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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842

Issue 07, Volume 5 (July 2018) www.irjcs.com

MODIFIED PSS-SLM FOR SUPPORTING QPSK


MODULATION
Jung Suk Joo*
Dept. of Electronics Engineering,
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea
jjs@hufs.ac.kr;
Manuscript History
Number: IRJCS/RS/Vol.05/Issue07/JYCS10083
Received: 05, July 2018
Final Correction: 11, July 2018
Final Accepted: 15, July 2018
Published: July 2018
Citation: Jung (2018). MODIFIED PSS-SLM FOR SUPPORTING QPSK MODULATION. IRJCS:: International Research
Journal of Computer Science, Volume V, 401-404. doi://10.26562/IRJCS.2018.JYCS10083
Editor: Dr.A.Arul L.S, Chief Editor, IRJCS, AM Publications, India
Copyright: ©2018 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License;
Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are
credited
Abstract— In order to reduce error propagation effect of the self-synchronized scrambler-based selected
mapping (SS-SLM), a partially self-synchronized scrambler-based selected mapping (PSS-SLM) was proposed in
[5]—only most significant bits (MSBs) of QAM symbols are scrambled to reduce PAPR of OFDM signal. However,
in the case when QPSK modulation is used, the PSS-SLM becomes equivalent to the original SS-SLM and thus
cannot reduce error propagation effect of SS-SLM. In this paper, we propose a simple modification in the PSS-SLM
for supporting QPSK modulation: it only scrambles data bits for the first half of QPSK symbols in each OFDM
symbol. It will be shown through computer simulation that when QPSK modulation is used, the proposed scheme
can reduce error propagation effect while keeping a similar PAPR reduction capability to the SS-SLM.
Keywords—PAPR reduction; selected mapping (SLM); self-synchronized scrambler; error propagation;

I. INTRODUCTION
The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system is widely used in broadband wireless
communication because of its robustness in a frequency selective fading environment. However, the OFDM signal,
in which many carrier signals are combined in the time domain, is disadvantageous in that the peak-to-average
power ratio (PAPR) becomes relatively large. In order to overcome this drawback, PAPR reduction techniques
have been actively studied [1-5]. Among these PAPR reduction techniques, we consider selected mapping (SLM)-
based schemes: SLM selects and transmits a signal having the smallest PAPR among candidate signals for the same
information; it is simple in implementation and there is no distortion in the transmitted signal. When SLM is used,
the receiver should be informed of the actually transmitted signal among the candidate signals. This information
is referred to as side information (SI) of the SLM scheme. If this additional information is directly transmitted on a
specific sub-carrier, the frequency efficiency of the OFDM system decreases. As a method to use SLM without
explicit side information, [4] proposed a self-synchronized scrambler based SLM (SS-SLM) scheme employing a
self-synchronized scrambler for generating candidate signals: the original data can be recovered without SI due to
the feedback structure of the self-synchronized scrambler. However, error propagation in the receiver’s
descrambler causes an increased bit error rate (BER). In order to reduce such error propagation, [5] proposed a
partially self-synchronized scrambler based SLM (PSS-SLM)—it scrambles only data bits being allocated to the
most significant bits (MSBs) of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of each QAM symbol. However, in the
case of QPSK modulation where all bits have the same significance, PSS-SLM becomes equivalent to the original
SS-SLM which scrambles all data bits; therefore, PSS-SLM suffers from the error propagation phenomenon as SS-
SLM does. In this paper, we propose a simple modification in the PSS-SLM for supporting QPSK modulation.
Instead of separating data bits into MSBs and other bits in symbol mapping, the proposed scheme divides QPSK
symbols in each OFDM symbol into two halves—the first half is scrambled and the other is not.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 07, Volume 5 (July 2018) www.irjcs.com

Since the scrambling length is reduced to a half, the proposed scheme can be expected to mitigate error
propagation phenomenon. It will be shown through computer simulation that when QPSK modulation is used, the
proposed scheme can reduce error propagation effect while keeping a similar PAPR reduction capability to the SS-
SLM.
II. SS-SLM SCHEME AND PSS-SLM SCHEME
We consider SLM-based schemes that can operate without explicit side information by using a self-synchronizing
scrambler for candidate signal generation.
A. Self-synchronized scrambler-based selected mapping (SS-SLM) [4]
Using a label prefix of length N r , SS-SLM generates U  2 N r candidate signals and transmits one candidate signal
having the smallest PAPR. The structure of the SS-SLM based OFDM system is shown in Fig. 1. Let d denote the
original binary data sequence of length Nb . Then, the u -th input sequence to the self-synchronized scrambler is
given as follows:
u u
  
a   p  d  p0  , p1  , , p N 1 , d 0 , d1 , , d Nb 1 ,
u u u
r 
u  0,1, , U  1 (1)

where p u  is the u -th label prefix which is one of possible U  2 N r binary sequences of length N r . Note that the
label prefix has the same role as the side information. The u -th output sequence of the self-synchronized
scrambler, q u  is generated by passing a u  through the scrambler. Each q u  is symbol mapped and modulated
with the N -point inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Then, for the original data sequence d , the OFDM
 
candidate signal set, x 0 , x1 , , xU 1 is obtained. Finally, the best candidate which has the minimum PAPR is

 
selected and transmitted, where PAPR of x u   x0 u  , x1 u  , , xNu1 is calculated by
 x (u ) 2 
m ax n (2)
(u ) 0  n  N 1 
 
PAPR  N 1
, u  0 , 1,  , U  1 .
1 (u ) 2
N n0
x n

Fig. 1 Block diagram of the OFDM system with the SS-SLM.


B. Partially self-synchronized scrambler-based selected mapping (PSS-SLM) [5]

Fig. 2 Scrambling procedure in the PSS-SLM scheme.


In SS-SLM, the entire data including the label prefix is scrambled. Thus, it has the best PAPR reduction
performance since correlation among the OFDM candidate signals is minimized. However, error propagation
phenomenon due to decision errors is experienced during the entire transmission data period.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -402
International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 07, Volume 5 (July 2018) www.irjcs.com

In order to reduce error propagation, PSS-SLM scrambles only data bits being allocated to the MSBs of in-phase
and quadrature-phase components of each QAM symbol. The scrambling procedure of the PSS-SLM is illustrated
in Fig. 2. Since the scrambling length is shortened (see Fig. 2) and the MSBs have the minimum BER, the PSS-SLM
scheme can reduce error propagation. The process after the scrambling is the same as that of the SS-SLM ( q u  is
used instead of q u  in Fig. 1).
III. PROPOSED SCHEME
In the case of QPSK modulation where all bits have the same significance—that is, all bits are considered as MSBs,
the conventional PSS-SLM becomes equivalent to the SS-SLM scrambling entire data bits, and thus it cannot
mitigate error propagation phenomenon [5]. To overcome this drawback, we propose a simple modification in the
PSS-SLM: when there is no difference in bits’ significance in the symbol mapping (such as QPSK modulation), the
proposed scrambling procedure in Fig. 3 is used; otherwise, the conventional PSS-SLM’s scrambling procedure in
Fig. 2 is used.

Fig. 3 Scrambling procedure in the proposed scheme (when QPSK is used)

The details are as follows. When QPSK is used, as shown in Fig, 3, each a(u ) of length L  N r  N b is divided into
two halves of length L / 2 . The first half (including label prefix, p (u ) ) is scrambled by the self-synchronized
scrambler, but the scrambling is bypassed for the second half. Then, the scrambled and unscrambled halves are
combined into q( u ) , and finally q( u ) is QPSK symbol mapped. Since the scrambling length is reduced to a half, i.e.,
L / 2 , the proposed scheme can be expected to reduce error propagation.

Fig. 4 CCDFs of conventional and proposed schemes


For performance comparisons, we considered QPSK-OFDM systems in AWGN channels, where the number of
subcarriers, N is 64. For SLM schemes, the length of label prefix, N r was assumed to be either 2, 4, or 6;
g  z   z 6  z  1 was used as the characteristic feedback polynomial of the self-synchronized scrambler [5]. Note
that the conventional PSS-SLM is equivalent to the SS-SLM in QPSK-OFDM systems.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -403
International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 07, Volume 5 (July 2018) www.irjcs.com

Fig. 4 compares the PAPR reduction performances by using the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) of PAPR which is defined as following:

CCDF  TH   Prob  PAPR  TH  . (3)

That is, the CCDF value indicates a probability that PAPR is larger than a given threshold, TH . As expected, both
the conventional PSS-SLM and the proposed schemes have better PAPR reduction performance than the ordinary
OFDM system without any PAPR reduction, and their PAPR reduction gains increase as the length of the label
prefix, N r increases. Specifically, in cases N r is equal to 2, 4 and 6, the PAPR reduction gain of the PSS-SLM at
CCDF  102 is approximately 2.2 dB, 3.4 dB, and 4 dB, respectively. Compared to the conventional PSS-SLM, the
proposed scheme exhibits a slight degradation of about 0.2 dB, which is because correlation among candidate
signals becomes larger due to the reduction of scrambling length.

Fig. 5 BER performance comparison in AWGN channel


Fig. 5 shows a comparison of the BER performances. Note that the length of label prefix does not affect BER
performances. Since both the conventional PSS-SLM and the proposed schemes use the self-synchronized
scrambler, their BER performances degraded compared to the ordinary OFDM system. However, it was also
shown that the proposed scheme can reduce BER performance degradation of the conventional PSS-SLM scheme
by about 30 ~ 40 %, which is due to the reduction of scrambling length to half. In addition, from the results of Fig.
4 and Fig. 5, it can be confirmed that there exists tradeoff between PAPR reduction gain and degradation of BER
performance according to the scrambling length.
IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we proposed a simple modification in the PSS-SLM for supporting QPSK modulation—actually, the
proposed scheme can be used for the cases where there is no difference in bits’ significance in the symbol
mapping. Instead of separating data bits into MSBs and other bits, the proposed scheme divides QPSK symbols in
each OFDM symbol into two halves and scrambles only the first half. Since the scrambling length is reduced to a
half, the proposed scheme can mitigate error propagation phenomenon. Simulation results indicate that the
proposed scheme can reduce BER performance degradation of the conventional PSS-SLM scheme by about 30 ~
40 %, while keeping a similar PAPR reduction capability. As a further work, we will analyze tradeoff between
PAPR reduction gain and BER performance degradation according to the scrambling length.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund of 2018
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_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -404