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NEW MEDIA

Overview

You have learned that print-


making was already prac-
ticed in the Philippines since
the olden times. This prac-
tice served as prelude to
our printing today. Your un-
derstanding on various
techniques and processes
will help you make your own
print and make new prod-
ucts and designs using new
media.

In this module, you will learn


how technology changed the
perception of the Filipinos in
making art and how art was
made available to every-
body using new media. You
will further understand the
role of photocopying ma-
chines, computers and scan-
ners, video cameras and the
internet in making art prints
and other printed works.

You are enjoined to discover


your artistic gift using the
available technology. Have
fun!

From the hand-beaten copper-


plate unearthed in Lumban,
Laguna to the earliest printed
book in the Philippines using
woodblocks up to
technologically-advanced
printers nowadays, printmakiand
printing in the Philippines has
gone a very long way since
1593.

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At the end of this module, you are ex- New media refers to tools, device or equipment
pected to: that abandons the traditional practice of making
 understand the role of technology something in the past such as digital cameras in
and new media in printmaking. favor of instamatic cameras; photocopying
 create posters for special machines in favor of manual copying, and many
occasions more.
 research on new duplicating
techniques available in the Technology refers to the advances as resulted
locality; and by the application science principles, concepts
 use new media to create a story and discoveries.
as a reaction to current events.
Softcopy refer to digitized formats or layouts of
artworks, documents, and designs that are ready
for printing.

In this module, you will apply


your knowledge and understanding in
the use of various art elements and
principles of design as applied in print-
making. You will also understand the
message and meaning created by art
elements and designs when they are
combined with technology.

You may have some of the following in


your school or community:
 Computers and printers
 Internet connections
 Photocopying machines (Xerox)
 Duplicating machines (Risographs)
 Digital camera or video camera
 Scanner
 Paper for printing
 Stencil and frame
 Squeegee
 Textile paint
 Additional gadgets such as SD Read-
er and software for video editing, file con-
verters, etc.

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These are some of the available Printing technology in the country. Tell some-
thing about them.
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Technological advancements paved the way to mass production of printed


materials in the Philippines. From simple woodcut and lithograph printing during the
Spanish colonization, printing of materials for schools, offices, and establishments
become easier and readily available. The production of art becomes simple also and
easy due to the advent of photography, digital imaging, photocopying, and scanning.
Statistics shows that worldwide information doubles every year because of the
advances in technology unlike the rate of production of arts, texts, and other documents
during the medieval times. This is particularly true in the Philippines where the demand
for printed copies is increasing.

Printing is both an art and industry. As an art, it requires creative expression using
the available media arts, tools, and equipment to produce printed copies of books, flyers,
brochures, magazines, billboards, posters, and the likes. As an industry, it will need
artists that are skilled and knowledgeable in the effective use of art elements, principles
of designs, and domains of the art - production, appreciation, history, and criticism.
Graphic artists, web page designers, cartoonists, illustrators, designers, and animators
are needed to make visually-pleasing and persuasive digital layouts and formats that are
essential in making printed copies for business. Printing is a fast growing industry and
the competition is rapidly changing as new breed of artists discover new media and uti-
lize varied ways to meet the demands of the business world. This will pose great chal-
lenges to a 21st century would-be artists like you.

Can you name objects around you that are made possible through printing? Tell
something about them.

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Printing in the Philippines Today

Technology changed the way Filipinos view and express art. Because of readily
available materials and new media, production of art shifted from traditional way to dig-
itized lay outing and formatting of images to create visually-persuasive art pieces that
range from simple gift tags to huge tarpaulin prints for billboards and signage along the
major thoroughfares around the country.

Below are some of the printing devices and equipments available in the
Philippines today. These printing equipments and devices are important in making,
duplicating, and creating copies of art in the easiest way. Unlike the copies made
through printmaking, printing copies are duplicates from the original.

Pre-Printing Devices

Pre-printing devices are used to capture images or photos such as digital


cameras, memory storage devices such as compact discs and flash disks, compact
discs, camera phones, tablets, ipods, scanners, and similar equipment. These are
devices that are used to take pictures or images and store them for future use.

Lay outing and Formatting Devices

Computer is the most popular device in the country today in making lay outs and
formats for printing. Software, programs, applications are needed to enhance and
enable lay outing and formatting of images to create designs for printing. The use of
computer also made the use of texts and images in graphics and digital designs easy
and more enjoyable.. AutoCad for example made interior designs and architectural
designs easy and enjoyable for computer literate persons to create

Final Output Devices

These are devices that are used to make printed copies, such as printers that
are directly connected to computers, risograph, photocopier, and other duplicating ma-
chines. Printers, regardless of type, remain the most popular device to make a sample
or final output that can be used for making duplicates. Special printers are also availa-
ble for making large formats such as tarpaulin printing used for billboards and sign-
age. Specialized printers are also used in making souvenir items such as cups, t-shirts,
and mugs. In making large quantities of prints in the case of printing presses, offset
printers and color separation printers are being used.

These are among the devices and equipment used by modern artists and even
by ordinary people like you who want to maximize the use of technology for creative
and enjoyable activities or for engaging in a profitable business venture.

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PERSONALIZED COMPUTER-BASED ART


PROJECT

Promising art-related careers nowadays use


computer-based methods.. The use of technol-
ogy in making art gained popularity because of
business, mass media, and the advent of inter-
net. Students who are knowledgeable in making To complete this project, you will need
use of technology to make art projects have an to check the availability of the
advantage over others. following:
 Digital camera or camera phone
Computer-based art projects are easy to  Photos and images
prepare because of so many visual materials  Computer
available around or through the internet.  Printer
 Scanners
In this activity, you will make a personalized  Memory card or SD card reader
computer-based art project - a saucer, plate,  MS Publisher or similar programs
mug or tumbler for display purposes. in the computer

What To Do? Aside from the said requirements, you


1. Using your digital camera or camera phone, will need the following:
take a picture that you want to use in your  Sticker paper
personalized computer-based art project. If  Plain colored saucer or plate, mug
camera is not available, you can choose pic- or tumblers
tures or images from the internet or you may  Cutter/scissors
draw a design of your choice.
2. Upload the pictures into your computer
using a memory card or SD car reader. If
you took pictures from the internet, just
download it and save into your computer.
When drawing your own design, scan the
image and save it into your computer.
3. At the Start Menu of your computer, select
the MS Publisher and create a new
publication. It is the simplest way of make
your project. Adobe Photoshop can also be
used if your are familiar with it.
4. Make a design or a layout for your computer
-based art project. When done lay outing,
print it using a sticker paper.
5. Cut your design and paste it evenly on your
chosen object. Display your artwork.

IMPORTANT
To minimize cost, this project can be performed in groups of 5 to 10 students.
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Describe the following artifacts and early attempts to make readable documents.
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Describe the following machines and early attempts to make readable papers
and documents.

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The early attempts of the Filipinos to communicate with other people using a writ-
ten language can be learned from the fragments of pre-Hispanic artifacts. The only writ-
ten record in the Philippines with a date on it is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription that
dates back to 850 CE.

Another attempt to produce records that can be read by other people is the an-
cient script with various names around the archipelago. In the Tagalog region, it is called
baybayin, kulitan in Kapangpangan, and surat in the Visayas, The Hanunuo Mangyans
of Mindoro and the Buhids retained their ancient script that are similar to the baybayin of
the Tagalogs.

The early printed books appeared during the Spanish times, as discussed in the
earlier modules. For centuries, printing of books in the Philippines were controlled by fri-
ars and the government although some printers were able to make copies of novenari-
os, pamphlets, and other reading materials using lithography and woodblock printing.

Activity 2 will help you discover what happened in the Philippines for the past 400
years from the coming of the Spaniards up to the present time.

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Printing and printmaking in the Philippines


today is quite different from the past. As
an art, printmaking gained popularity in
the Philippines only in the 1960s and
1970s. Printing as means of creating
cheap and readily available or instant cop-
ies of artworks and other printed materials
gained support from the general public and In this activity, you will need the following:
the corporate world.  Reference materials from your
school library or from the internet
Make a report about the evolution of  Photos of sample prints
printmaking and printing in the country.  Computer and printer (printed out-
Mention its brief history, artists involved put)
and sample works. Your report can be sub-  Flash disks/digital storage devices
mitted in a soft copy form (in a flash drive (for soft copy output)
or a data compact disc) or in hard copy for-
mat (printed). You can also make a Power-
Point Presentation and submit your soft
copy or printed format depending on your
teacher.

Procedures:
1. Utilize your library resources first for
your report. If materials are not avail-
able in your library, you can check
the internet for more information.
2. Write your report using a timeline
pattern to show chronology in the
evolution of printmaking in the
country.
3. If you can make a PowerPoint
presentation, use more visuals and
brief text descriptions.
4. Ask your teacher how you will sub-
mit the report – either soft copy in a
flash drive, CD or through the inter-
net; and in printed form.

If computer and printer are not available


in your area, you can still make your re-
port in a handwritten format. Visuals can
be supplied also using cut photos from
periodicals, magazines or any available

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Printing using new media gained recognition in the Philippines. It is evident with the
widespread use of printing technology all over the country to make prints, copies, and
duplicates of books, art works, magazines, and other reading materials. The use of
different printing technology available helped in the evolution of new forms of arts.

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Links and Photo Credits

Page 139

1. http://nickledimepenny.blogspot.com/2010/03/la-solidaridad.html
2. http://cabanatuancity.olx.com.ph/xerox-machine-for-sale-iid-79511156
3. http://www.starburstprinting.com/traditional-offset.php#
4. http://digitals-printing.blogspot.com/2009/09/printing-press-heidelberg-kord-64.html
5. http://brandasrazvan.blogspot.com/2010/11/risograph-printers.html
6. http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/computer-output-devices.html

Page 142

1. http://www.tooft.com/buying-digital-camera/
2. http://www.kenrockwell.com/epson/4990.htm
3. http://www.toptechreviews.net/tech-tips/buying-a-desktop/

Page 143 and 145


Designs made by J. S. Jimenez using photos taken by Rosel Valenzuela

Page 147

1. http://cabanatuancity.olx.com.ph/xerox-machine-for-sale-iid-79511156
2. http://www.starburstprinting.com/traditional-offset.php#
3. http://digitals-printing.blogspot.com/2009/09/printing-press-heidelberg-kord-64.html
4. http://brandasrazvan.blogspot.com/2010/11/risograph-printers.html
5. http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/computer-output-devices.html

Page 148
1. http://thebulwaganfoundation.wordpress.com/2010/09/01/the-kingdom-of-butuan/
2. http://ustpublishinghouse.wordpress.com/browse-books/all-subjects/language/

153
SCULPTURE

Overview

In the previous modules, you


were already introduced to
different art elements and
design principles as
manifested from different
Philippine arts – from simple
basket and mat weaving of
different indigenous and
cultural communities to the
highly sophisticated textile
weaving from Northern to
Southern Philippines. You
are also familiar with the
Angono petroglyphs, the
Laguna copperplate
inscriptions,.

In this module, you will


understand how Philippine
sculpture evolved from its
simplest form as manifested
in clay potteries of Maitum,
the Manunggul jar, the bul-ol,
and the pre-historic Angono
cave art to the highly-
Christianized period of
Chinese artisans in Manila
and the Paete woodcarvers
in Laguna and the western-
inspired, modern era of
sculptors Napoleon Abueva,
Guillermo Tolentino, Ed
Castrillo, and Jun Yee
among others. You will also
experience how to create
your own sculpture and
make an assemblage from
available and seemingly
useless trash and discards.

Monument of San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila - the first


Filipino saint, seen in Binondo Plaza, Manila.
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At the end of this module, you are ex-


pected to: Bas relief refers to a form of sculpture carved
 understand that sculpture was
from a block of wood or stone which can either
already a form of art since pre- be highly delineated (high relief) or only slightly
historic Philippines. Protruding or delineated (low relief).
 review the evolution of sculpture
in the different parts of the Phil. Cosmology refers to the belief system of a
 analyze the unique forms,
particular culture regarding divinity and their
materials, colors, and uses of role in the life of a community or person.
sculpture in the Philippine culture.
 identify unique crafts from
different parts of the country
 record steps and procedures in
making unique sculpture from the
locality
 interview local craftsmen in the
community
 create an assemblage from trash
and discards
 make a sculpture using available
materials (e.g. soap, wood, and You may need to have the following in your
clay), and school or community :
 identify the unique style and  clay
materials used by Filipino  soft wood or its substitute
sculptors found in the locality.  chisel or any substitute
 wooden hammer
 spray paints or regular paint.
 Junk material (trash and discards)
 saw and other cutting instruments
 plywood
 adhesive materials
 hooks
In this module, you will apply your  soldering iron
knowledge and understanding in the use  lead wire
of various art elements and principles of  metal wires
design in three-dimensional form. You  pliers
will also understand the message and  carving knife
meaning created by art elements and  fruits and vegetables
designs when combined in a particu-
lar work by a sculptor.

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These are some of the early forms of sculpture in the Philippines. Can you name them?
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Can you identify these early forms of sculpture? Where are they found?

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Sculpture played an important role in the


lives of the early Filipinos. It is evident with the
appearance of a low relief engraving of human
and animal figures seen in a cave in Angono,
Rizal (3000 BCE) which is believed to be the
oldest known art work in the Philippines and a
highly significant cultural landmark in the country.
It is the early attempt of the Filipinos to draw and
record things around him. It is said that the tur-
tles or pawikan shown in the rock arts of the ear-
ly Filipinos symbolized honor and prestige as de-
fined in the Vocabulario de la lengua tagala writ-
ten by Father Pedro de San Buenaventura with
the help of Filipino printers – Tomas Pinpin and
Domingo Loag.

In a burial site in Calatagan, Batangas,


archaeological diggings recovered a stone figure
made from brain corals called likha palapat. This
is an early sample of stone carving in the country
using crude materials.

As civilization progressed, the use of clay


as an important medium in pottery became so
popular that in many parts of the country, doz-
ens of artifacts have been recovered. These arti-
facts are usually decorated with flora and fauna
motif but what makes ancient pottery interesting
is the presence of anthropomorphic figures such
as those that are found in Leta-Leta Cave,
Langen Island, Palawan. The effigy jar features a
neck and lip of a yawning man. The Manunggul
jar, a secondary burial jar found in Palawan also
features on its lid a boat with two men rowing
which may show that the ancients are masters
of the sea and that in the Filipino cosmology, it
is believed that the dead follows a long journey
to other world after completing his life on earth.
The boatmen on the lid of Manunggul jar are be-
lieved to be the souls of the dead traveling to
other world.
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In the jungle mountain of Pinol, Maitum


in Sarangani, remains of anthropomorphic
burial jars have been discovered in Ayub
Cave by a team of experts from National
Museum in the late 20th century. The burial
jars’ unique feature is the intricately carved
head figures on the jar cover that are be-
lieved to be the image of the deceased.
Other features of the jar cover are the use of
red coloring around the neck and black ink as
eyebrows. Hundreds of pieces of the broken
jars are now on permanent display at the Na-
tional Museum.

In the mountain region of the


Cordilleras, woodcarving is an important art
Leta-leta jar for it plays a significant role in their belief
system. The bul-ol is a wooden figure of a
god that serves as guardian to rice granaries
and pathways. It is believed that this seated
figure will drive away evil and keep the owner
away from bad luck and bring good harvest.

On the other hand, the Muslim people


in Mindanao, particularly the Maranaos
carve the image of sarimanok, a mythical bird
in the Darangen and similar to the garuda
bird in Indonesian mythology. This figure
is said to be a status symbol in the communi-
ty. The art of sculpture is also popular among
the Maranaos as evident in their okir de-
signs in the torogan, panulong, and their mu-
Maitum jar sical instruments.

Sarimanok
Bul-ol

Manunggul

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Making Your Fruit and Vegetable Sarimanok

Sarimanok is a traditional Maranao design


based on okir design. This mythical bird with a
fish in its beak, symbolizes power and social
status.

Materials:
Procedure:
 Several pieces of hard
vegetable for beak, wings,
1. Prepare your materials. Use your knife, and tail
to cut the vegetables according to the  A big roundish vegetable like
shape needed for the project. singkamas
2. Peel the vegetables which will form the  leafy vegetable like lettuce
parts of the body of the figure.  a medium-sized soft fruit
3. Carve the body of the bird and also the (or any substitute)
the feet and legs to make the bird a free-  bamboo tooth pick
standing figure. Join the pieces using  pins (aspili)
thin bamboo sticks or tooth picks.  sewing thread
4. Prepare the neck and cut it at least 3  carving Instrument (or knife)
inches long and carve it according to the  picture of a sarimanok
shape of the sarimanok neck. Attach it to
the body using a tooth pick.
5. Work on the head and beak of the bird
and use a soft vegetable for the crown. .
6. You can work on the tail of the bird using
thin strips of vegetables. Bind the strips
together using the aspili or pin and
attach it to the body.
7. Prepare the wings of sarimanok using
vegetable that are solid like tubers. Cut
into half then slice into desired thick
ness. Use aspili to binds strips together
8. You are almost complete. Now, work on
the fish held by the bird in its beak.
Use a thin strip of hard vegetable and
attach it to the beak of your sarimanok
using thread. You have now a fruit
and vegetable sarimanok.

Caution: Carving instruments must be


used under the supervision of your
teacher or an adult. Always observe
safety at work.

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Samples of Fruit and Vegetable Sculptures that may awaken your apetite!

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Make your Own Bul-ol

Procedures:
1. Prepare your materials and your
working area. Make sure that it is
well-lighted and free from clutter..
2. Cut the softwood or any similar ma-
terial into a desired length or
preferably at least one foot high.
1. Using the marking pen, draw the
outlines of the bul-ol in the wood
before working on it.
2. Using a chisel and a wooden
hammer, carefully carve the excess
wood around the outlines.
3. When chiseling is finished, polish the
wood using a sand paper especially
made for wood.
4. Apply varnish to your bul-ol and let it
dry.

In this activity, you will need the following:


 Picture of bul-ol
 Soft wood (preferably acacia)
 Cutting instruments
 Chisel
 Wooden Hammer
 Marking pen
 Sanding paper for wood
 Varnish (maple brown)

Caution: Carving instruments must be used


under the supervision of your teacher or an
adult. Always observe safety at work.

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Can you name the santos presented above? How do they represent the religiosity of
your community? Do you think that the Spaniards refined our practice in making sculp-
ture? Why?
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The arrival of Spain in 1521 prompted the shift from


indigenous techniques of woodcarving to a more sophisti-
cated carving of santos using a variety of media such as
wood, stone, and ivory. The Spaniards found that sculpture
in the Philippines was less developed than the sculpture in
India, Java, China, or Sumatra.

By the end of the 16th century, the establishment of


Academy of Arts and Sciences by the Augustinians made
significant imprints in the Filipinos’ taste for sculpture. Our
sculpture was severely hieratic, almost archaic and Byz-
antine in style in order to conform to the Christian ideals.
The Chinese were the first artisans employed by the Span-
iards outside of Manila to carve santos for the Catholic
Church. These santos were used to adorn churches and
homes of the well-to-do families in the lowland areas. It is
said that the carving of santos evolved from the pre-
historic belief of the Filipinos in their ancestors that the
spirits of the deceased continue to influence the lives of
the living. The practice of making altars at home for santos
was similar to the ancestor worship before the coming of
the Spaniards. Santos are also called poon which was a
clear indication that the ancient beliefs remained despite of
the persecution of the Catholic church. The santos of the
Filipinos were characterized by its simplicity of form and
expressiveness.

Paete in Laguna is known for its fine artisans work-


ing on a variety of biblical subjects such as the creation,
the crucifixion, the life of saints, the Virgin Mary, and many
others.

Another form of sculpture during the Spanish coloni-


zation was the retablo or the church altars that are in high
relief. Beautiful retablos are found in some of the old
Michael the Archangel
churches in the Philippines such as San Agustin Church in
Intramuros, one of the churches in the Baroque style in
the Philippines. Another is the St. Michael de Archangel
Minor Basilica in Tayabas, Quezon and the Taal Basilica.
Old churches are of great significance in towns and prov-
inces and are found throughout the Philippines.

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CHURCH RETABLOS OR ALTARS

Pakil Church in Laguna

Minor Basilica of St. Michael the Archangel, Tayabas, Quezon

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Making an Inventory of Sculptural Works


at Home, School, and the Community

You have learned different examples


of sculpture. Sculptures are forms of art
that are in three-dimension. It usually occu-
pies space and is free standing. It can be a
figure of man, plants, animals, events or in Share your experiences and dis-
the case of abstract art, a sculpture can coveries to your classmates. Identify the
represent emotions, expressions and ideas. styles utilized by the artists in their
works.
Your task is to make an inventory of
sculptural works at home, in school, and in Your inventory is important in the
the community. These works may have promotion of our culture as well as in
been around you for a long time but you preserving our heritage.
failed to take notice of their significance.
Find out the story that they want to tell you.
You can do this alone or work with your
friends. Don’t forget to include pictures of
the work or if you are good in drawing,
draw it as exactly as possible. Use the ta-
ble below.

PLACE/ MATERIAL STYLE ARTIST HISTORY/


LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE

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Interviewing a Local Artist/Craftsman

This task is a group task. Conduct an interview with a local artist or craftsmen.
Indicate what subjects he or she loves to work on, such as religious icons, figurines,
pottery, sceneries, and biblical themes.

Remember: You will probably interview a busy person. As a sign of courtesy, see to it
that you ask for an appointment with him/her. Come on time. Prepare an interview
schedule to get the most important information that you want. Ask the assistance of
your teacher in preparing your interview schedule. An interview schedule is a set of
questions that will guide you in the interview. Always observe tact and manner. Say
thank upon leaving and express your desire to be with him/her some other time.

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Can you identify the works above? These are works of well-known Filipino sculptors.
Tell something about them.

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Several artists emerged during the American period as a result of the abolition of
Catholicism as a state religion. It paved the way to more liberal themes and subjects in
sculpture. Art movements in the west influenced our Filipino artists and as a response,
they developed their own style in conformity to the international standards.

Philippine sculptures during the American period, were often symbolic and rep-
resented events in Philippine history like the UP Oblation, the Pieta, Cry of Balintawak,
Bonifacio Shrine near Manila City Hall, Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan, Gomburza
monument in front of the National Museum, People Power Monument along EDSA, Our
Lady of Peace, also in EDSA, the Palo, Leyte Landing in Leyte, and many more.

A variety of media has been used by artists to express their art in addition to
wood and stone such as fiber glass, plastic, stainless steel, aluminum, and bronze. More
creative and revolutionary artists used junk material and organic materials to make art-
works.

Some of the notable artists during the American period and in the modern period
are Napoleon Abueva, Guillermo Tolentino, Ed Castrillo, Jun Yee, Abdul Mari Imao, and
many others who made significant contributions in the development of new styles,
forms, and expressions.

Ed Castrillo Napoleon Abueva Guillermo Tolentino

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Making Junk Art

You can make a sculpture using junk mate-


rials around you. These seemingly useless
materials can be used to make an exciting
work of art, as you can see in the picture
below. Any type of junk around you that are
made of plastic, glass, metal, and
Procedures: clay
1. Conceptualize your junk art by collect-  Adhesive materials or wire
ing various junk material and experi-  Spray paint
ment how you can compose these into  Plywood
a sculpture. Make sketches of your  Soldering iron (optional)
ideas. .  Soldering wire (optional)
2. Using any piece of wood or plywood,
as a base for your junk art, begin
working with your project by joining
each piece of junk to form a three-
dimensional rendering of your concep-
tualized drawing. You can work as a
group
3. Use soldering iron and wire for materi-
als made of metal.
4. When everything is finished, spray
your work with a spray paint. Let it dry.

Left: “Two Antelopes” by Ann P.


Smith made from electronics and
machine parts. You too can make
an artwork like this using junk and
found material at home. Your cre-
ativity can transform a mountain
of trash and waste into something
aesthetically pleasing.

Caution: You will be dealing with electronic and volatile substances that may cause
burns, irritations, and allergy. Use materials in this activity with great caution and under
the supervision of your teacher or an adult when you are working at home.

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Sculpture as an art is a reflection of our country’s rich cultural heritage. Locate the
following artworks in the map using a line.

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Participate in an exhibit to be organized by your teacher to showcase your


sculptures. Be the usher /usherette to those who will view your works. Explain to
them what do you intend to express in your work and what it represents. Your teach-
er will develop his/her rubric to grade you in this activity.

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Estolas, Josefina V., Javier, Clarita G. & Pada-Payno, Nieves. (1995). Introduction
to Humanities (Art for Fine Living). National Book Store: Mandaluyong City.

Van de Bogart, Doris. (1970). Introduction to the humanities (Painting, sculpture, ar-
chitecture, music, and literature). Barnes and Noble Everyday Handbooks:
New York, reprinted in the Philippines by National Book Store: Mandaluyong
City.

Zulueta, Franciso M. (2003). The humanities: Revised Edition. National Book Store:
Mandaluyong City.

Page 154
Photos by J. S. Jimenez except for the background

Page 155
Photo by J. S. Jimenez

Page 157, 158, 159, 160


Photos by J.S. Jimenez

Page 161
1. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/
2. http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-stock-photography-fresh-fruits-
vegetables-image8919682

Page 162
1. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/
2. http://www.greendiary.com/entry/32-mouth-watering-amazing-fruit-and-
vegetable-carvings-to-please-your-culinary-taste-buds/

Page 164
1. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/62/Santo_Ni%C3%B1o_de_Cebu.jpg
2. http://www.lomography.com/magazine/locations/2010/01/28/quiapo-the-feast-of-
the-black-nazarene
3. http://www.flickr.com/groups/marianevents/discuss/72157604015675469/

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MODULE 7 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Page 165
http://saints.sqpn.com/litany27.htm

Page 166
1. http://www.philippineheritage.com/2011/01/pakil-church-pakil-laguna.html
2. http://www.geocities.ws/quezonians/Slideshow/QuezonSlideshow03.htm

Page 168
http://www.cityofpines.com/tamawanvillage.html

Page 169
1. http://pandoraspace.com/2009/pinaglabanan-san-juan/
2. http://giftofquills.blogspot.com/2011/05/ever-taught-english.html
3. http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_Abueva
4. http://www.kulay-diwa.com/guillermo_tolentino
5. http://cuadrofilipino.blogspot.com/2009/07/abueva-and-new-sisa-murals-at-
national.html

Page 171
1. http://www.deepfun.com/labels/Junk.html
2. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/toxic-waste-
overview/

Page 173
1. http://ebtenorio.wordpress.com/2009/06/07/cebu-scenic-spots-i-visited/
2. http://beallnew.blogspot.com/2011/04/sanduguan-bohol-philippines.html
3. http://discoveryislamarticles-onlinedawah.blogspot.com/2011/07/ang-kasaysayan-ng-
islam-sa-pilipinas.html

176
Overview

The Filipinos are art loving


people. Our previous discus-
sions revealed the great in-
terests of our people in mak-
ing their lives artistic in var-
ied ways – through their or-
naments, farming imple-
ments, home and office de-
cors, fishing implements,
fighting armaments, and
more. These are evidences
of the Art of our people: rep-
resentations for the eyes to
enjoy. Our people love beau-
tiful and meaningful things.
Our psyche is designed for
art appreciation and art pro-
duction. We are people with
simple and natural taste for
the arts.

In this module, you will un-


derstand how the Filipinos
live with art. From the mo-
ment they are born up to the
moment that they pass this
life, Filipinos developed ways
of employing art in their
lives. Here, we will focus on
the visual arts as mirrored in
drama such as cenaculo, du-
plo, zarzuela, Santacruzan,
Lutrina, Subli, moro-moro,
and moriones.

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MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

At the end of this module, you are ex-


pected to: Parts of a Drama
understand that art is an integral
component of Philippine dra- Exposition is an element of the story that tells
mas and festivities about the background of the situation.
create a motif using a particular
festival Development in a story refers to the succession of
analyze the unique forms, materi- events and movements leading the situation to its
als, colors, and uses of the turning point.
arts in Philippine dramas and
festivals Turning point in a story tells about the solutions
identify unique features of differ- employed for conflicts as a result of difficult
ent festivals in each region decision-making.
relate the visual components of
the festivals to the values, reli- Climax is the highest point of the story.
gious rituals, rites, and its
meaning in the life of the peo- Denouement is the unraveling of the plot. In a sto-
ple. ry. It gives the idea of how the character is dis-
design sets, costumes, accesso- covered or how a mystery is resolved or how
ries, and props for a selected the unknown is revealed.
play or festival
analyze a modern telenovela and Conclusion is the ending of the story.
how it uses color, costume,
setting, props, accessories,
and in enhancing the elements
of a story.

You will need the following in your school or


community or substitutes for these:

 different colors of textiles (preferable satin)


 cutting instruments
In this module, you will you will apply  marking pens
your knowledge and understanding in  adhesive materials
the use of various art elements and prin-  coloring materials
ciples of design in associating meaning  building materials (for sets)
with the visuals from Philippine drama  photos or video clips of different Philippine
and festivals. You will also understand festivals
the message and meaning created by art  other materials of your choice
elements and designs utilized by the
community in their festivals as way of
life. 180
MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

These are some of the forms of Philippine drama. Most of them are influenced by the
Christian faith but traces of local beliefs can often be seen. Can you describe each pic-
ture and its relevance to you? How do they influence you as an individual?

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MODULE 8 modu GRADE
GRADE77 ARTART LEARNING
LEARNING GUIDE
GUIDE

Traditional Drama
Before the coming of Spain, the Filipinos were already entertained by the elders –
they were the first storytellers narrating the great epics of their tribes, the legends sur-
rounding their place, the stories from distant lands, the lives of their gods and god-
desses, the conflict between the good and the evil, and almost every aspect of life. Oth-
er groups found it more entertaining to employ music, costume, and accessories to
these stories such as the Sakuting dance in the south that narrates a story of a princess,
who in search for her prince ventured into the dangerous forest passing through differ-
ent obstacles along her way. In the North, the people of Cordillera are often entertained
by village storytellers who are chanting the stories of their gods and ancestors as in the
Hudhud.

In the lowland, Christianized communities, dramas find its new setting in re-
enacting the lives of the saints, the life and death of Jesus, the miracles of the Virgin
Mary, and in the battles between the Christians and the Moslems. The Santacruzan for
example dramatizes the search of Empress Elena for the Holy Cross; Lutrina is similar
to Santacruzan but it is celebrated by the farmers asking for rains to water their crops.
Equally similar is the Subli in Alitagtag and Bauan in Batangas which is set into dance
and music narrating the search for the Holy Cross. The actions in each canto narrate the
odds encountered by the person who searched for the wooden cross. Although Chris-
tian in manner, it is still noticeable that the Filipinos adapted the new religion to en-
hance their old beliefs. Drama in the Philippines may have evolved also from early reli-
gious rituals that involve chanting and dancing. In Obando, Bulacan, dancing is asso-
ciated with fertility rites of the early Filipinos as observed in the archaeological dig-
gings in Pila, Laguna. The Santa Clara dance dramatizes the desire for the gods to send
or not to send rains for the crop as well as the Karakol dance. The Putong and Tobong
dances of Marinduque and coastal municipalities of Quezon facing Marinduque are ac-
tually forms of drama set into music. The text of Tobong narrates how the three kings
(Gaspar, Melchor and Balthazar) searched for the birthday celebrant to give their felici-
tations and gifts which is similar to the story of the three kings during the Yuletide sea-
son. As we examine those dances, we will discover the underlying drama narrated
through dance and spectacles.

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MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Cenaculo, a drama about the life, passion, and


death of Jesus Christ usually set in the town plaza is
actually a communal affair because it uses the entire
community as the actors and the spectators as equal-
ly significant part of the drama. This Lenten tradition-
al drama uses European-inspired clothes particularly
the Roman centurions, the attires of the Jews and the
disciples. This, including the Pabasa ng Pasyon, is
among the highlights of Lenten celebration in Chris-
tian Philippines.

Moro-moro is a bloody skirmish between the


Christians and the Moslems. This immortalizes the
A man reading the Pasyong Mahal conflict of the Spain with the Moors as narrated in the
commemorating the life, passion, and national epic of Spain, El Cid. This could have
death of Jesus Christ during Lenten originated with the long time conflict between the
Season. Pasyon is usually sang. converts to Christianity and the Moslems in the south
or the old tradition of pangangayaw or raids. That is
why this form of drama gained acceptance among the
Christian population.

Dupluan, a form of game can also be classified


as drama because it narrates a story often of a king
seeking for something among his loyal servants. This
tells us that the trustworthy are often rewarded while
the offenders are always punished.

With the above forms of drama in the


Philippines, it can be deduced that the plot and perfor-
mance is the essential element of every Philippine dra-
ma. Major characters are often portrayed with extra-
special roles, status, or experience, almost revered,
edified, and idolized while enjoining the audiences as
participants. There is always a protagonist and an
antagonist. In some traditional drama, such as in
cenaculo, the audience themselves are members of
the cast; they set the tone and the mood of the story.
They are part in the development of the story from
exposition to conclusion. Setting and theme are often
defined and merged with the community. Spectacles
are often simple. The music is supplied by the
Moro-moro dancers . The dance dram-
audience although there is already an accompaniment.
atizes the conflict between the Chris-
tians and the Moors introduced by the
Traditional dramas are often characterized with poetic
Spaniards in the Philippines. dialogues and evocative mood. They aimed at
expressing intense feelings and emotions that will
183 make the audience cry, laugh, or even hate.
MODULE
MODULE6 8 GRADE
GRADE 7 7 ART GUIDE
ART LEARNING LEARNING GUIDE

Modern Drama

During the American period,


zarzuela became popular. National Artist
Atang dela Rama was among the popular
zarzuelistas. It is a form of drama with
music and acting that evolved from Latin
influences of Spain and Mexico and the
Broadway performances and vaudevilles
of the Americans. Zarzuelas dominated
the Philippine theatres during the Ameri-
can regime and these theatrical perfor-
mances made Philippine drama more in-
teresting and western in character but
veryFilipino in spirit.

Modern drama in the Philippines


evolved from radio drama in the mid-20th
century and found new grounds in
Philippine television. From soap operas
and Mexican novelas, the Filipinos creat-
ed the telenovela, fantaserye, and epic
serye. Dubbing became popular also in
the later part of the 20th century and early
21st century. Filipino dubbers made Mex-
ican and Korean novelas more inter-
esting to Filipino viewers by translating
foreign dialogue into Tagalog.

An actress as zarzuelista 184


MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Traditional Drama Analysis

Make a drama analysis of the traditional


drama found or practiced in your community.
Remember that traditional drama may have dis-
guised themselves through dances. You can
only understand that these dances are dramas
set into music and seasoned with movements.
Use the guide below to describe each element:

Title of the Drama: _______________________________________


Author: ________________________________________________
Place of Origin: __________________________________________

Element Manifestations

Plot or Action (Look for the exposition, de-


velopment, turning point, climax, denoue-
ment, and conclusion of the story)

Characters (Identify the protagonist and


antagonist)

Setting (Describe the setting or place


where the story happened)

Theme (What is the meaning of the story)

185
MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Can you tell what provinces celebrate these festivals? Describe the festivals.

186
MOMODULE
MODULE 8 6 GRADE77
GRADE ART LEARNING
ART LEARNING GUIDEGUIDE

Festivals are delightful events for the Filipinos – we are all feast-loving people.
We love to celebrate almost every aspect of our existence – from birth to death. We have
birthday celebrations, wakes for the dead , marriage feasts, and others.

Our life is surrounded by festivals. Our festivities are our expression of


thanksgiving and celebration for the blessings from God.

In almost every barangay, sitio or district, there is a fiesta in honor for a particular
patron saint. There are municipalities with many fiesta celebrations all year round. For
example, the Turumba Festival in Pakil is the longest religious festival in the country. In
Lucban, Pahiyas is in honor of their patron saint, San Isidro Labrador. In some mu-
nicipalities of Quezon, the festival features different products and celebrated dif-
ferently from each other although the theme is the same. In Cebu, Sinulog is in honor of
Senior Sto. Nino which is also celebrated in Pista ng Itim na Nazareno in Quiapo.

Other festivals are geared towards cultural preservation and tourism such as the
Panagbenga in Baguio City, Ati-Atihan in Aklan, Binirayan in Antique, Dinagyang in Iloilo,
Kadayawan in Davao, Maskara in Bacolod, Kasadyaan in Tacloban, Moriones in
Marinduque, Sorteo in Carmona, Cavite, Lechon in Batangas, Boling-boling in
Catanauan, Quezon, Kakanindayog and Wagayway in Imus, Lubi-lubi in Negros,
Coramlan in Alaminos, Bangus in Pangasinan, and thousands of others. It is only in the
Philippines that every municipality celebrates its own festival annually in addition to
provincial-wide and regional-wide festivals organized by the Department of Tourism.

Each festival is unique. Flowers and ornamentals dominate the Panagbenga,


kiping in the Pahiyas, colors and paints in Maskara, Ati-atihan and Sinulog, and products
in other festivals. Several festivals are profit-oriented; others are religious in spirit; while
others are festivals for a cause. No matter what type of festival is celebrated, the im-
portant element is that the community is united in these festivals.

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MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Making your Own Maskara

Procedures:
1. Draw a face that will serve as base
of your maskara using a cardboard.
2. Cut the edges of the drawing and
work on the designs. You will make the following
3. Use glue or any adhesive that fits to materials:
your needs.  cardboards
4. Add accents to your maskara using  adhesive materials
bird’s feathers and glitters, beads  cutting materials
and buttons and found objects.  bird’s feathers
 glitters

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MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Using the Philippine map, list down all the festivals you know indicating their place of
origin.

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MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Participate in a school festival that your teacher will organize for you. Your teacher
will group and assign you to a particular province or region. It is up to your group
how you will represent the assigned region. Use your creativity in designing sets,
costume, accessories, or props as may be required in your assignment. Your teach-
er will develop criteria to grade your participation and performance in this activity.

191
MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

(2011) Karakol 2011: A dance for thanksgiving, honor, and sacrifice. Published in
The Caballeros, Imus National High School – Alapan Annex.

Estolas, Josefina V., Javier, Clarita G. & Pada-Payno, Nieves. (1995). Introduction
to Humanities (Art for Fine Living). National Book Store: Mandaluyong City.

Van de Bogart, Doris. (1970). Introduction to the humanities (Painting, sculpture, ar-
chitecture, music, and literature). Barnes and Noble Everyday Handbooks:
New York, reprinted in the Philippines by National Book Store: Mandaluyong
City.

Zulueta, Franciso M. (2003). The humanities: Revised Edition. National Book Store:

192
MODULE 8 GRADE 7 ART LEARNING GUIDE

Page 1
1. http://www.photo.net.ph/blogalicious/fiesta-report/masskara-2007-schedule-of-activities
-celebrating-the-icons-of-bacolod/
2. http://thebackpackchronicles.com/2012/02/panagbenga-festival-2012-event-schedules-
highlights/
3. http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Philippines/Southern_Tagalog/Quezon/Lucban/
photo909625.htm
4. http://tourism-philippines.com/festivals/

Page 4
1. Photo by Yasmin F. Santiaguel and J. S. Jimenez
2. http://alaehpagkasarap.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/sublian-festival-parade-2009.jpg

Page 5
http://www.lovelyphilippines.com/festivals/santacruzan-the-queen-of-all-filipino-festivals/

Page 6
1. http://filipinessence.wordpress.com/tag/tradisyon-sa-mahal-na-araw/
2. http://www.paradise-philippines.biz/paradise-philippines/upcoming-events-this-august/

Page 7
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paglipas_ng_Dilim_scene_zarzuela.jpg
2. http://playbillphilippines.blogspot.com/2011/09/zarzuelas-of-pampanga-in-mikit-
tamu.html
3. http://showbiznest.blogspot.com/2011/05/marian-rivera-mikael-daez-and-sid.html

Page 9
http://www.davaotraveler.com/blog/2007/08/03/kadayawan-festival-in-davao/

Page 10
1. http://www.dumaguete-hotels.com/ati-atihan-festival-aklan/
2. http://aralingpinoy2.blogspot.com/2011/05/dinagyang-festival.html
3. http://en.wikipilipinas.org/images/2/25/BinirayanFestival.jpg

Page 11
http://outoftownblog.com/masskara-festival-2012/

193