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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC
MASONRY
PATHOLOGY OF BRICK

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TECHNICAL TEAM

DECivil
Coordination:
GESTEC • Prof. Fernando Branco (fbranco@civil.ist.utl.pt)
• Prof. Jorge de Brito (jb@civil.ist.utl.pt)
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

Contents:
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

• Prof.ª Inês Flores-Colen


• Arq.ª Natasha Redin
• Arq.º Pedro Dias
• Arq.º Vítor Ferreira
• Prof. João Correia
• Prof. Jorge de Brito (translation)
• Prof. Pedro Paulo

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
DECivil
1.1. The brick masonry construction
GESTEC 1.2. Field of application
1.3. Advantages
1.4. Limitations
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

1.5. Types and definitions


1.6. Chapter conclusions

2. ANOMALIES AND THEIR CAUSES


2.1. Introduction
2.2. Anomalies (physical/mechanical source)
2.3. Anomalies (chemical source)
2.4. Anomalies (biological source)
2.5. Chapter conclusions

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
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1. INTRODUCTION

BRICK MASONRY
DECivil
GESTEC

Subchapters:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

1.1 The brick masonry construction


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1.2 Field of application


1.3 Advantages
1.4 Limitations
1.5 Types and definitions
1.6 Chapter conclusions

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

construction
1.1 The brick masonry
1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The brick masonry construction
DECivil
Brick remained throughout the centuries one of the main construction
GESTEC materials. In the XX century, stone masonry walls were replaced by
brick walls, going from a single-leaf stone or brick wall until the recent
double-leaf walls incorporating various components (insulation, water
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

vapour retarders, bottom gutter, air cavity ventilation, water drainage


and thermal bridge correction).

1940’s 1950’s 1960’s 1970’s 1980’s

Present walls are linked to more efficient, thinner and lighter structural systems than
in the past
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The brick masonry construction
DECivil
Masonry:
GESTEC
Assemblage of stones, bricks or other materials that, conveniently
laid and locked by superimposition using mortars, are used for the
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

execution of building walls.


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“It is estimated for our country that masonry works, including their renders,
correspond to around 13% to 17% of the overall construction value.” - in Regulation
and Standardization of Masonry Construction - Studies Planning, from LNEC

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The brick masonry construction
DECivil Ceramic brick masonry is made of bricks (solid or hollow) and
GESTEC
their laying and/or coating mortars.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

Their perform a load-bearing


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role (structural masonry) or


Production tonnes/year
a filling role (mere panels in
between structural elements).

The red clay bricks are the


masonry elements with greater
production in Portugal, with many
ceramic companies spread all
the national territory.

Production in Portugal
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The brick masonry construction
Brick
uncoated

DECivil
Bricks shape:
GESTEC
NP 834 defines the acceptance criteria of ceramic
bricks in terms of their aspect, touch, mechanical
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

strength, efflorescence susceptibility, soluble salts


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and durability.

Characteristics and tests:


NP 80 defines the normalized shape of the bricks
and their size tolerances.

Solid Horizontal Perforated Vertical holes Vertical holes


holes without socket with socket

Types of bricks
Bricks sizes
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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC

1.2 Field of application


1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
DECivil
GESTEC

The first civilizations from Western


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

Asia, especially those from the


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Tiger and Euphrates valleys


(Sumer, Babylon and Assyria), had
very scarce timber and stone
reserves for construction, but had
available great amounts of alluvial
clay for the production of bricks,
both fired and baked under the sun.

Minaret of the Great Mosque of


Samarra (in Universal
Architecture - Islam)
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
DECivil The application of bricks was common in the Greek and Roman
GESTEC
times. The latter used them in several ways, particularly to build
arches and vaults.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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In the V century, the destruction of the


Roman civilization by the Barbarians
caused the loss of the art of making
bricks.

In Central Europe, for centuries,


Brick construction was almost inexistent.
The few constructions made used
bricks stolen from Roman ruins.

Roman construction
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
DECivil
In the Middle Ages, around the XII century, the manufacture of
GESTEC
bricks restarted in Holland and in some areas of Germany, where
the stone and timber available for construction was scarce. From
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

here it expanded to the British Isles and the North of Europe


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through the Flemish merchants.

In Italy, the alluvial clays of the


Lombardy plain provided the
bricks for some of the most
decorative buildings of the
Gothic and Renaissance periods.

Construction in
Reggio Emilia (Italy)
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
Until the beginning of the XIX century, the brick manufacturing
DECivil
GESTEC
process was manual. In the middle of that century, with the
increase in populations and the beginning of the industrial
revolution, the brick with horizontal holes as an industrial product
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

for construction emerges, initiating a large scale production.


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Since then, there has been a noticeable expansion of brick


masonry, due to this element’s aptitude to guarantee the comfort of
construction.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
DECivil
GESTEC
In the beginning of the XX century, the masonry load-bearing walls
were relegated to second place in favour of other construction
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

solutions.
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With the evolution of steel and reinforced constructions, the use of


brick was not discontinued and, even though it has already
performed more important structural roles, it is still widely useful,
and its replacement is not foreseen in the near future.

To make external walls, masonry essentially starting playing a


secondary role of filling the panels. The publication of Eurocode 6
relative to masonry structures may lead to a greater future use of
structural masonry.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application
Buildings/monuments: Bullfighting arena, Lisbon
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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Saint Anthony, Padua, Italy


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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC
Chimneys:

Bridges:
1. INTRODUCTION
1.2 Field of application

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC

1.3 Advantages
1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.3 Advantages
DECivil Brick masonry, as long as it is designed and executed according to
GESTEC
the adequate codes and construction rules, are capable of
performing an appropriate load-bearing and hygrothermal role,
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

even under adverse in use conditions.


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Relative to other traditional walls:


• Economical execution;
• Easy assemblage;
• Easy to open grooves;
• Reasonable thicknesses and self weight;
• Incombustible constituent material;
• Good hygrothermal behaviour;
• Is complies with the minimum demands of
acoustic insulation;
• Liable of rational reuse.

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC

1.4 Limitations
1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.4 Limitations
DECivil
• Greater execution complexity for double-
GESTEC leaf walls;
• Qualified workmanship required;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Difficult to integrate and make compatible


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the various construction elements


(current wall area, external coating and
singularities).

The lack of standardization in


the national production of
accessories and elements to
detail the singularities of the
double-leaf walls leads to
improvisation and deficient
construction quality situations.

Thermal correction in a blinds boxle


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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

definitions
1.5 Types and
1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil a) Classification from a structural viewpoint:
GESTEC

From a structural viewpoint: filling masonry or structural (or load-


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

bearing) masonry.
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Filling or
structural
masonry?

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil Filling masonry:
GESTEC

In Portugal, “masonry is predominantly used to fill in between the


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

structural meshes of external walls and to execute partition


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walls” - in Regulation and Standardization of Masonry


Construction - Studies Planning, from LNEC.

Double-leaf wall
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil Structural masonry:
GESTEC

The use of structural masonry has different importance in various


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

European countries.
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Hotel with 12 floors, in reinforced Duplex structure with three floors


masonry with double-leaf walls of made with ceramic blocks,
ceramic bricks, EUA Switzerland
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil
GESTEC In Portugal, even though load-bearing masonry have been more
dominant in the past, presently their use is little relevant. The few
examples of structural masonry correspond generally to small
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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buildings, practically without design.

Recent studies have shown that this solution can be economical


and functionally interesting for buildings of moderate size.

GNR station, in
Ourique
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil
GESTEC Structural masonry differs from current masonry, not only in the
design method and planning, but also in the construction methods
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

and detailing and, naturally, in the materials used.


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To improve the shear and flexural strength and increase the


ductility of the walls, it is frequent to use steel reinforcement in the
horizontal joints and in vertical confinement elements.

Structural masonry (non-paralepipedic shape)!


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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil b) Classification from a composition viewpoint:
GESTEC

From a composition viewpoint: single-leaf, double-leaf or mixed


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

walls.
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Internationally, there is in various


countries a trend for the
development of façade with
single-leaf solutions as an
alternative to the execution of
double-leaf walls. In Portugal,
some studies have been made
of new shapes and constructive
systems that ensure the various
functional requirements.
Insulation in the wall’s air cavity

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil Mixed walls
GESTEC

Walls that incorporate various types of


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constituents: stone and brick masonry


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walls.

Mixed technique: solid


brick to make the vault,
filling with rubble stone
masonry and part of the
arch with regular stone
masonry - Monastery of
S. Martinho de Tibães

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil
Pombaline system (cage)
GESTEC • Masonry made of stone and solid ceramic brick, with a timber truss;
• Walls with an important role in the structures’ global interlocking, decisive
for the performance against horizontal loads;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Thickness around 0.90 m at the ground level, successively thinned up to


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the highest floor.

The timber truss, embedded in the masonry mass,


withstands the seism.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil Classify the masonry used in external walls in Portugal from a
GESTEC
structural and composition viewpoint
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
Double-leaf filling masonry
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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In Portugal, external masonry are double-leaf and for filling purposes,


made with ceramic brick with many horizontal holes and with small
mechanical strength, very frequently using insulation in the air cavity,
especially in the coldest regions.
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
c) Other classifications:
DECivil
GESTEC There are other factors that influence the behaviour of walls:
• Type of laying mortar;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Assemblage type of the elements of the wall;


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• Number of wall leaves and their connections, between themselves


and with the structure;
• Type of coating of the wall;
• Existence of complementary elements of thermal insulation,
watertightness and vapour diffusion control;
• Location of the wall;
• Position of the wall relative to the ground.
The mortar must be
able to accommodate
the dimensional
variations and the
physical properties of
the brick, after it has
been laid.
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
DECivil d) Classification according to EC6:
GESTEC

EC6, devoted to structural Walls with


no
Walls with
longitudinal
longitudinal joint
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

masonry walls, classifies joint


Longitudinal
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joint
them according to the type of
the constituent materials and, Uncoated Single-leaf walls Double-leaf walls
units
complementarily, according to
the type of leaves and their
connections.

Uncoated wall Double-leaf walls

Cladding
Types of masonry walls wall

according to EC6, using


various types of bricks
Discontinuous joints walls Curtain walls

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.5 Types and definitions
In terms of the actions they can be subjected to and the structural
DECivil
GESTEC role they play, EC6 classifies the walls as:
• Load-bearing walls;
• Bracing or shoring walls;
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• Walls subjected to shear;


• Partition walls;
• Walls subjected to lateral loads.

From a strongly structural viewpoint, EC6 and EC8 also make a


distinction between unreinforced, reinforced, prestressed and
confined masonry.

Reinforced masonry-
cracking prevention

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC

1.6 Chapter
conclusions
1. INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.6 Chapter conclusions
DECivil . Since human beings started building shelters clay was a material
GESTEC
often used. The use of bricks goes back to faraway times;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

. It is estimated, for Portugal, that masonry works, including


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renders, correspond to around 13% to 17% of the overall


construction value;
. Masonry, if designed and executed according to the technical
rules, are able to play an appropriate load-bearing and
hygrothermal role, even in adverse working conditions;
. Generally, masonry can be classified from the structural (filling or
structural) or composition (double-leaf, single-leaf or mixed)
viewpoint.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.6 Chapter conclusions
Conjugation of various classification types:
DECivil
SOLID BRICK MASONRY
GESTEC
LOAD-BEARING NON LOAD-BEARING

EXTERNAL/INTERIOR EXTERNAL/INTERIOR
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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GROUND LEVEL HIGHER GROUND LEVEL HIGHER

FACADE GABLE SEPARATION PARTITION

DOUBLE-LEAF SINGLE-LEAF DOUBLE-LEAF SINGLE-LEAF

WITH AIR CAVITY

WITHOUT INSULATION WITH INSULATION

HOLLOW BRICK MASONRY

NON LOAD-BEARING
EXTERNAL INTERIOR

GROUND LEVEL HIGHER GROUND LEVEL HIGHER

FACADE GABLE SEPARATION PARTITION

DOUBLE-LEAF SINGLE-LEAF
WITH AIR CAVITY
WITHOUT INSULATION WITH INSULATION
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.6 Chapter conclusions
DECivil
. The industrialization of construction, the short deadlines of
GESTEC construction and the growing size of buildings have definitely
relegated to a second plan the development of load-bearing
masonry (in the inverse proportion of the development of
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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reinforced concrete);
. The recent publication of Eurocode 6 and its future application,
will allow a new boom of the use of structural masonry;
. In Portugal, the present situation corresponds to filling double-leaf
walls, made with ceramic brick with many horizontal holes and
mechanically weak, very frequently using insulation in the air
cavity;
. There are several research studies developed within the
Portuguese universities related with the use of structural single-
leaf walls.

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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DECivil
GESTEC
CHAPTER 2

ANOMALIES AND THEIR CAUSES


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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

ANOMALIES
DECivil
GESTEC

Subchapters:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical source)
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
2.4 Anomalies (biological source)
2.5 Chapter conclusions

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Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

2.1 Introduction
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
DECivil
The materials characteristics (design), the execution and the
GESTEC
maintenance actions are decisive factors for the good performance
of masonry during its service life, minimizing the occurrence of
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

anomalies.
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The main anomalies that occur in brick masonry are related with
cracking or water action related phenomena. It is stressed that
these two phenomena are not independent, and each of them may
cause or worsen the other.

In this chapter, the anomalies are divided in three main groups:


anomalies with a physical/mechanical, chemical and biological
source.

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
Anomalies classification:
DECivil
GESTEC Anomalies with a Anomalies with a Anomalies with a
physical/mechanical chemical source biological source
source
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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 Cracking  Anomalies due to humidity  Vegetation growth

 Crushing  Efflorescence/  Moulds/fungi


cryptoflorescence
 Disaggregation  Other biological
 Swelling agents
 Spalling
 Stains
 Erosion
 Loss of colour

 Moulds and fungi

 Disintegration of the joints

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
DECivil
Actions that may cause anomalies:
GESTEC

• Excess weight;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Foundations settlement;
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• Seismic actions;
• Temperature changes;
• Freeze/thaw cycles;
• Cryptoflorescence;
• Extreme temperatures;
• Water absorption;
• Pollution;
• UV rays.
The actions originate the causes that
lead to given consequences, the
anomalies (action - cause - effect).

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
Design and execution errors:
DECivil
GESTEC
The brick masonry performance is strongly influenced by the design
(detailing and materials characteristics) and execution (specialized
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

workmanship) quality.
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Opening of grooves

Incorrect stocking of bricks on site

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
DECivil Brick:
GESTEC
Brick is a porous material with great water absorption capacity.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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Characteristics of the ceramic Values


material

Apparent bulk density

Open porosity

Water absorption by
cold immersion
Saturation coefficient

Water absorption by
capillarity (1 min)

Humidity absorption causes the


Linear thermal expansion
masonry’s expansion (3 to 4
times greater than the expansion Expansion due to humidity
due to temperature).
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
Water absorption: 2.1 Introduction
DECivil Main agent causing
GESTEC anomalies

Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

- Rain;
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- Ground humidity;
- Condensation;
- Leakages; Water
-… action

Cracking Disaggregation

 Disaggregation in the long run;


 Reduction of the thermal insulation.

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.1 Introduction
Natural ageing:
DECivil
GESTEC Lack of maintenance associated to the long age of the buildings
worsens most of the anomalous situations, contributing decisively to
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

the materials degradation state and very often to the very collapse
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of the structure.
Various forms of manifestation:
• Water leakage;
• Materials detached from the walls;
• Areas where the masonry is exposed
(degradation of the external coatings
and/or finishes);
• Dispersed cracking in the walls;
• Degradation of the frames of the
external windows/doors;
• Corrosion of the metal elements.

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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2.2 Anomalies
(physical/mechanical source)

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil A) Cracking:
GESTEC

Cracks result from the inability of brick masonry walls to withstand


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

the bending, shear or tensile stresses due to external or internal


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causes. Cracks can be classed according to whether they refer to


load-bearing walls (with structural-related problems) or filling walls.

Detail 1

The cause of cracks is stresses


acting on the masonry sections,
Element due to external or internal
actions. Cracks have the same
Mortars weaker than the
masonry element cause, whether in load-bearing
walls or non load-bearing walls.

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
A) Cracking (cont.): source)
DECivil
GESTEC EXTERNAL CAUSES :
(external actions)
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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• Deformation of the structure;


• Action of the loads; Cracking caused by
• Imposed displacements; internal causes
• Humidity.

INTERNAL CAUSES :
(internal actions)

Cracking caused by
• Cryptoflorescence;
external causes • Freeze/thaw cycles;
• Thermal expansion;
• Oxidation of metal elements.
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
A) Cracking (cont.): source)
DECivil
GESTEC More frequent cracking in partition walls
In frame structures, CONTRACTION OF FLEXURAL DEFORMATION
THE WALL OF THE PAVEMENTS
Mostly in buildings with a
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

concrete structure, creep


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lower pavement
more deformable
and the consequent
deformation of the
structural elements may
impose high stresses to THERMAL
CHANGES
the masonry, mostly in the
windows lintels, upper pavement
more deformable
cantilevered sections and
other locations where
stresses concentrate.
FOUNDATIONS
SETTLEMENT

lower and upper


pavements with
identical
deformations

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil a) Cracking due to excessive
GESTEC
deformations of the support:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

The brick masonry walls have a relatively


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low elastic deformation capacity.

Main causes:
• Deflections of the reinforced concrete
elements, increasingly flexible with
slenderer cross-sections;
• Characteristics of the masonry (size of
the bricks, type of the joint,
characteristics of the laying mortar and
size of the spans).

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Examples of cracking:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil a) Cracking due to excessive deformations of the support:
GESTEC
Examples of cracking: Upper pavement more
deformable than the lower one
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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Lower pavement more deformable than


the upper one

Lower and upper pavements


with identical deformations
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
b) Cracking due to differential settlements:

The most damaging anomalies occur


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

when the settlements are differential,


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causing distortions that may damage


both the structural elements and the
filling walls.

It is frequent with this type of anomaly


that diagonal cracks occur starting from
the wall openings given the stresses
concentration that occurs in those areas

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
b) Cracking due to differential settlements(cont.):
GESTEC

Main causes: Cracks due to settlements


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Ground consolidation; gradually evolve.


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• Heterogeneity of the foundation soil;


• Foundations on landfills;
• Use of different types of foundations;
• Deficient design of the foundations elements, among others.

Building founded on a non consolidated Building founded on a stable


soil landfill
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
4.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC c) Cracking due to loads application:

The brick masonry wall, by itself, has a limited capacity to absorb


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

loads directly applied to them.


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Once the tensile strength of the bricks is reached, cracks start to


occur in the wall.
Solid brick wall Hollow brick wall

Aspect of the
cracks

Due to the greater strength of the solid brick, the crack tends to propagate
through the mortar going round the brick (for low stresses).
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
c) Cracking due to loads application (cont.):

Main causes:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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• Vertical loads;
• Loads binary;
• Concentrated loads;
• Eccentric loads;
• Among others.

At the design level, this aspect should


have been taken into account,
preventing the beams from loading
directly the masonry walls or excluding
details such as accessories fastened to
the walls (clotheslines).

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC c) Cracking due to loads application (cont.):
Examples of cracks due to the application of loads on the masonry:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Cracks caused by vertical loads Crack in the masonry caused by the


acting in the same direction application of an eccentric load

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2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
d) Cracking due to insufficient support of the masonry:
GESTEC

Anomaly frequent in external walls (normally double-leaf walls) due to


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

insufficient support in each floor.


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Main causes:
• External correction of thermal bridges due to the concrete structure;
• Execution of big panels of uncoated brick.

Interior

It is recommended to
support the brick in at
least 2/3 of its width,
Exterior
Plan increase the thickness
of the external leaf and
clamp it to the interior
leaf.
Section

65/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
e) Cracking due to temperatures changes:
GESTEC

Temperature changes, seasonal and daily, cause dimensional


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

changes (expansions and contractions), and may lead to masonry


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

expansion and structure movements.

Main causes:
• Physical properties of the materials (different
thermal expansion coefficients);
• Extent of the temperature changes (amplitude
and speed of the thermal phenomenon);
• Type of structure (restriction degrees);
• Lack of expansion joints.

Cracking in masonry due to


compression caused by
thermal expansion of the slab
66/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC e) Cracking due to temperatures changes (cont.):

External walls are more susceptible to this phenomenon (especially


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

those facing South and West), because there is a greater thermal


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gradient. On the other hand, of the roof is not adequately protected in


order to minimize the respective thermal-related movements, it is
relatively frequent for the last floor walls to be more affected.

Wall

Wall Wall

Cracks in the last floor walls due to expansion of the slab

67/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
B) Crushing:
Crushing is associated to situations of excessive compressive
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

stresses. It is a localized anomaly, normally associated to cracking.


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Main causes:
• Increase of concentrated
loads;
• Decrease of the wall’s
strength capacity.

Crushing and cracking of the


masonry caused by the
application of a concentrated
load
68/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
C) Bulging/deformations:
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
All grounds have elastic and plastic deformations (settlements) under
the action of loads. Bulging/warping manifests itself by lack of
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

verticality, loss of planeness or angular distortion of the surfaces. It is


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normally associated with cracking.

Main causes:
• Insufficient characteristics of the foundations;
• Incapacity of the ground to withstand the loads.
Angular distortion

Possible settlement Uniform Rotation Non-uniform


situations settlement settlement
69/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
D) Disaggregation:
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Corresponds to the loss of cohesion translated by the easy
detachment of particles even for low intensity mechanical actions.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

This anomaly occurs more explicitly in uncoated masonry walls.


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Main causes:
• Cracking evolution;
• Climatic actions (e.g. wind);
• Damping of the materials;
• Seismic actions.

Disaggregation caused by damping


of the materials
70/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

71/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
E) Spalling:
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Anomaly resulting from the
development of internal cracks in the
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

brick (interior disaggregation). It is


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more frequent in uncoated solid brick


masonry (they have no coating to
protect them).

Main causes:
• Temperature changes;
• Freeze/thaw cycles;
• Cryptoflorescence.

Spalling of bricks
72/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil F) Erosion:
GESTEC

Anomaly resulting from the wear of the


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

brick due to climatic and atmospheric


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agents that generate a transforming


action on all the materials exposed to
them.

Wear of a wall during its service life

73/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC 1 - Identify the anomalies and corresponding causes
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

74/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
DECivil
GESTEC
2 - Identify the anomalies and corresponding causes
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

75/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
source)
Cracking
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Deformation of the structure Differential settlements


(pavements)
76/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.2 Anomalies (physical/mechanical
Disaggregation Erosion source)
DECivil
GESTEC
Action of
atmospheric
agents
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
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Cracking Cryptoflorescence

Spalling

Application of loads
(loads binary)

77/105
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

source)
2.3 Anomalies (chemical
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

78/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
CONSTRUCTION WATER

DECivil A) Anomalies due to humidity:


GESTEC CONDENSATION DUE TO LACK OF
THERMAL INSULATION

The anomalies in brick masonry walls LATERAL ENTRY OF


DRIVING RAIN
CONDENSATION BY COOLING
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

due to the action of humidity are


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normally classified as a function of the INTERSTICIAL CONDENSATION

humidity’s source. CRACKING


AGGRESSIVE AGENTS
SALTS CONCENTRATION

Humidity manifests itself in diverse


ways:
• Construction humidity; FUNGI AND MOSSES

• Condensation humidity (vapour); CONDENSATION ON THE


PAVEMENT

• Precipitation humidity (rain); RUNOFF WATER

• Rising damp (ground).


ENTRY OF SOLUBLE SALTS
GROUND WATER
FROM THE GROUND

INFILTRATION FROM THE SUBSOIL

79/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil a) Construction humidity:
GESTEC

This type of humidity results from the construction of the buildings


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

and normally decreases gradually until it disappears, and


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manifests itself by stains, fungi or efflorescence, reducing the


thermal insulation.

Main causes:
• High water content used in the execution of the masonry;
• Water that reaches the materials during their execution (rain or
other random causes).

80/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
b) Condensation humidity:
It results from the water vapour that is condensed on the exposed
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

surfaces or inside the construction elements. It occurs when the


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hot and humid air from a location comes in contact with a cold
area (thermal bridge). This anomaly may be permanent or
temporary.

Main causes:
• Deficient thermal insulation;
• Low ambient temperature;
• Deficient ventilation.

Condensations
81/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
c) Precipitation humidity:
External humidity (rainwater driven by wind) that infiltrates
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

through the masonry elements, pores and eventual cracks. It


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

manifests itself at any level of the masonry, after intense rain


periods. Roof
Rain

Critical areas:
• Brick joints;
• Low section of the walls; Protected
• Various crack types; area

• Connection masonry/structure;
• Connection masonry/windows.
Roof
protection
Exposed area

82/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
d) Humidity due to random causes:
The humidity problems may be due to random causes, such as:
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

• Damage of the rainwater drainage systems;


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• Forgotten open tap;


• Nature itself (e.g. the humidity caused by climbing plants).

Clogging of the drainage


system (downspouts)
83/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
e) Ground humidity:
Rising damp is the most current type of humidity and comes from the
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

ground, due to the capillarity of the materials. It manifests itself by


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stains, efflorescence, cryptoflorescence or moulds at the bottom of


the construction (ground floor walls).

Main causes:
• Rising damp, through the foundations
and/or walls, of the water in the
ground;
• Hydrostatic pressure in basement
walls, when the groundwater level is
higher than the element level.

84/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
4.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
B) Efflorescence:
Crystalline deposit of water soluble salts (sulphates, sodium,
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

potassium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium carbonates,


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

chlorides) on the brick masonry surface. It manifests itself by


light/white coloured stains. It is anti-aesthetical, difficult to remove
and usually harmless.

It the crystallization occurs under


the surface, causing cracking,
swelling or detachments, it is
called cryptoflorescence.

Swelling of a render due to


cryptoflorescence
85/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
B) Efflorescence(cont.):
GESTEC
Formation mechanism:
• Dissolution of the salts that exist in
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

the masonry or the ground;


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

• Migration of the water, dragging the


salts to the surface;
• Evaporation of the water on the
surface crystalizing the dissolved
salts (crystallization).

86/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil C) Swelling:
GESTEC
Superficial layer non adherent to the substrate; generally it precedes
the fall of the material. The word swelling is used in particular for
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

rendered or tiled surfaces. Sometimes, the designation detachment


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

is also used for the total loss of adherence.

Main cause: chemical processes unleashed by humidity.

Swelling of a tile Swelling of a render


87/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
E) Loss of colour:
GESTEC

This anomaly manifests itself by a decrease of the reddish brick


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

colour in uncoated brick masonry, caused by exposure to the


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atmospheric agents with emphasis on the incidence of UV rays.

88/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil D) Stains:
GESTEC
Colour changes (variation of one or more parameters that define the
colour) in a circumscribed and contrasting area with the adjoining
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

ones.
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Besides efflorescence, stains may include:


• Deposits of calcium carbonate;
• Deposits of silicates;
• Stains of rust;
• Stains of pollution;
• Stains of humidity;
• Stains of microorganisms.

Rust stains

89/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
F) Disintegration of the joints:
GESTEC

This anomaly is infrequent, except in


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

highly industrialized areas. It manifests


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

itself by the disintegration of the mortars


matrix, with eventual attack of the brick,
caused by acids (e.g. sulphurous acids
attack the cementitious matrix).

Disintegration of the joints

90/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC 1 - Identify the anomalies and corresponding causes
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

91/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC
2 - Identify the anomalies and corresponding causes
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

92/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
Swelling Stains due to rising damp
DECivil
GESTEC
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Stains due to salts Stains due to infiltrations humidity

Deposits of calcium carbonate


93/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.3 Anomalies (chemical source)
DECivil
GESTEC

Efflorescence Efflorescence Stains


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Dirt deposition

94/105
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

source)
2.4 Anomalies (biological
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

95/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.4 Anomalies (biological source)
DECivil a) Vegetation growth:
GESTEC
Presence of biological manifestations such as mosses and
higher rank plants.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Main causes:
• Biophysical processes - plants
and trees feed on nutrients
that masonry contains; their
roots cause mechanical attack.

96/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.4 Anomalies (biological source)
DECivil b) Moulds/fungi:
GESTEC
Development of biological microorganisms (algae, bacteria
and lichens), that develop fertile grounds for the development
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

of fungi.
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

They lead to chemical attacks,


mostly in surfaces with porous,
humid and poorly ventilated materials.

They cause changes of colour and


aspect, moulds emergence and
release of chemical substances.

Faulty ending of a downspout that caused


the emergence of stains and moulds
97/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.4 Anomalies (biological source)
DECivil c) Other biological agents:
GESTEC

Birds (pigeons) exert a physical action on the masonry surfaces (in


Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

particular the stone surfaces), through pecking, nail marks and


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

nesting (sand grains help their digestion). The excrements of living


beings, by forming phosphoric acid and sulphur, attack the
surfaces.

98/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.4 Anomalies (biological source)
DECivil c) Other biological agents:
GESTEC

Anomalies due to the biological agents


action, in walls with timber elements.
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

It is related with the presence of


humidity (seasonal humidity, ruptures
of downspouts and roof gutters,
broken rooftiles, etc.) and corresponds
to the rotting of the timber included in
the bearing walls due to the rot fungi
(lichens, algae, roots - biological
attack) or to the attack of insects
(termites and woodworms), affecting
their mechanical strength.

99/105
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

DECivil
GESTEC

2.5 Chapter
conclusions
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES

100/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.5 Chapter conclusions
DECivil
. Most of the anomalies affect the visual aspect of masonry, its
GESTEC mechanical properties, the physical properties of materials and the
habitability conditions and the durability of buildings;
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

. When surveying anomalies, a distinction must be made between


the anomalies of bricks, laying and coating mortars (renders).

. In order to simplify the classification of the anomalies, the criterion


used was grouping according to the source of its main aggressive
agent;

. The anomalies were classified according to three distinct sources:


physical or mechanical (loads action), chemical (water action) and
biological;

101/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.5 Chapter conclusions
DECivil
GESTEC
. The relationship between the anomalies and their sources is a
complex issue, due to the diversity of sources and inter-relation
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

of the various aggressive elements;


Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

. In the following tables a causes-anomalies relationship


between the most frequent anomalies, their probable causes
and the corresponding correlation;

. The absence of maintenance and repair aggravates the


existing anomalies, leading inevitably to the emergence of
others.

102/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.5 Chapter conclusions
Summary of some anomalies and causes:
DECivil
GESTEC ANOMALY CAUSE
CRACKING DEFORMATIONS
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

EXTERNAL ACTIONS
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

INTERNAL ACTIONS

BULGING DEFORMATION
SETTLEMENTS

SWELLING STRESSES IN THE INTERFACES


CRIPTOFLORESCÊNCIAS

DETACHMENT INTERNAL CRACKS


INTERNAL CRACKS

EROSION EXTERNAL ACTIONS


CLIMATIC AGENTS

DISINTEGRATION OF THE JOINTS ACIDS


INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

103/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.5 Chapter conclusions
Summary of some anomalies and causes (cont.):
DECivil
GESTEC ANOMALY CAUSE

HUMIDITY WATER
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

SUPERIOR
LATERAL
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

INFERIOR

EFFLORESCENCE SALTS
GROUND
MORTAR
WATER

STAINS
CARBONATES DEPOSITS
SILICATES DEPOSITS
HUMIDITY STAINS
MICROORGANISMS STAINS
RUST STAINS
POLLUTION STAINS

LOSS OF COLOUR UV RAYS


UV RAYS

104/105
2. ANOMALIES AND CAUSES
2.5 Chapter conclusions
P- design TM- solid brick
C- execution TV- hollow brick
Correlation causes/anomalies: U- use
DECivil MECHANICAL
ANOMALIES NON-MECHANICAL
GESTEC

EFFLORESCENCE
DISINTEGRATION
OF THE JOINTS
DETACHMENT

BUCKLING
CRUSHING
CRACKING

SWELLING

HUMIDITY
EROSION

LOSS OF
COLOUR
STAINS
SOURCE
Construction Pathology and Rehabilitation

CAUSES
Integrated Master in Civil Engineering

Deformation of the
structure
Action of loads

Settlement
(foundations)
Water
rain + wind
Water
vapours
Water
ground
Freeze/thaw cycles

Thermal expansion
Oxidation
Soluble salts

UV rays

Pollution, etc.

Acids

105/105