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- Hypothesis Testing
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HYPOTHESIS:

The word hypothesis is made up of two Greek roots ὑπόθεσις, its plural is

term derives from the Greek, ὑποτιθέναι – hypotithenai meaning "to put under"

or "to suppose." which mean that it is some sort of ‘sub-statements’, for it is the

The scientists observe the man of special class of phenomena and broads over it

until by a flash of insight he perceives an order and intelligent harmony in it. This

This theory when stated testable proposition formally and clearly subjected to

furnishes the germinal basis of the whole investigation and remains to the end of

its corner stone, for the whole research is directed to test it out by facts. At the

the proposition to be accepted or rejected in the light of the findings. The word

Hypothesis 2

The word meaning of the term hypothesis is a tentative statement about the

reference.

about the factual and conceptual elements. Hypothesis is called a leap into the

true in the light of what is known at the time about the phenomena. It is the basis

focus to a research problem but are not essential for a study. You can conduct a

hand, within the context research study you can construct as many hypotheses as

you consider to be appropriate. Some believe that one must formulate a hypothesis

Hypothesis 3

that are tested through a study and one can conduct a perfectly valid study without

The importance of hypothesis lies in their ability to bring direction, specificity and

focus to a research study. They tell a research what specific information to collect,

Let us imagine you are at the race sand you place a bet on the hunch that a

particular horse will win. You will only know if your hunch was right after the

race.

Hypotheses are based upon similar logics. As a researcher you do not know about

about the outcome of a program, but you do have a hunch to form the basis of

certain assumptions or guesses. You test these by collecting information that will

enable you to conclude if your hunch was right. The verification process can have

1) Right;

2) Partially right; or

3) Wrong

Hypothesis 4

Without this process of verification, you cannot include anything about the

phenomenon, relationship or situation, the realty or truth which you do not know.

relationship between two or more variable. For the hypothesis to be testable, the

variables must be operationally defined. That is, the researcher specifies what

which seek to explain a condition that has not yet been verified by facts. In a

hypothesis, some of the elements or relationship between the element are known

facts. But other elements or relationships are conceptual. That is, they arte product

of the research worker’s imagination. They leap beyond known facts to intelligent

Hypothesis 5

formulated in such a precise and objective manner that the research worker can

Definitions of hypothesis:

The term hypothesis has been defined in several ways. Some important definitions

-James E.

Greighton

investigation.”

Lungerg

investigation.”

John W. Best

Bruce W.Tuckman

Hypothesis 6

basis for action in the search for the truth, when the hypothesis is

Hypothesis 7

Sources of Hypothesis:

Hypotheses are oriented originally forms the same background that serves to

reveal the problem. The sources are basically theoretical background, knowledge,

insight and imagination that come from industrial programme and wide reading

Hypothesis 8

While some researchers believe that to conduct a study requires a hypothesis, having

Phase 3

Phase 1

Phase 2

Analyse data to

Formulate your

Collect the required draw conclusions

hunch or

data about the hunch

assumption

true or false

The formulation of hypotheses provides a study with focus. It tells you what specific

A hypothesis tells you what data to collect and what not to collect, thereby providing

The following are the main functions of hypothesis in the research process suggested

1) It is the temporary solution of the problem concerning with some truth which

Hypothesis 9

2) It offers a basis in establishing the specifics what to study for and many

5) Each hypothesis provides the investigator with definite statement which may

be objectivity tested and accepted or rejected and deals for interrupting results

The functions of hypothesis may be condensed into three. The following are the

2) To sensitize the researcher so that he should work selectively, and have very

Hypothesis 10

Nature of Hypothesis:

and concepts, it is not merely idea but in the verbal form, the idea is ready

5) It is the pivot of scientific research. All the research activities are designed for

its verification.

Hypothesis 11

2) A good hypothesis does not conflict with any law of nature which is

known to be true.

6) A good hypothesis ensures that the methods of verification are under the

control of investigator.

8) A good hypothesis takes into account the different types controls which

10) A good hypothesis shows clearly the role of each variable used in the

study.

Hypothesis 12

If-then statement:

variables. A hypothesis can also test whether there are differences between two

exist, these hypothesis can be set either as propositions or in the form of IF-THEN

statements.

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS:

• Null Hypothesis.

• Alternate Hypothesis.

• Directional Hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis:

The null hypothesis is a proposition that states a definite, exact relationship between

two variables. That is, it states the population correlation between two variables is

equal to zero or that the difference in the means of two groups in the population is

The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that states that there is no relation between the

phenomena whose relation is under investigation, or at least not of the form given by

Hypothesis 13

difference between what we might find in a population characteristics and the sample

we are studying. Since we do not know the true state of affairs in the population, all

we can do is draw inferences based on what we find in our samples. What we imply

through the null hypothesis is that any differences found between two sample groups

or any relationship found between two variables based on our sample is simply due to

random sampling fluctuations and not due to any true difference between the two

population groups, or relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis is thus

formulated so that it can be tested for possible rejection. If we reject the null

relationship tested could be supported. It is the theory that allows us to have faith in

This is one more reason why theoretical framework should be grounded on sound,

defendable logic to start with. Otherwise other researchers are likely to refuse and

Example:

One may wish to compare the test scores of two random samples of men and women,

and ask whether the mean score of one population-group differs from the other. A

null hypothesis would be that the mean score of the male population was the same as

H0:μ1 = μ2

Where:

Hypothesis 14

Alternatively, the null hypothesis may postulate (suggest) that the two samples are

drawn from the same population, thus the variance and shape of the distributions

One can then establish the probability of observing the obtained data (or data more

different from the prediction of the null hypothesis) if the null hypothesis is true. That

That is, in scientific experimental design, one may predict that a particular factor will

then consider how often we would expect to observe our experimental results or

results even more extreme, if we were to take many samples from a population in

which there was no effect (i.e. we test against our null hypothesis). If we find that this

happens rarely (up to, say, 5% of the time), we can conclude that our results support

Alternate Hypothesis:

The alternative hypothesis, as the name suggests, is the alternative to the null

hypothesis: it states that there is some kind of relation. The alternative hypothesis

may take several forms, depending on the nature of the hypothesized relation; in

particular, it can be two-sided (for example: there is some effect, in a yet unknown

Hypothesis 15

hypothesis or research hypothesis) and the null hypothesis are the two rival

be where water quality in a stream has been observed over many years and a test

is made of the null hypothesis that there is no change in quality between the first

and second halves of the data against the alternative hypothesis that the quality is

Modern statistical hypothesis testing accommodates this type of test since the

Example:

is set up to establish. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the alternative

hypothesis might be that the new drug has a different effect, on average, compared

The alternative hypothesis might also be that the new drug is better, on average,

H1: the new drug is better than the current drug, on average.

The final conclusion once the test has been carried out is always given in terms of

the null hypothesis. We either "Reject H0 in favour of H1" or "Do not reject H0".

Hypothesis 16

If we conclude "Do not reject H0", this does not necessarily mean that the null

hypothesis is true, it only suggests that there is not sufficient evidence against H0

in favour of H1. Rejecting the null hypothesis then, suggests that the alternative

Directional Hypothesis:

comparing two groups, terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than, and

the like are used then these hypothesis are directional because the direction of the

postulated.

Example:

1. The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction

of employees.

indication of the direction of these relationships and differences are called non

directional hypothesis.

Hypothesis 17

relationship between two variables , we may not be able to say whether the would

differences between two groups on a particular variable, we will not be able to say

differences have never been previously explored and hence there is no basis for

might have been found, while in others a negative relationship might have been

traced. Hence the current researcher might only be able to hypothesize that there

would be a significant relationship, but the direction may not be clear. In such

Examples:

2. There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asian

employees.

generation and testing can be done both through deduction and induction.

hypothesis are then formulated, and data collected and then the

Hypothesis 18

what is known from the data already collected, which are then tested.

In sum, new hypothesis not originally thought of or which have been previously

untested might be developed after data are collected. Creative insights might compel

researchers to test a new hypothesis from existing data, which, if substantiated, would

add new knowledge and help theory building. Through the enlargement of our

and the inductive processes, we add to the total body of the knowledge in the area.

2. Choose the appropriate statistical test depending on whether the data collected

4. See if the output results from computer analysis indicate that the significance

level is met. This critical value demarcates the region of rejection from that of

Hypothesis 19

5. When the resultant value is larger than the critical value, the null hypothesis is

rejected and the alternate accepted. If the calculated value is less than the

Hypothesis can also be tested with qualitative data. For example, let us say that a

researcher has developed the theoretical framework after extensive interviews that

between right and wrong, or due to a dire need for more money or the organizations

indifferences to such practices. To test the hypothesis that these three factors are the

primary ones that influence unethical practices, the researcher would look for data

that could refute the hypothesis. When even a single case does not support the

hypothesis, the theory could be revised. Let us say that researcher has find a case

between right and wrong, was not in the need of money, and knew that the

Hypothesis 20

organization would not be indifferent to his behavior) simply he wanted to get back at

the system, which would not listen to his advice. This new discovery through

the researcher to revise the theory and the hypothesis until such time as the theory

becomes robust.

Summary:

Hypotheses, though important, are not essential for a study. A perfectly valid study

Hypotheses are important for bringing clarity, specificity and focus to a research

study.

The testing of the hypothesis becomes meaningless if anyone of the aspect of your

Hypothesis 21

REFRENCES:

Uma Sekaran. Research Methods for Business A Skill Building Approach Fourth

Edition

http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/hypothesis_testing.html#h1

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