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Innovating future with 3D and 4D printing …

By Tanmay jagetia (MFT/17/42)

Printing has taken all new form in today’s era with the building research and
development from the new minds in that field. Thinking beyond the limits of methods and
styles of printing ,the new ideological minds have taken this whole term to a new level with
different application’s and making it more fruitful and living more easier with aesthetic feels.

The conventional printing includes the localized dyeing with just colours providing the
aesthetic appearance but in the 21st century this has gone all being the screen printing rotary
printing to the level of digital inkjet printing, 3D printing, and the latest to 4D printing.
The conductive fabric with use of technique of digital printing:

With the introduction of smart and wearable textiles, the need of electrically conductive
textile material have been raised to new levels. Often this is gained by attaching the metal
particles with the materials to reduce the resistance towards electricity. This can be also be
achieved by printing the materials with conductive pastes which keep the material flexible
and cost effective. The latest technique in this field is printing the conductive layers with
nanoparticles in form of 3D printing. These nanoparticles are the reactive silver ions in form
of ink is used. The inkjet printing deposition of silver electrically activated ions on surface
forming conductive layer. These electrically conductive layers 3D printed are fused together
with fabric form a circuit board like structure in the fabric reducing the resistance of fabric
maintaining the flexibility of material. (Kazani, I.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Schwarz, A.; Guxho, G.; Van Langenhove,
L. Electrical Conductive Textiles Obtained by Screen Printing. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2012, 20, 1(90) 57-63 )

Problems associated with silver sol inks:

But the problem with process was that the ink prepared for inkjet printing should be
free from roughness and high sintering temperatures. The problem with ink there is a
problem with the wash fastness of materials printed, materials are not that durable to wash
and other agitating sources.
Development to 3D structured garments Electro loom:
Another innovations of the era is the 3D printing of different materials from food to
clothes to the buildings too. The 3D printing has taken all new heights in the field off clothing
and garment industry. Initially the 3D printing was just famous for the patterns to be printed
over the fabrics giving the 3D effect. But this techniques has been used to manufacturing of
whole garment to the development of different patterns and materials with the help of resin.

The Electro loom: 3D fabric printer garments this is the special equipment in the
garments are manufactured with help of solution of polyester cotton blended fibres with the
solvent which are sprayed over the moulds and then these are polymerized to form whole
seamless garment without the use of sewing machine.

This is whole inspired from the 3D printers to make a whole garment in one build.
The designing process include the design the mould with help of Digital CAD, then this mould
is placed inside the chamber, the liquid solution of polymerizing material is guided onto the
mould by an electric field, evenly coating and binding the nano-fibres with cohesion to form
a web of seamless fabric.
The New Era of Printing - Innovation Future By Tanmay Jagetia
This works on the principle of electro spinning process to convert liquid solutions into solid
fibres which are deposited into 3D moulds. This is also known as Field Guided Fabrication
(internal electric field that guides the fibres in 3D moulds).
The latest patent of 4D printing:

Another one of the latest patents are 4D printing in the expansion of feet of printing
in field. Printing in 3D is the formation with the fusing of layers one by one by infusion
fusing. But today’s era has included another dimension to world of printing inclusion of is
time. This technology allows us to print object that can then reshape themselves or self-
assemble over time. These can be activated or shaped with help of temperature, electric field,
magnetic field etc.

4D printing with effective resin combination with colours and pigments makes the
shape which can be changed with the medium like of temperature electric fields etc. this has
found a special use in manufacturing of materials which can change shape for the materials
where we require the self-assembly or the self-folding with minimum space.

Although this is not commercially available, as environmental, economic, human and

other constraints continue to fluctuate which need a dynamic system that can respond with
ease and agility, these all solutions can be given with 4D printing, introduction of the
innovative media to the structures having static and rigid aspects in aerospace, automobiles
building, industries etc. which will be soon dynamic, adaptable and tuneable for on demand
performance. (http://www.stratasys.com/industries/education/research/4d-printing-project)
Application of the latest technologies commercialized:
Application of these technology in the apparel industry is not that widely accepted but
in some aspect the R&D is in the progress. One of the example of this printing is preparation
of customized sole of shoes by adidas with combination with carbon printers. The specific
equipment with the combination of physics and chemistry together has given special result
in the development. The machine works as special resin liquid chamber which is localized
polymerized with the help of ultraviolet light under the chamber which polymerize the
material continuously and which is raised from the bed continuously, the finished sole is
obtained in this form which gives a 3D mesh structure. The sole design is customized with
use of different sensors under the feet. (https://www.carbon3d.com/stories/adidas/)
Development of new technologies in the field of printing has provided a new aspect to
garment manufacturing, these are not commercialized to that level but have provided a whole
new dimension and mind-set towards manufacturing these with newer techniques and
moving towards much faster and sustainable methods. The older technologies are still in
their in action in commercial market but the innovating new technologies also provide some
new value added edges to the product developed newly and also give them another level of
attachment to the customer for satisfaction.

 Kazani, I.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Schwarz, A.; Guxho, G.; Van Langenhove, L.
Electrical Conductive Textiles Obtained by Screen Printing. FIBRES & TEXTILES in
Eastern Europe 2012, 20, 1(90) 57-63.
 http://www.stratasys.com/industries/education/research/4d-printing-project
 https://www.carbon3d.com/stories/adidas/
 https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/electroloom/electroloom-the-worlds-first-3d-