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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

For the success of this project largely depends on the encouragement and guidelines of many
others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who gave full support to
finish the project successfully.

I would like to thank lecture Mr.Gayan Wanasinghe who guided throughout this project and
also he taught lot of things about Fundamentals of Drawing and Surveying and also my
friends and my family members who helped and encouraged me to finish the project
successfully.

Your sincere student,

Zamri Shan

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 3
TASK – 01 .............................................................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Survey Instruments ....................................................................................................................... 5
Appropriate instruments used for linear measurements .................................................................. 6
Appropriate instrument used for angular measurement .................................................................. 9
1.2 Temporary Adjustments of Theodolite ....................................................................................... 11
1.3 The Method of Carrying Out a field Survey and the Standard Recording Method in each
Measurement ..................................................................................................................................... 13
1.4 Coordinates & Correction ........................................................................................................... 15
1.6 Area ............................................................................................................................................. 17
TASK - 02 ............................................................................................................................................. 19
2.1 Procedure and temporary adjustment .......................................................................................... 20
2.2 Field Survey & Recording Method ............................................................................................. 22
2.3 Correction & Calculation ............................................................................................................ 23
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 26
Reference .............................................................................................................................................. 27

Figure 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2 Invar Tape ................................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 3 Arrow ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Figure 4 Ranging Pole.............................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 5 Theodolite ................................................................................................................................. 9
Figure 6 Tripod ...................................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 7 ................................................................................................................................................. 11
Figure 8 Levelling .................................................................................................................................. 12

Table 1................................................................................................................................................... 14
Table 2................................................................................................................................................... 16
Table 3................................................................................................................................................... 23
Table 4................................................................................................................................................... 25

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

INTRODUCTION

Through the Fundamental Drawing and Surveying we are gaining a vast knowledge on
different types of surveying methods use in field work. In addition to our day today lecture
series we are assigned to do certain practical works in relation to the module.

This assignment is for Fundamental Drawing and Surveying subject for the 1st semester in
BTEC HND in Quantity Surveying. This subject is most important for Quantity surveys.
This is an individual assignment and I have completed this assignment by gathering
information from the lecture notes, referring books and browsing internet. I hope this
assignment will provide the necessary information in Fundamental Drawing and Surveying
and for those who read this assignment gain some knowledge about this subject.

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

TASK – 01

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

1.1 Survey Instruments


Surveying

Surveying is the art of making suitable measurements in horizontal or vertical planes. This is
one of the important subjects of civil engineering. Without taking a survey of the plot where
the construction is to be carried out, the work cannot begin.

Leveling

Leveling is the art of representing relative positions in the vertical plane of different points on
the earth’s surface. It helps in determining the areas that are to be leveled to achieve a certain
slope. (Civil engineering, 2011)

Principles of Surveying

All the surveys that are conducted are based on two fundamental principles. They are as
follows:

1. Working from whole to part


2. Fixing a point with reference to two fixed points (Civil engineering, 2011)

Surveying is classified as,

1. Plane Surveying
2. Geodetic surveying

Plane Surveying

Type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane and the
spheroid shape is neglected. All triangles formed by survey lines are considered plane
triangles. The level line is considered straight and all plumb lines are considered parallel.
(Surveying, 2015)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Geodetic Surveying

Type of surveying in which the shape of the earth is taken into account. All lines lying in the
surface are curved lines and the triangles are spherical triangles. It therefore, involves
spherical trigonometry. All Geodetic surveys include work of larger magnitude and high
degree of precision. (Surveying, 2015)

In our practical session we have used plane surveying

Angular and linear measurements come under the measurement of traverse survey. The
appropriate instrument which were selected to measure angular and linear measurements are
described in detail below,

Appropriate instruments used for linear measurements


 Chain
 Tape
 Arrows
 Ranging poles

To note down information

 Field books
 Pencils

1. Chain
The instrument used for measure the length and width. Made up of steel wire which is
divided into links and rings to facilitate folding It has brass handles at both ends for easy
handling.

Figure 1

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Advantages of Chain
 Can be read easily and quickly
 can be easily repaired or rectified in the field
 can withstand wear and tear (Civil engineering, 2015)

Disadvantages of Chain
 It is time consuming.
 They are heavy and take too much time to open or fold.
 They become longer or shorter due to continuous use. (Civil engineering, 2015)

2. Tape
These instruments also measure the length and width. For the surveying work invar tape is
most suitable because it will show the high degree of accuracy and precision in linear
measurements. (Dartmouth, 2016)

Figure 2 Invar Tape

Advantages of invar tape


 It is not affected by the change of temperature
 More accuracy than other tapes (Surveying, 2015)

Disadvantages of Invar tape


 length and coefficient of thermal expansion is not constant

Measuring tape is more accurate than chain because in chain when we are measuring it can
bend so there will show the difference while measuring in tape.

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

3. Arrows

Arrows are made of steel wire of diameter 4mm and their ends are bent into a circle where
red cloth is tied to facilitate visibility. They are used for showing points on the ground. They
are also used for counting the number of chains while measuring a chain line. (Dartmouth,
2016)

Figure 3 Arrow

4. Ranging Poles

These are wooden or plastic poles with a pointed steel shoe at one end for driving into the
ground. These are generally circular in section, 25mm diameter and painted in alternative of
bands of colors. (Dartmouth, 2016)

Figure 4 Ranging Pole

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Appropriate instrument used for angular measurement

The main instrument which was selected for angular measurement is the theodolite. There is
different type of theodolights available for different purposes, theodolite is used to measure
the angles in both vertical and horizontal planes.
Theodolite essentially a telescope, the line of collimation of which can be transited in the
vertical plane, the angles of revolution being measured on the vertical circle of degrees. The
instruments can also be turned through 360 degrees in the horizontal plane. The parts
consisted is mentioned below. (Heathfield, 2016)

 Lower plate – acts as reference plate and lower clamp is used to clamp the plate and
tangent screw is used for finer adjustments
 Upper plate – Upper clamp and tangent screw control the upper plate
 Telescope – Used to focus the instrument the target
 Optical plumb – Used to adjust the position of the instrument over a surveying station.
 Three leveling screws – It levels the plates of the theodolite with the help of bubbles.
 Scales and a mirror. (Heathfield, 2016)

Figure 5 Theodolite

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Tripod
Tripod is also as essential instrument in surveying as theodolite is placed on the tripod.

Setting up the tripod

1) Loosen screws of tripod legs, pull out to required length and tighten screws.
2) In order to guarantee a firm foothold sufficiently press the tripod legs into the ground.
When pressing the legs into the ground note that the force must be applied along the
legs.
3) Check all screws and bolts for correct fit. (Civil engineering, 2011)

Figure 6 Tripod

Appropriate instrument used for reduced level measurements


Reduced level measurement comes under leveling. The instrument which was selected is
called a level. The level consists of the following essential parts are described below,
 A telescope
 A level
 A leveling head
A telescope – this is used to provide a line of sight
A level – this is used to make the line of sight horizontal
A leveling head – this is used to bring the bubble of the level at the centre of its run

While carrying out these measurements a field book and a pencil was used to note down the
obtained data for future use.

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

1.2 Temporary Adjustments of Theodolite

Temporary adjustments are set of operations which are required to be done on Theodolight in
order to make it ready for taking observations. Temporary adjustments of theodolite include
its setting up, centering, leveling up and elimination of parallax. Therefore these adjustments
can be achieved in 4 steps. (Lynch, 2015)

Setting

It includes fixing the theodolite with tripod along with approximate levelling and centering
over the station mark. The tripod is placed over the station with its legs widely spread so that
the centre of the tripod head lies above the station point and its head approximately level (by
eye estimation). Then fixed with the tripod by screwing through trivet. After this, a plumb
bob is suspended from the bottom of the instrument and it should be such that plumb bob
should point near to the station mark. (Lynch, 2015)

Figure 7

Centering

First, the approximate centering of the instrument is done by moving the tripod legs radially
or circumferentially as per need of the circumstances.
When the legs are moved sideways or circumferentially, the plumb does not shift much but
the level gets affected. Finally, exact centering is done by using the shifting head of the
instrument. During this, first the screw-clamping ring of the shifting head is loosened and the
upper plate of the shifting head is slid over the lower one until the plumb bob is exactly over
the station mark. (Civil engineering, 2011)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Leveling the instrument

 Plate level is brought in parallel with foot screws A and B and bubble is brought
to the center by turning the screws A and B.
 Theodolite is rotated by 90o and the bubble is brought to the center by turning the
screw C.
 Again the level is brought in parallel with A and B. if the bubble is off the center,
the above procedure is repeated. (Heathfield, 2016)

Figure 8 Levelling

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

1.3 The Method of Carrying Out a field Survey and the Standard
Recording Method in each Measurement

 The first step which has to be done is set up the main frame and adds details into it.
Errors can be prevented when a large area is divided in to smaller parts than when
smaller parts are surveyed and joined together to form a larger area.
 All the measurements are to be recorded in the standard method where each
measurement is checked and additional measurements are taken to prevent problems
in the future rather than coming back to the site for the measurements
 Clear and complete field notes should be taken because plotting maybe done by a
draftsman who was not involved in the surveying therefore all the information must
be there on surveying notes.
 Concentration and care must be maintained in the field so that the data obtained will
be accurate.
 The equipment we choose should be suitable for the task in hand and should check
whether the equipment is in working condition.
 The plotting should be in higher order. The field notes the final plotting , the
information including scale and units used , the north point , the surveys name , the
draftsman’s name, the drawing number etc.. (Michael, 2005)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Filed book for Traverse Survey

Instrument Point Face and Mean Circle Reading Remarks


station observed swing
0 ‘ “
P1 P4 RR 0 00 00
P2 RR 123 08 50 1250 08’ 50”
P4 RR 0 00 00

P1 P4 LL 180 00 00
P2 LL 303 04 20 1230 04 ‘20”
P4 LL 180 00 00
1230 06’ 35”

P2 P1 RR 00 00 00
P3 RR 62 06 55 620 06’ 55”
P1 RR 00 00 00

P1 LL 180 00 00
P3 LL 242 04 15 620 04’ 15”
P1 LL 180 00 00
620 05’ 35”

P3 P2 RR 00 00 00
P4 RR 94 33 45 940 33’ 45”
P2 RR 00 00 00

P2 LL 180 00 00
P4 LL 274 35 50 940 35’ 50”
P2 LL 180 00 00
940 34’ 47”

P4 P3 RR 00 00 00
P1 RR 80 05 30 800 05’ 30”
P3 RR 00 00 00

P3 LL 180 00 00
P1 LL 259 58 35 790 58’ 35”
P3 LL 180 00 00
800 02’ 03”

Table 1

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

1.4 Coordinates & Correction

For closed traverse angle error = + or – S (N) ½

S – Least count of instrument (1”)

N – Number of traverse station

For closed traverse angle error = + or – S (N) ½

=1 (4) ½

= 2”

Correction = 00 11’ 00”/4

= 00 2’ 45”

Fractional linear Error = ∆L / √ (∆ E) 2 + (∆N) 2

= 59.208 / √ (0.051)2 + (0.045)2

= 870.52

=15.631*0.051 / 59.208

= 0.013

= 17.400*0.051 / 59.208

= 0.015

=14.900*0.051/59.208

= 0.013

=11.227*0.051/59.208

= 0.010

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Table 2

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

1.6 Area

A = ½ (i=1Σ n ni (ei+1 – ei-1))

P1 = (500.000, 500.000) E=x

P2 = (513.959, 507.046) N=y

P3 = (499.772, 517.056)

P4 = (490.224, 505.648)

 P1 P1 = 500.000(513.959 – 490.224)

n1 = 500.000 = 11867.5

e1+1 = 513.959

e1-1 = 490.224

 P2 P2 = 507.045( 499.772 – 500.000)

n2 = 507.045 = -115.606

e2+1 = 499.772

e2-1 = 500.000

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

 P3 P3 = 517.056( 490.224 – 513.959)

n3 = 517.056 = -12272.3242

e3+1 = 490.224

e3-1 = 513.959

 P4 P4 = 505.648( 500.000 – 499.772)

n4 = 505.648 = 115.2877

e4+1 = 500.000

e4-1 = 499.772

A = ½ (-405.1425) = -202.57125

So, Area = 202.57125 m2

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

TASK - 02

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

2.1 Procedure and temporary adjustment


Temporary adjustments of the Theodolite

Temporary adjustments of the Theodolite have four major steps.

 Initial leveling
 Initial setting over the station
 Leveling of the instrument
 Final setting over the station

Initial leveling

The tripod placed such that the plate should be nearly horizontal at the convenient level for
mounting the Theodolite. (Surveying, 2015)

Initial setting over the station

A plumb bob was used to check the initial setting of the instrument position. Adjustments
were done such that the plumb bob points exactly the centre point of the peg driven at the
survey station

Leveling of the instrument

Leveling of the instrument was done by following the steps below

 The two leveling foot screws A and B are turned in opposite directions in order to
center the bubble along the AB axis.
 The third leveling screw C was turned to bring the bubble to center of the circular
level and the leveling is completed at this point. (Davies, 2006)

Final setting over the station


It was checked by an optical plumb. If the cross hair is off the center of the peg, then the
instrument is re-positioned on the tripod such that the instrument is exactly centered over the
station. (Davies, 2006)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

How to use a Theodolite

The main scope of the Theodolite is to measure the angles. The Theodolite can be used only
if we know to operate the parts in it. Such as
 the leveling screws which are used to level the plates of the Theodolite using water
bubbles fixed on the plate
 The mirror which controls the sunlight and increases the illumination of the scales.
 The tripod which is used to mount the Theodolite and adjust the height on which the
Theodolite is placed.
 The scales which are provided for horizontal and vertical angle measurements.
 The optical plumb used to check and adjust the position of the instrument over a
survey station
 The telescope which is used to focus the instruments to the required targets
(Davies, 2006)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

2.2 Field Survey & Recording Method


 The Theodolite is mounted on the tripod stand
 The Theodolite is centered over an arbitrarily selected station P from where the given
stations can be sighted without any obstruction and the instrument is leveled using the
foot screws and the plate bubble is brought to the centre of the run.
 The Theodolite is set on the face right mode one the vernier A and the horizontal
circle is initially set at 0’00’00’ and the station A is sighted.
 The upper clamp screw is unclamped and the Theodolite is swung to the right and the
central vertical cross hair is made to bisect this station and the horizontal angles on
both the vernier A and B are observed.
 The measurement of horizontal angle between the stations A and B is repeated for the
desired number of repetitions and the cumulative horizontal angle observed in the last
repetition is recorded.
 The Theodolite is then set on the face left mode and the vernier A on the horizontal
circle is initially set at 180’00’00” and the station B is sighted.
 The observations are recorded in the field book.
 The mean values of the horizontal angles on vernier A and B are computed for every
sighting.
 The average of the two actual horizontal angles observed on each for the two initial
settings of vernier A is determined as the result. (Lynch, 2015)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

2.3 Correction & Calculation


Back Inter Fore Rise Fall Reduced Corrected Remarks
sight sight sight level level
2.125 500.000 500.000 TBM
1.650 0.475 500.475 500.475
1.445 0.205 500.680 500.680
1.665 1.285 0.190 500.870 500.873
1.560 0.105 500.975 500.978
1.430 0.130 501.105 501.108
1.315 0.115 501.220 501.223
1.115 0.200 501.420 501.423
1.800 0.690 0.425 501.845 501.851
1.485 0.315 502.160 502.166
1.280 0.250 502.365 502.371
1.050 0.230 502.595 502.601
2.165 0.765 0.285 502.880 502.889
1.825 0.340 503.220 503.229
2.675 1.005 0.825 504.040 504.053
1.970 0.705 504.745 504.758
1.475 0.495 505.240 505.253
2.475 0.905 0.570 505.810 505.825
1.400 1.075 506.885 506.901
1.455 1.150 0.250 507.135 507.154 Gate
Column
0.580 4.500 3.045 504.090 504.117
0.765 3.220 2.640 501.450 501.117
2.240 1.425 499.975 500.000 TBM

15.705 15.730 7.135 7.160


Error = Error =
0.025 0.025

Table 3

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Arithmetic Check

Method No-1

= (Sum of the Back sight Reading) – (Sum of Fore sight Reading)

= ∑ Back Sight - ∑ Fore Sight

= (15.705) – (15.730)

= (-0.025)

Method No-2

= (Sum of the Rise) – (Sum of the fall)

= ∑ Rise - ∑ fall

= (7.135) – (7.160)

= (-0.025)

Method No-3

= (Reduce Level of Final Station) – (Reduce Level of First Station)

= ∑ Reduce Level of last - ∑ Reduce Level of first

= (499.975) – (500.000)

= (-0.025)

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Heights of the collimation

Back Sight Inter Sight Fore Sight Height of Reduced Corrected Remarks
collimation Level Level
2.125 502.125 500.000 500.000 TBM
1.650 500.475 500.475
1.445 500.680 500.680
1.665 1.285 502.535 500.870 500.873
1.560 500.975 500.978
1.430 501.105 501.108
1.315 501.220 501.223
1.115 501.420 501.423
1.800 0.690 503.645 501.845 501.851
1.485 502.160 502.166
1.280 502.365 502.371
1.050 502.595 502.601
2.165 0.765 505.045 502.880 502.889
1.825 503.220 503.229
2.675 1.005 506.715 504.040 504.053
1.970 504.745 504.758
1.475 505.240 505.253
2.475 0.905 508.285 505.810 505.826
1.400 506.885 506.901
1.455 1.150 508.590 507.135 507.154
0.580 4.500 504.670 504.090 504.112
0.765 3.220 502.215 501.450 501.475
2.240 499.975 500.000 TBM

Table 4

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Conclusion
After reading this assignment you will get knowledge about what is Fundamental of Drawing
and Surveying. I have clearly described about surveying and what are the instruments used.

In this assignment I have shown the fixing method of instrument step by step and also
procedure of surveying.

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Fundamental of Drawing and Surveying

Reference

Civil engineering Projects, (2011). Introduction to surveying [online]. 20 th of October 2016.


Available at

http://www.civilprojectsonline.com/surveying-and-levelling/introduction-to-surveying-civil-
engineering/

Types of Surveying, (2015). [online] 20th October 2016. Available at

http://www.civileblog.com/types-of-surveying/

Dartmouth. (2016) Surveying equipment [online ] 21st of October 2016 available at

http://www.surveyhistory.org/the_surveyor%27s_basic_tools.htm

M.HEATHFIELD (2016) Measuring angle [online] 20st October 2016 available at

http://surveying.structural-analyser.com/chapter06/

LYNCH.Jorge (2015). Use of theodolite. [online] 24th of October 2016 available at

http://www.qs4freshers.com/use-of-theodolite.html

DUNN.Michael. (2005). Recording in surveying. [online] 24th of December 2016 available


at

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/105107122/modules/module6/html/75.htm

DAVIS.Langdon, (2006), Temporary adjustments. [online] 25th of October 2015 available at

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/105107122/modules/module6/html/75.htmle

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