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I’m not a huge fan of LDAP because I don’t like the handling of it, but if a directory service is needed it’ll most
probably be an OpenLDAP, so sometimes one just has to deal with it. I’ll use this article to document the basic Anonymous on XML Filtering in Windows
installation and configuration process of OpenLDAP and I’m going to do this on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. This article Event Viewer
can be understood as a very basic quick start guide. rian on Installing a Mailserver with Postfix,
Dovecot, SASL, LDAP & Roundcube
admin on Installing a Mailserver with Postfix,
Dovecot, SASL, LDAP & Roundcube
1. Essential Knowledge About OpenLDAP

LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol and is based on the X.500 standard which defines the Categories
structure of directory services. The primary use of directory services is storing user- and object data in a central
system and make this data available to other applications (often for authentication or as an address book). In Flashlight
contrast to relational database management systems (RDBMS) directory services are specifically optimized for
Hardware
read access.
HowTo
The directory is built as a tree structure. The whole tree is referred to as the DIT (Directory Information Tree). Information
At the very top of this tree is the (invisible) RootDSE which is the Directory Service Entry point. Then follows a Linux
BaseDN (Base Distinguished Name) that looks like a domain name and can consist of multiple components (i.e.
Mac
dc=example,dc=com). But in contrast to domain names (i.e. example.com) an LDAP DN has to be spelled in
Raspberry
attribute/value pairs (attribute1=value1,…,attributeN=valueN). Beneath the BaseDN any desired structure of
OUs (Organizational Units) can be created to represent the company structure. At the very bottom would be the Review
actual resources (persons, user/service accounts or any other objects) with their properties. Windows

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LDAP Directory Overview

A DN (Distinguished Name) identifies one specific object in the tree (i.e.


uid=postfix,ou=services,dc=example,dc=com). An RDN (Relative Distinguished Name) is one part of a
DN (i.e. uid=postfix). dc (domain component) is an “allround”-attribute that can be used instead of specific
attributes like o (organization) and c (country) to create general structures (the example above could also be
created as uid=postfix,ou=services,o=example,c=com). Attributes (uid, ou, o, c, dc) are part of
objectClasses which in turn are defined by schemas.

The OpenLDAP daemon (server) is not configured through a classic config file; the configuration is stored in the
directory itself. Changes to the configuration, the tree structure or objects are described in LDIF files (LDAP
Data Interchange Format) and then added to the directory.

2. OpenLDAP Installation

Become root, update the software repository and upgrade your system:

1 sudo -i
2 apt-get update
3 apt-get upgrade

Install the OpenLDAP daemon (slapd) and the LDAP configuration tools (ldap-utils). During installation you’ll
have to define a password for the LDAP Administrator account. Then check if slapd is running:

1 apt-get install slapd ldap-utils


2 lsof -Pni :389

OpenLDAP is now ready to use.

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3. OpenLDAP Default Configuration

The configuration can be found in /etc/ldap. Here’s a short explanation of the existing files/folders:

sasl2/ Used for SASL authentication. Initially empty and unconfigured.


schema/ Contains the included schema and ldif files.
slapd.d/ The LDAP server’s configuration storage.
slapd.d/cn=config Contains the server configuration and directory databases.
slapd.d/cn=config/cn=schema Contains the currently loaded schemas.
ldap.conf Used to define system-wide defaults for LDAP clients.

Initially there’s one directory configured, which can be found in /etc/ldap/slapd.d/cn=config/


olcDatabase={1}hdb.ldif. If you open the file in a text editor, you can see that this directory is called
“dc=nodomain“. The administrator account for this directory is “cn=admin,dc=nodomain” (olcRootDN) with
the password that you provided during installation (olcRootPW).

The actual database, that is automatically built from this configuration, is stored in /var/lib/ldap.

4. Custom Directory Creation

Now that slapd is running, you can set up your own directory. This can be done by hand (writing and importing
LDIF files) or – on Ubuntu – with the Debian Packet Manager (dpkg). I like it simple, so I’m going to chose the
second option. This however should only be used for a first-time setup.

1 dpkg-reconfigure slapd

Omit OpenLDAP server No This will start the configuration wizard.


configuration?
DNS domain name: example.com Name of your directory (this will result in a BaseDN of the
form dc=example,dc=com).
Organization name: example Name of your organization.
Administrator password: secret New password for the LDAP Administrator
(cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com).
Database backend to use: HDB Based on Oracle Berkeley Database (BDB) but more
effective.
Remove database when No Keep the database if OpenLDAP is uninstalled.
slapd is purged?
Move old database? Yes Remove the old database so that it does not interfere with
the new configuration.
Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No Unless specifically needed, LDAPv2 should be disabled.

The dc=nodomain has now been replaced with dc=example,dc=com.

5. A First Test

You can query the directory as follows:

1 ldapsearch -x -W -D cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com -b dc=example,dc=com -LLL


2
3 # x = simple bind/authentication
4 # W = ask for password
5 # D = user DN
6 # b = search base
7 # LLL = omit comments

This query should return two DNs: your directory (dc=example,dc=com) and your admin account
(cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com).

If you don’t want to type the user DN and the search base for every query, you can put these into ~/.ldaprc:

1 BASE dc=example,dc=com
2 BINDDN cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com

Then you can just run

1 ldapsearch -x -W -LLL

To filter the result:

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1 ldapsearch -x -W -LLL 'cn=admin'


2 ldapsearch -x -W -LLL '(&(objectClass=simpleSecurityObject)(cn=admin))'

A trailing + can be added to also show metadata.

6. Directory Modification

There are three ways to make changes and add entries to the directory:

1. Modifying the config in /etc/ldap/slapd.d directly (not recommended!)


2. Using the ldap-utils (ldapadd, ldapdelete, ldapmodify, …)
3. Using a graphical user interface (i.e. Apache Directory Studio)

Using the ldap-utils is probably the best way, especially for script and batch operations (see chapter 12 & 13 for
a quick overview). To get started, I’m going to use a graphical interface.

7. Apache Directory Studio Installation

Since it is written in Java, you need to install a Java Runtime Environment:

1 apt-get install default-jre

Then download the appropiate version (32 or 64 bit) from https://directory.apache.org/studio/


download/download-linux.html, extract it to /root/ADS/ and run it:

1 tar -xvzf /ApacheDirectoryStudio-*.tar.gz -C /root/


2 mv /root/ApacheDirectoryStudio-* /root/ADS
3 /root/ADS/ApacheDirectoryStudio

8. Connecting To The Directory With ADS

Create a new connection in the connection window (bottom left corner) using the following parameters:

Optionally create a second connection for the cn=config tree (only works after step 9):

9. Add A RootDN To The Config Tree

To connect and make changes to cn=config (which contains the LDAP configuration) an admin user and
password has to be created. This can be done with an LDIF file (/etc/ldap/own_ldifs
/configroot.ldif):

1 dn: olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config
2 changetype: modify

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3 add: olcRootDN
4 olcRootDN: cn=admin,cn=config
5
6 dn: olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config
7 changetype: modify
8 add: olcRootPW
9 olcRootPW: {SSHA}juW1dDVtEV+KTwp5a6nTUO3GBs16mdAg

The password can be generated with slappasswd. Then import the LDIF as follows:

1 sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f configroot.ldif

10. Load an Additional Schema

Go into the schema directory and add your custom schema (in this case the postfix-book.schema):

1 cd /etc/ldap/schema
2 wget http://www.postfix-buch.com/download/postfix-book.schema.gz
3 gunzip postfix-book.schema.gz

To load a schema with ldapadd, it has to be in LDIF format, so it must be converted first. The conversion can
be done with slapcat. You’ll need a config file and an output directory:

1 cd /etc/ldap/schema
2 mkdir ldif_output
3 touch schema_convert.conf

The schema_convert.conf file contains the schema to be converted (and any dependencies):

1 include /etc/ldap/schema/core.schema
2 include /etc/ldap/schema/cosine.schema
3 include /etc/ldap/schema/nis.schema
4 include /etc/ldap/schema/inetorgperson.schema
5 include /etc/ldap/schema/postfix-book.schema

Start the conversion:

1 slapcat -f schema_convert.conf -F ./ldif_output/ -n0

Copy the corresponding output file to /etc/ldap/schema:

1 cp /etc/ldap/schema/ldif_output/cn\=config/cn\=schema/cn\=\{4\}postfix-book.ldif /etc/ldap/schema/postfix-book.ldif

Finally, in the postfix-book.ldif, the following changes need to be made:

dn: cn=postfix-book,cn=schema,cn=config
cn: postfix-book
Remove the metadata starting from structuralObjectClass

Then add it to the directory as follows:

1 sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f postfix-book.ldif

The new attributes of PostfixBookMailAccount are available from now on.


If not, try a restart (/etc/init.d slapd restart).

11. Security

To control the directory access (–> who may access which parts of the directory?) ACLs can be created in the
cn=config tree — see steps 8 and 9 on how to connect to it. ACLs are saved under olcDatabase={1}hdb in
the olcAccess attribute (there can be more than one of those). The following screenshot shows an “allow
everything” ACL, which will allow anyone write access to the whole directory:

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This ACL however should only be used for testing purposes.

Here is an example ACL that defines some more specific permissions:

1 {0}to dn.subtree="dc=example,dc=com" attrs=userPassword


2     by self write
3     by dn.base="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
4     by dn.children="ou=services,dc=example,dc=com" read
5     by anonymous auth
6     by * none

1 {1}to dn.subtree="dc=example,dc=com"
2     by self read
3     by dn.base="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
4     by dn.children="ou=services,dc=example,dc=com" read
5     by * none

Check the LDAP documentation for an in-depth look at ACLs.

12. LDIF Examples

a) Adding an OU by LDIF File

Create an addou.ldif with the following content to add an OU called “people”:

1 dn: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
2 changetype: add
3 objectClass: organizationalUnit
4 objectClass: top
5 ou: people

Then add it to the directory using this command:

1 ldapadd -W -D "cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" -f addou.ldif

b) Adding Users by LDIF File

Create a userimport.ldif with the following content to add a single user (the value for userPassword can be
generated with slappasswd):

1 # Some User
2 dn: uniqueIdentifier=some.user,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
3 objectClass: organizationalPerson
4 objectClass: person
5 objectClass: top
6 objectClass: PostfixBookMailAccount
7 objectClass: extensibleObject
8 cn: Some User
9 givenName: User
10 mail: some.user@example.com
11 mailEnabled: TRUE
12 mailGidNumber: 5000
13 mailHomeDirectory: /srv/vmail/some.user@example.com
14 mailQuota: 10240
15 mailStorageDirectory: maildir:/srv/vmail/some.user@example.com/Maildir
16 mailUidNumber: 5000
17 sn: Some
18 uniqueIdentifier: some.user
19 userPassword: {SSHA}Ifz0oceGr1wwBP1BtBduPLTVbo6A2Qkd

Then add it using this command:

ldapadd -W -D "cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" -f userimport.ldif

c) Reset a User-Password by LDIF File

Create a pwreset.ldif with the following content to reset the password of a user account (the value for
userPassword can be generated with slappasswd):

1 dn: uniqueIdentifier=alice,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
2 changetype: modify
3 replace: userPassword
4 userPassword: {SSHA}Rs60p+2QKxAFRnA6vtWV71SI6Jz57CDF

Then add the changes to the directory using this command:

1 ldapadd -W -D "cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" -f pwreset.ldif

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22 Comments. [ Leave a comment ]


zePouletto September 12, 2014 at 12:58 pm

Hi, thank you for this topic, it will be helpfull !

I am trying to setup Postfix to work with OpenLDAP. So first I would like LDAP to work correctly. I followed you
article here (without the web interface part) and I am stuck when trying to add a user.

Here is what I have done:

For credential check purposes, I tried following query:


ldapsearch -x -W -D cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com -b dc=myDomain,dc=com -LLL

It lists:

dn: dc=myDomain,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: dcObject
objectClass: organization
o: myDomain.com
dc: myDomain

dn: cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com
objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
objectClass: organizationalRole
cn: admin
description: LDAP administrator
userPassword:: superHash=

=== I created the LDAP schema

Dowloaded the postfix-book schema to /etc/ldap/schema:


wget http://www.postfix-buch.com/download/postfix-book.schema.gz

Once downloaded, unziped the archive to the ldap schema directory:


gunzip postfix-book.schema.gz

Made a new directory to store the converted file:


mkdir /etc/ldap/schema/ldif_out

Then created the file /etc/ldap/schema/schema-convert and added following lines:


include /etc/ldap/schema/core.schema
include /etc/ldap/schema/cosine.schema
include /etc/ldap/schema/nis.schema
include /etc/ldap/schema/inetorgperson.schema
include /etc/ldap/schema/postfix-book.schema

Once done, I converted the schema files to an ldif file:


slaptest -f schema-convert -F /etc/ldap/schema/ldif_out/

Edited the file /etc/ldap/schema/ldif_out/cn\=config/cn\=schema/cn\=\{4\}postfix-book.ldif to delete the 7


last line and make following changes:
dn: cn=postfix-book,cn=schema,cn=config
cn: postfix-book

To finish I imported the converted ldif file to the schema directory:


ldapadd -x -W -D cn=admin,cn=config -f /etc/ldap/schema/ldif_out/cn\=config/cn\=schema/cn\=\{4\}postfix-
book.ldif

Successfully imported !

=== When I try to add a user

Created the file userimport.ldif and inserted following lines:

dn: uniqueIdentifier=frank,ou=people,dc=myDomain,dc=com
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: person
objectClass: top
objectClass: PostfixBookMailAccount
objectClass: extensibleObject
cn: Frank Moses
givenName: Frank Moses
mail: frank@myDomain.com
mailEnabled: TRUE
mailGidNumber: 5000
mailHomeDirectory: /my/mailbox/frank@myDomain.com
mailQuota: 10240
mailStorageDirectory: maildir:/my/mailbox/frank@myDomain.com
mailUidNumber: 5000
sn: Some
uniqueIdentifier: frank
userPassword: {MD5}mysuperpasswordhash==

BUT… When I try to add user:


ldapadd -W -D “cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com” -f userimport.ldif

I Have following error that I am stuck on for a few days allready:

adding new entry “uniqueIdentifier=frank,ou=people,cn=myDomain,cn=com”


ldap_add: Server is unwilling to perform (53)
additional info: no global superior knowledge

I don’t know why it doesn’t work, but I think that I am making a mistake with the OU or a CN somewhere…

If ever you have any idea, you will be welcome.


Thank you

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admin September 12, 2014 at 5:40 pm

I just noticed that I did not mention to create the OU “people”. Is it possible that you don’t have this? I created
it within the graphical editor.

zePouletto September 15, 2014 at 11:24 am

Hi,

Well that’s what I thought, but I can’t find the exact content of the ldif file to add the people OU. As I want to
do this all by hand (to make scripts later on) I avoid using an interface.

Do you have any idea ? (I am searching allready but if you have the correct answer it is much better).

Thank you

admin September 15, 2014 at 12:23 pm

The LDIF content to create an OU should be this:

dn: ou=people,dc=myDomain,dc=com
changetype: add
objectClass: organizationalUnit
objectClass: top
ou: people

zePouletto September 17, 2014 at 9:07 am

Hi,

Yes I had created such a OU file, but when I tried to import it with:
ldapadd -x -W -D cn=admin,cn=config -f /etc/ldap/LDIF/peopleOuAdd.ldif

But I stumble upon this error that seems to be linked with my permissions (as cn=admin,cn=config):

adding new entry “ou=people,dc=myDomain,dc=com”


ldap_add: Insufficient access (50)
additional info: no write access to parent

Do you have any idea about what I am doing wrong ? Because this OU is new, it does not depend on another
particular tree, I don’t get why I have this error.

Thanks

zePouletto September 17, 2014 at 9:23 am

Hi,

Sorry, my mistake, I wasn’t using correct user 😉


Importing OU people should be done with:

ldapadd -W -D cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com -f /etc/ldap/LDIF/peopleOuAdd.ldif

admin September 17, 2014 at 10:01 am

There might be something wrong with your ACL (olcAccess in config tree).

zePouletto September 17, 2014 at 12:39 pm

Regarding your previous message, which user should be able to query information on “ou=people,dc=acs-
tmp,dc=com” ?

Because admin has (for sure) all rights. Example of query for user f.moses:
ldapsearch -W -D “cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com” -b “ou=people,dc=myDomain,dc=com” -P 3 -LLL
“(&(mail=f.moses@myDomain.com)(mailEnabled=TRUE))”

Which works and returns user info from OU “people”.

But for security reasons, I see that in your postfix conf file (ldap_virtual_recipients.cf) you use a user
“uid=postfix,ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com” to do the queries.

Did you create that user ? Because I saw that in your ACL your autorize “ou=services,dc=example,dc=com” to
read
I applied the ACLS but if I want to run a read/write test I then have no idea about the
“uid=postfix,ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com” user’s credentials…

zePouletto September 17, 2014 at 1:05 pm

Sorry, my question wasn’t clear.

I fact I found out that you created a OU “services” and some users “postfix”, “dovecot” etc…
Do you have the exact structure of the OU and users ?

admin September 17, 2014 at 2:09 pm

Here are two screenshots showing the structure of my OUs and users:

http://acidx.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/mailserver_ldap_config_01.png
http://acidx.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/mailserver_ldap_config_02.png

I created those extra users in the service OU (postfix, dovecot, …) so that I don’t have to use the admin
credentials in any config files of Postfix and Dovecot. Also, those users only get read access, which allows them
to perform lookup queries but doesn’t allow them to change anything.

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With the admin user you should be able to add OUs and users since the admin has write access. You should
try the “allow everything” ACL (“{0}to * by * write”) to see if works at all. If it does work with this, there is
definitely something wrong with your current ACL.

zePouletto September 17, 2014 at 2:39 pm

Great !

It means you have created an OU “services” with this ldif structure:

dn: ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com
changetype: add
objectClass: organizationalUnit
objectClass: top
ou: services

And services with following ldif structure:

dn: uid=postfix,ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com
objectClass: account
objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
objectClass: top
uid: postfix
userPassword: HASH==

And then an ACL ldif file (to allow write only to admin, read only to “services” and nothing for others) with:

olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree=”dc=myDomain,dc=com” attrs=userPassword


by self write
by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com” write
by dn.children=”ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com” read
by anonymous auth
by * none

olcAccess: {1}to dn.subtree=”dc=myDomain,dc=com”


by self read
by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=myDomain,dc=com” write
by dn.children=”ou=services,dc=myDomain,dc=com” read
by * none

With previous LDIF files everything is fine, just like in your example.
Mybe you can add it to your Topic for people trying do it by hand… 😉

MFG,
[GvD]

admin September 17, 2014 at 3:39 pm

Thanks for the feedback! I’ll try to add that information to the article some time.

By the way: Please be aware that this example doesn’t use TLS encryption. This means, that LDAP queries
(including passwords) and replies are transferred in cleartext.

zePouletto September 18, 2014 at 6:30 am

Hi,

You are welcome ! Yes, I know, I will add it soon and send you the steps to follow to secure servicesLDAP
exchanges (if you want to add them).

Best regards,
[GvD]

zePouletto September 19, 2014 at 11:13 am

Hi,

I have a little change regarding the ACL lidfi file I gave previously. In fact using the one I sent will make the
LDAP having troubles (non admin loose all rights).

The correct content should be:

dn: olcDatabase={1}hdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcAccess
olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree=”dc=myDoamin,dc=com” attrs=userPassword
by self write
by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=myDoamin,dc=com” write
by dn.children=”ou=services,dc=myDoamin,dc=com” read
by anonymous auth
by * none
olcAccess: {1}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange
by self write
by anonymous auth
by dn=”cn=admin,dc=myDoamin,dc=com” write
by * none
olcAccess: {2}to dn.subtree=”dc=myDoamin,dc=com”
by self read
by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=myDoamin,dc=com” write
by dn.children=”ou=services,dc=myDoamin,dc=com” read
by * none
olcAccess: {3}to dn.base=”” by * none

And you can import it with:


ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f .ldif

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Lina May 30, 2015 at 8:30 am

Hi,

I get an error when I try to add a user with your suggested code in userimport.ldif.
The error message is “warning according to the schema attribute uniqueidentifier is not allowed”

Thnaks

admin June 1, 2015 at 10:06 am

Hi, I’m not sure about this but it might be due to a broken schema/database. uniqueIdentifier should be
available through the extensibleObject auxiliary class.

dividschmivid June 17, 2015 at 7:54 pm

hi, i’m following this tutorial as part of your email tutorial. i’ve installed an ldap server before, but without sasl.
when i tried to add the configroot.ldif file after changing the password i get this…
ldap_sasl_interactive_bind_s: Unknown authentication method (-6) additional info:
SASL(-4): no mechanism available:

i am ssh’d in from another machine on my lan.i tried using just ldap:/// and not ldapi:/// since that is how i ran
dpkg-reconfigure
any ideas?

admin June 24, 2015 at 3:08 pm

Hello dividschmivid,

admittedly I don’t entirely understand that whole ldap/ldapi/sasl part, but I think the problem might be that
ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f configroot.ldif

is not executed as root. I have changed the corresponding part in section 9. There is now a sudo in front of
that command.

Tom July 30, 2015 at 1:44 pm

Nice tutorial… if I’ve been able to use it.


Step 4, you choose the “easy” solution with dpkg-reconfigure, which does not exist on many Linux distros.
Thanks anyway.

Mohammed Ajil December 7, 2015 at 9:28 pm

Hi thank you very much for this tutorial! It helped a lot. I just wanted to ask if you might know how to activate
ldaps and deactivate ldap unencrypted. I have searched some tutorials and tried them, but did not get very far.
Maybe you could also point me in a direction where I could find something.

Thanks in advance,

Mohammed Ajil

admin December 14, 2015 at 11:11 am

Hi, sry I can’t help with the configuration of ldaps. Haven’t implemented that yet.

bobesz January 11, 2017 at 2:29 pm

sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f postfix-book.ldif


SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry “cn={4}postfix-book”
ldap_add: Server is unwilling to perform (53)
additional info: no global superior knowledge

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Basic OpenLDAP Installation & Configuration | Acidx's Blog http://acidx.net/wordpress/2014/04/basic-openldap-installation-co...

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10 de 10 6/8/17 22:56