodstrea Where they
ciculate around the body. There are key to specific tissues, And once recognized, They signal

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the tissue to perform a task. In control with the rapid Nervous : Fast, brief And brief nature of
nervous impulses, Endocrine signalis are relatively shlow Endocrine : Slow, prolonged

And act for prolonged period. The endocrine system has many glands.

1. Pituitary gland 1. Parathyroid gland


2. Tiroid gland 2. Pancreas gland
3. Adrenal gland 3. Ovaries (female)
4. Testes (male)

These glands make hormones that control The functioning of other body system. Oh oh! Take
it easy my friend. I’ll explain it to you in detail.

You see. Our body has many small organs called glans. These glands together Make up the
endocrine sytem. Each gland has a special job. Let me introduceyou to your glands. First,
meet the pituitary gland. The boss of all endocrine glands. Pituitary gland Pea Regulates all
the other glands and tissues That comprise the endocrine syste Master glandLocated at the
base of the brain And is connected to the hypotalamusWhich in turn, regulates its activity!
Hypotalamus Diencephalon Interbrain This is where the nervous system, and the endocrine
system Hypotalamus is involved Body temperature Emotions Sexual activitis These activities
are initated by the hypotalamus Based on negative feedback

The hypotalamus accomplishes these 3 ways:

1. Hypotalamus regulates the anterior pituitary gland


2. Releases hormones directly througt posterior pituitary gland
3. Controls the endocrine cells of thr adrenal medullae

The pituitary glands has 2 lobes:

1. Posterior lobe
2. Anterior lobe

Anterior pituitary gland is connected directly to the hypotalamus Hypophyseal portal system
2 types of regulatory hormones Are produced by the hypotalamus and transport it directly to
the anterior pituitary gland Releasing hormones Inhibiting hormonesRegulate the production
of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland

The hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland include:

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1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Triggers the thyoid gland to secret thyroid hormones
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
4. Stimulates secretion of hormones inthe adrenal glands

Follice stimulating hormone (FSH)

Stimulates sperm production in the male testes Stimulates estrogen hormone secretion
and egg development in the female ovaries

Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates the formation of mammary glands in the female and the production of milk

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Induces evalation in females stimulates estrogen and progesteron hormone secretion in


prepration for pregnancy

Growth hormone (GH)

Targets cells in the liver which are involved in processing food as well as stimulating cells
growth and replication throughout the body Posterior pituitary gland Contains neuron cells
that originate n the hypothalamus and it releases Hormones that are produced inthe
hypotalamus

Antidiuretic hormone ( ADH )

Targets cells in the kidney & work to maintain a proper balance of electrolytes in the
bloodstream involved in maintaining proper blood volume & proper blood pressure

Oxytocin ( OT )

Helps prepare the uterus during the last stage of pregnancy for labor & delivery Involved in
producing milk in the mammary gland

Next comes the thyroid gland

1. Pituitary gland 1. Parathyroid gland


2. Thyroid gland 2. Pancreas gland
3. Adrenal gland 3. Ovaries ( famale )

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4. Testes ( male )

The growth agent Together with the parathyroids There are 4 parathyroid glands Located
behind the thyroid gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands They monitor control the amount
of calcium In our and bones

Parathyroid hormone ( PTH )

Each gland monitors the blood calcium And responds by making more/less PTH
Hyperparathyroidism 1 in 800 people 1 in 250 women over 50 Parathyroid gland control
calcium levels Hyperparathyroidism Improper calcium regulation This tumor produces Far
too much parathyroid hormone Which is released into the bloodstream The excess
parathyroid hormone Travels through the blood, and into the bones The hormones activate
cells withinthe bones. To eat away at the bones Often causing osteoporosis Fractures and
bone pain The destruction of bone releases calcium Into the blood High-blood calcium levels
are seen In almost all patients with a parathyroid tumor The excess calcium can build up in
the arteries Increasing atherosclerosis thoughout the body. High blood pressure Heart attack.
Stroke The high calcium often affects. The electrical system of the heart. Atrial fibrillation.
Palpitations The excess blood calcium build up in the kidneys Kidneys stones Kidneys
failure High-calcium levels also affect the brain Since we use calcium in the electrical
system. Of our nerves. Slower nervous system. Tiredness and poor concentration. Chronic
fatigue. High-calcim levels have an affect. On the stmach and intestnes.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD )

High blood calcium = higber cancer risk. Breast Prostate Colon Kidney Some of which are
more than twice as common In patients with high-blood calcium Hyperparathyroidism
Decrease life expectary by 5-6 years Nodrugs, pills, or treatments Can slow bone destruction
or replace surgery Hyperparathyroidism is cure by Surgical removal of the parathyroid tumor
in the hands of an expert Parathyroid surgery is a straightforward Outpatient produre that can
be completed In less than 20 minutes 30 % can have a second tumor Once all parathyroid
tumor has been removed. The disease is cure. The process of eating away of the bones. Stops
within minutes. Bone-pain is typically gone within a fwe hours. And the osteoporosis begins
to improve The excces calcium inthe blood will be Gone within a fwe hours And within a
week or two. Most patients feel significantly better. The health-risks of high-blood calcium
Begin diminishing within days After the parathyroid tumor.

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Hyperparathyroidism:

1. Feel bad
2. Destroys body

All patients Should be evaluated For straightforward operation Curing this disease Has
fremendous impact on Overall health and quality of life During periods of stress Such as
preparing run in the rate The brain signal the adrenal glands Epinephrine or adrenaline
Adrenal gland Epinephrine increases the rate In which the heart beats In turn, the increased
cardiac output Supplies more oxygen to the muscles Outting the body in a heightened state
To react as a longerterm response to stress Cortisols is excreted by the adrenal glands
Promoting the releasee of energy Pancreas As an example of how parts The endocrime
system works, Consider the pancreas In addition to aid in digestion The pancreas also serve
as an endocrine function Which regulates blood sugar levels. High-blood sugar causes the
pancreas To release hormone called insulin into the blood. When levels of blood glucose or
sugar. Become too high. The pancreas increases prodution of insulin Chemicals in the insulin
Cause body cellsto open up, Allowing more glucose from the blood the enter cells.
Stabilizing the amount of glucose in the blood And maintaining adequate energy in the cell.
Insulin Blood sugar When this reaches the liver, It signals the river To convert sugar into
glycogen for storage This reduces the blood-sugar levels Which reduces the stimulus Of
pancreas of produces insulin And insulin levels fall. This slows down the conversion of liver
And eventually stops altogether When optimum levels have been achieved When blood sugar
levels fall, The pancreas releases another hormone Called glycagon which stimulates the
liver To convert glycogeback into sugar And again restore the optimum blood sugar lever
Called glycagon which stimulates the liver To convert glycogen back into sugar And again
restore the optimum blood sugar level It travels along the digesive tract It travels along the
gigesive tract Where is broken down into Its complete nutrients In order to be absorbed into
the bloodstream One such nutrient is glucose, a simple sugar. Glucose gets absorbed by the
stomach & intestines And thenenters the bloodsteam It travels to circulation to all to body
cells

Once absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose circulates Causing the blood sugarlevel to rise
An increase level of blood sugars Sends a signals to the pancreatic data cells Which respond
by secreting the hormone insulin Into the circulation Insulin is necessary for glucose to reach
& be used By several important target tissues of the body. These include the liver, muscle and

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fat Insullin is necessary tokeep blood glucose level Stable in the body Binding to the insulin
receptor Insulin receptor Insulin cell nucleus

Glucose ( sugar ) uptake = energy

Glucose enters the cell to a process called “ facilitated diffusion ’’

 2 Type Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes About 15% of all cases

Most often found in under 40 s Most common type found in childhood The carbohydrate –
contsining food Is broken down into glucose as normal That glucose then moves into the
bloodstream Normally the body would produce insulin To let that glucose into the cells But
in type 1 diabetes, There is no insulin produced So the glucose can;t get through The body
cells at all So the levelof glucose in the blood rises&rises The body tries to lower the level of
glucose Just to get rid of the glucose throught kidneys Urination Thirst Thrush or genetal
itching Slow healing Glucose can also build up in the lens Of the front of the eye Causing the
liquid in the lens to became cloudy That cloud mean that some people With undiagnosed type
1 diabetes Blurred vision Tiredness But the body still needs energy source In order to work
propely So what it does is it starts To breakdwon its fat stores Weight loss Urination Thirst
Thrush or genetial itching Slow healing Blurred vision Tiredness Weight loss

Type 2 diabetes

About 85% of all caseses Most common in over 40s in white population And over 25s in
black and south asean population Type 2 diabetes is a little more complex Because it has
slightly more proxesses at work Either the body isn’t producing quite enough insulin Or the
insulin that’s producing , Isn’t working properly, Overweight, The carbonhydrate-containing
food , Is broken down into glucose , However, the glucose canalways get into the cells
Because the locks of cell doors Have become fed up with fat deposits That means that the
insulin Can’t open the cell doors properly So the levels of glucose in the blood Continues to
rise Main symtoms type 2 diabetes Urination Thirst Thrush or genetal itching Slow healing
Blurred vission Tiredness Weight loss 10 years But type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition
and some people will need some form Of medication to treat it.

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1. The gonads
2. Testes in male & ovaries in female
3. Are important endocrine organs
4. Produces steroid hormones
5. That affect growth and development
6. As well regulating reproductive cycles
7. And behaviors
8. Three categories of gonadal steroids
9. Androgens
10. . Estrogens
11. Progestins

Both male nd female have all 3 type :

But in different proportions The testes primarily secrete androgens The most important being
testoterone Androgens are generally involved In the development ant maintenance Of the
male reproductive system Early in embryonic development The presence or absenceof
androgens Determine the sex of an individual If present, a male develops And its absence a
girls Later during puberty High concentrations of androgens Initiate the development Of
human male’s secondary sexual characteristics Such as facial hair, increased musculature
Then deeper voice The ovaries primarily secretes Estrogen and progestorone Like androgens
in males Estrogen and progesterone in females are largely involvedin the development and
maintenance Of the female reproductive system As increased levels of estrogens &
progesterone began to circulate in female during puberty they cause the development Of
secondary sexual characterictics Began to circulate in females during puberty They cause the
development Of secondary sexual characteristic such as enlarged breasts Widening of hips
Increased sub-contagious fat Development of the uterus And initiation of the menstrual cycle
Pituitary gland Thyroids with parathyroid adrenal and pancreas

Text Bahasa indonesia

HORMON DAN SISTEM ENDOKRIN

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Jadi yang mana yang memiliki sistem muskular kerangka yang dipelajari tentang
sistem peredaran darah , sistem saraf dan sebagainya yang luar biasa yang bisa anda ketahui
tentang tubuh anda , oh nikmati music juga . Tahukah anda , ada system tubuh karya sama
seperti konduktor orkestra ini ? Sistem tubuh kita inilah yang organ tubuh yang
mengendalikan dan mengarahkan sistem tubuh lainnya . Sama seperti musisi yang berbeda
dalam sebuah orchestra membutuhkan seseorang untuk memberitahu mereka kapan dan
bagaimana cara bermain , demikian juga dengan organ tubuh kita , organ tubuh kita yang
begitu membutuhkan seseorang untuk menceritakan apa yang harus dilakukan pada jam
berapa .

Organ tubuh kita butuh arahan dari sistem control pusat . Sistem endokrin melakukan
pekerjaan ini adalah sistem control pusat , jadi bisakah kukatakan apakah nama sistem ini ?
Sistem endokrin adalah sistem persinyalan yang bekerja untuk konjungsi dengan sistem saraf
untuk mengendalikan dan mengatur tubuh .

1. Sistem Saraf : Sinyal listrik


2. Sistem Endokrin : Sinyal kimia
3. Hormon
4. Perkembangan metabolisme , mood reproduksi , Hormon diproduksi oleh kelenjar
endokrin dan diakhiri dengan darah.
Dimana beredar disekitar tubuh , ada kunci untuk jaringan tertentu dan satu rekonized ,
mereka sinyal jaringan untuk melakukan tugas yang tidak sesuai dengan cepat .
1. Sistem saraf : cepat , singkat dan singkat sifat saraf impuls
2. Endokrin : Lambat , berkepanjangan , sinyal endokrin relative lambat dan
bertindak untuk waktu yang lama.
a. Sistem endokrin memiliki banyak kelenjar .

1. Kelenjar dibawah otak


2. Kelenjar tiroid dan paratiroid
3. Kelenjar adrenal
4. Kelenjar pancreas
5. Ovarium betina
6. Testis laki-laki
b. Kelenjar ini membuat hormone yang terkontrol

c. Fungsi sistem tubuh lainnya

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d. Tubuh kita memiliki banyak organ kecil yang disebut kelenjar , kelenjar ini bersama-
sama membentuk sistem endokrin.

Pertama – tama temui kelenjar di bawah otak , atas semua kelenjar endonkrin,
kelenjar pituitary, kacang polong sehingga regulasi yang semua kelenjar dan jaringan
lainnya, kelenjar master yang terdiri dari sistem endonkrin dan terletak di dasar otak
dan terhubung ke hipotalamus, yang pada gilirannya menata ulang aktivitasnya.

1. Hipotalamus
2. Interbrain
Disinilah sistem saraf dan sistem endonkrin peyakit dan melihat hipotalaus yang
terlibat : Suhu tubuh , emosi, aktivitas seksual. Aktifitas ini terletak di hipotalamus
bedasarkan feedback negative. Hipotalamus menyelesaikanya dalam 3 cara.

1. Hipotalamus mensyaratkan hormon pertumbuhan hipofisis kelenjar pituitary


2. Melepaskan hormon secara langsung melalui kelenjar pituitary posterior.
3. Mengendalikan sel endonkrin medulla adenal.
Kelenjar pituitary memiliki 2 lobus :

1. Lobus posterior
2. Lobus anterior
Kelenjar hipofisi anterior terhubung langsung ke hipotalamus , sistem postal
physeal 2 jenis hormon egulatory diproduksi oleh hipotalamus dan membawanya
secara langsung ke kelanjar pituitary anterior dan melepaskan hormon penghambat
hormone. Regulatory diproduksi hormon oleh kelenjar hipofisis anterior.

Hormon yang diproduksi oleh kelenjar pituitary anterior termasuk :

1. Hormon peran
2. gsang tiroid : tiroid merangsang hormon psh
3. Hormon adrenotropic acth merangsang rekresi hormon dikelenjar adenal
4. Hormon vsh merangsang produksi sperma laki – laki , meransang perkembangan
sekresi extrosgren hormone di ovarium wanita
5. Prolaxin prl merangsang pembentukan kelenjar susu pada betina dan produksi air susu
6. Luteinizing hormone ( LH )
Sekresi hormone ekstrogen dan progesterone dalam persiapan untuk kehamilan
7. Hormone pertumbuhan bh

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Sel – sel dihati yang terlibat dalam pengelolahan tiroid tanpa perangsang pertumbuhan
sel dan replikasi melalui tubuh.
Kelenjar pituitary posterior mengandung sel neuron yang berasal dari hipotalamus dan
terlepas. Hormon diproduksi dihipotalamus .
8. Antidiuretik hormone ADH
Sel target di ginjal dan bekerja untuk menjaga keseimbangan elektrolit yang tepat
dalam aliran darah , dilibatkan dalam menjaga darah yang tepat dengan pemberian
darah yang
tepat .
9. Oktosin (OT) membantu kesehatan uterus selama target terakhir dari kehamilan untuk
persalinan Terlibat dalam produksi air susu dalam kelenjar mamay. Selanjutnya
terjadi kelenjar tiroid bersama dengan paratiroid, ada 4 kelenjar

1. Paratiroid yang berada di belakang kelenjar tiroid yang membantu memantau

2. Pengendalian jumlah kalsium dalam darah dan tulang , masing – masing kelenjar

3. Kandungan darah dan meresponya member lebih banyak. Penyakit hipoparatiroid

Pada kelenjar ada 8 ratus orang dan pada 250 wanita diatas usia 50, kelenjar paratiroid
mengontrol kadar kalsium Hiperparatiroid regulasi kalsium yang tidak tepat , tumor paratrid
terlalu banyak menghasilkan hormon paratiroid yang dilepaskan di dalam darah. Kelebihan
hormon paratiroid berjalan melalui darah dan masuk kedalam tulang. Penghancuran tulang
melepaskan kalsium kedalam tingkat klsium darah tinggi hmapir semua pasien dengan
penyakit tumor tiroid. Kalsium preses bisa terbentk di anteri untuk meninkatkan osteoporosis
melalui darah tinggi tubuh setiap lipatan jantung dan stroke. Skala tinggi sering terjadi sistem
kelenjar jantung aterial vibri letion palpitasi , kelebihan kalsium diginjal, kerusakan ginjal.
Kadar kalsium tinngi juga dapat mempengaruhi otak karena eggunakan kalsium dalam sistem
kelistirikan saraf, sitem saraf yang leih lambat karena adanya kelelahan dan kelemahan
kontinuitas kelehan kronis. Kadar kalsium tinggi mempengruh pada lambung dan usus ,
kalsium darah tinggi bersiko tinggi terkena kanker payudara, postat, ginjal. Beberapa
diantaranya lebih dari 2 klai pasien dengan darah tinggi. Mengurangi exponasi hidup selam
56 thn tidak ada obat pil atau peawatan yang dapat memperlambat perusakan tulang
hiperparatiroid disembuhkan dengan bedah tumor paratiroit di tangan sebuah experi. Operasa
hormon tiroid adalah prosedur pasien langsung ke depan yang dapat dilakukan dalam waktu
kurang dari 20 menit, 30 % dapat menyebabkan tumor ke 2 setelah tumor tiroid dikeluarkan.

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Proses tulang berhenti dalam beberapa menit sakit tuang iasanya hilang dalam beberapa jam.
Tulang mulai bergenerasi pada beberapa hari dan osteoporosis mulai membaik. Kelebihan
kalsium dalam darah akan hilang dalam beberapa jam dan dalam waktu 1 sampai 2 minggu
kabayakan pasien turun secara spesifik, resiko kesehatan kalsium darah tinggi mulai
berkurang beberapa hari setelah tumor tiroid. Hiperparatiroid terasa tidak enak menghancurka
tubuh semua pasien harus dievaluasi untuk operasi stadium lanjut untuk menyem buhkan
penyakit ini yang berdampak luar biasa pad kesehatan dan kwalitas hidup secara keseluruhan.
Selama stress harus seperti ersiap berlari dala sebuah perlombaan, sinyal yang dikorek
menyiratkan kelenjar adrenal. Epinefrin atau adrenalin. Epinefrin meningkatan tingkat Diana
berdeak inturn. Peningkatkan output kardiak. Supples lebih banyak oxgen ke otot – otot
menempatkan tubuh dalam keadaan butuh tinggi. Saa kadar glukosa darah atau gula menjadi
terlalu tinggi pancreas meningkatkan produksi insulin. Bahkan kimia dalam insulin
menyebabkan sel tumbuh membesar sehingga memungkinkan lebih banyak glukosa fron
darah masuk ke sel mestalbilkan jumlah glikosa dalam darah dan menjaga energy yang
adekuat dalam sel.

Hipotalamus terletak di bagian tengah bawah otak. Ini bagian dari otak yang penting dalam
regulasi kenyang, metabolisme, dan suhu tubuh. Selain itu, ia mengeluarkan hormon yang
merangsang atau menekan pelepasan hormon di kelenjar pituitari. Banyak dari hormon ini
melepaskan hormon yang disekresikan ke dalam arteri (sistem portal hypophyseal) yang
membawa mereka langsung ke kelenjar pituitari. Dalam kelenjar hipofisis, hormon-hormon
melepaskan sinyal sekresi hormon-hormon. Hipotalamus juga mengeluarkan hormon yang
disebut somatostatin, yang menyebabkan kelenjar pituitari untuk menghentikan pelepasan
hormon pertumbuhan.

Fungsi utama hipotalamus 'adalah homeostasis, yaitu bermanfaat untuk menjaga tubuh agar
tetap stabil dan dalam kondisi konstan.
Karena berapa hipotalamus juga terhubung ke beberapa daerah dari sistem saraf pusat dan
otak depan limbik, maka harus menyesuaikan sesuai dengan sinyal yang berbeda baik
internal maupun yang eksternal. Rangsangan yang berasal dari penciuman sering
mempengaruhi hormon endokrin. Sementara glucorticoids dan steroid mempengaruhi
tanggapan seperti nafsu makan atau rasa haus. Paparan sinar matahari merupakan sebuah
sinyal yang jelas dan hal ini akan membantu mengatur siklus tidur dan bangun tidur.

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Daerah anterior hipotalamus berada di depan dan memiliki tanggung jawab untuk beberapa
fungsi. Hal ini merupakan bagian penting dari termoregulasi yang bertugas mengatur suhu
tubuh. Termoregulasi dikendalikan melalui proses berkeringat dan saat Anda terengah-engah,
selain itu tidur serta siklus sirkadian juga diatur oleh daerah anterior.

Di tengah hipotalamus bertanggung jawab pada rasa haus dan lapar. Wilayah tuberal juga
memiliki tugas mengontrol tekanan darah dan denyut jantung. Pada bagian belakang
hipotalamus merupakan daerah posterior. Bagian ini juga akan mengontrol peningkatan
tekanan darah, rasa menggigil, serta pelebaran pupil. Fungsi memori juga akan dipengaruhi
juga oleh daerah ini.

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