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III Year – II Semester

Lecture : 3+1 Internal Marks : 40
Credits :3 External Marks : 60
Course Objectives
 To introduce various modes of heat transfer and their significance in the design of
various heat transfer equipment.
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to
 determine the rate of heat transfer through simple geometries in steady state and find
the critical radius of insulation in case of steam pipes and electrical cables
 evaluate the rate of heat transfer from a finned surface and the time of cooling or
heating in transient heat conduction problems
 compute convective heat transfer coefficients in forced and natural convection, both
for internal and external flows
 find the convective heat transfer coefficient in boiling and condensation
 design a heat exchanger using LMTD or NTU method
 calculate the radiation heat exchange between the surfaces and interpret the
significance of radiation shields.
Introduction: Modes of heat transfer, Basic laws of heat transfer, applications of heat
Conduction Heat Transfer: Fourier Law of Heat conduction, General heat conduction
equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates. Simplification and forms of the
field equation, steady, unsteady heat transfer, Initial and boundary conditions.
One Dimensional Steady State Conduction Heat Transfer: Homogeneous slabs, hollow
cylinders and spheres, Electrical Analogy, Composite slabs, cylinders and spheres, Thermal
Contact Resistance, Critical radius of insulation, Variable Thermal conductivity, systems
with heat generation.
Extended surface (fin) Heat Transfer: Long Fin, Fin with insulated tip and Short Fin,
Efficiency and effectiveness of fins.
One Dimensional Transient Conduction Heat Transfer: Systems with negligible internal
resistance, Significance of Biot and Fourier Numbers, Chart solutions of transient conduction
Convective Heat Transfer: Classification of Convective Heat Transfer, Dimensional
analysis- Buckingham Pi Theorem for forced and Natural convection, Continuity, Momentum
and Energy Equations.
Forced convection: Concepts of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer, use of empirical
correlations for forced convective heat transfer -Internal flows and External flows.
Free Convection: Development of Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer along a
vertical plate, Use of empirical relations for Vertical plates and cylinders.
Heat Transfer with Phase Change:
Boiling: Pool boiling, Regimes - Nucleate boiling and Film boiling, Critical Heat flux, Flow
Condensation: Film wise and drop wise condensation, Film condensation on vertical and
horizontal cylinders, using empirical correlations.
Heat Exchangers: Classification, overall heat transfer Coefficient, fouling factor, Design of
Heat Exchangers - LMTD and NTU methods.
Radiation Heat Transfer: Basic concepts, Emission characteristics, concept of black body,
laws of black-body radiation - Planck's law, Wien's displacement law, Stefan Boltzmann law,
radiation incident on a surface, solid angle and radiation intensity, lambert's cosine law, heat
exchange between two black surfaces, shape factor, heat exchange between non-black
surfaces, radiosity, electrical analogy for radiation networks, radiation shields.

Text Books
1. Yunus Cengel, Afshin Ghajar, “Heat and Mass Transfer”, Tata McGraw Hill, 6th
2. P.K.Nag, “Heat And Mass Transfer”, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publications, 3rd edition.
Reference Books
1. Incropera & Dewitt, “Fundamentals of Heat Transfer & Mass Transfer”, John Wiley
Publications, 6th edition.
2. J.P.Holman, "Heat transfer", Mc Graw Hill, 8th edition.
3. Ozisic M.Necati- "Heat transfer- A basic Approach", McGraw Hill company.