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Use of the Cost Index


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Thanks!

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Quizz!

PROFIT MARGIN : 22.4 %

Use the right tools

Use them well!

PROFIT MARGIN : 12 %

PROFIT MARGIN : 2.4 %

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What’s New?

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© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
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0
1
2
3
4

0,5
1,5
2,5
3,5
4,5
Jun 1994
oct-94
US$ / gallon
Feb 1995
Jun 1995
oct-95
Feb 1996
Jun 1996
What’s New?

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.


oct-96
Feb 1997
Jun 1997
oct-97
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5%

Feb 1998 95%


Jun 1998
oct-98
Feb 1999
Jun 1999
oct-99
Feb 2000
Jun 2000
Users of Cost Index

oct-00
Feb 2001
No

Jun 2001
Yes

oct-01
Feb 2002
Jun 2002
oct-02
Feb 2003
Jun 2003
oct-03
Feb 2004
Jun 2004
oct-04
Feb 2005
Jun 2005
Jet Fuel Price

oct-05
Feb 2006
Jun 2006
oct-06
Feb 2007
Jun 2007
oct-07
Feb 2008
Jun 2008
oct-08
Feb 2009
Jun 2009
oct-09
Feb 2010
Jun 2010
oct-10
Feb 2011
Jun 2011
oct-11
Feb 2012
Jun 2012
oct-12
Feb 2013
Jun 2013
oct-13
U.S. Gulf Coast Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Spot Price FOB, US$ per gallon - Source : US energy Information Administration

Feb 2014
Flight Operations Engineering & Documentation regional seminars

Contents

Cost Index: the Basics

Operational Use

Alternative Use

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Contents

Cost Index: the Basics

Operational Use

Alternative Use

Page 7
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Costs & Profits: Dependence on Speed


Time dependent costs Fixed costs Fuel cost
Variable pay Administration Depends on
Time dependent Fixed salaries - fuel price
maintenance … - fuel flow

The faster the cheaper Independent of speed The slower* the cheaper
Page 8 * Above MMR
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Costs & Profits: Dependence on Speed


Time dependent costs Fuel cost
ECON Mach
Variable pay Depends on
Time dependent - fuel price
maintenance Optimized - fuel flow
… speed
-
Optimized
Overall Cost

The faster the cheaper The slower* the cheaper


Page 10 * Above MMR
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From Costs to ECON Mach


Cost of time 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 Cost of fuel
CI =
$ / min of flight 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇
$ / kg of fuel

FMS
Aircraft
Performance Winds, temperature,
aircraft weight, …

ECON Mach
& vertical flight profile
Page 11 FMS : Flight Management System
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. CI : Cost Index
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The Cost index is in kg/min


So it is a FUEL FLOW!!!

$�
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 𝒎𝒎𝒎 $ ×𝒌𝒌 𝒌𝒌
CI = = $� = =
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇 𝒌𝒌 $ ×𝒎𝒎𝒎 𝒎𝒎𝒎

Cost of time 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 Cost of fuel


CI =
$ / min of flight 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇
$ / kg of fuel
Page 12

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.


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The Cost index is in kg/min


So it is a FUEL FLOW!!

$�
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 𝒎𝒎𝒎 $ ×𝒌𝒌 𝒌𝒌
CI = = $� = =
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇 𝒌𝒌 $ ×𝒎𝒎𝒎 𝒎𝒎𝒎

CI = 100 kg / min 1 min 100 kg


Page 13

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The Cost Index is just a


tool to control
the
• Changing the cost index is not the
right way of selecting a speed. speed of the aircraft.

• Use selected speed!

Page 14
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There is no need to
calculate the Cost Index, it
is already provided by
Airbus in the QRH!

Page 15
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There is no need to
calculate the Cost Index, it
is already provided by
Airbus in the QRH!

Page 16
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There is no need to
calculate the Cost Index, it
is already provided by
Airbus in the QRH!

Not representative of YOUR AIRLINE!


Only enables to fly at Long Range Cruise speed.
Not the best OVERALL COST!

Page 17
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Example
Cost of time 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 Cost of fuel
CI = = 80
80 $ / min of flight 𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇
1 $ / kg of fuel

CDG

KUL

Page 19
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Example

CI = 80 kg/min

LRC ECON MACH


Trip fuel 73 621 kg 74 017 kg
Cost of fuel $ 73 621 $ 74 017
Trip time 12h 38min 12h 31min
Cost of time $ 60 640 $ 60 080
Total cost $ 134 261 $ 134 097

$ - 164
Page 20
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Contents

Cost Index: the Basics

Operational Use

Alternative Use

Page 21
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From Cost Index to Optimal Route

Cost Index

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From Cost Index to Optimal Route

Flight
profile
• ECON Mach
• Opt FL
Cost Index • Top of Climb
• Top of Descent

Page 24
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From Cost Index to Optimal Route

Optimal
route
Flight • Vertical
profile • Lateral

• ECON Mach
• Opt FL
Cost Index • Top of Climb
• Top of Descent

Page 25
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Flight Preparation
The Cost Index
defines
the Route Profile
Optimal
route
Flight • Vertical
profile • Lateral

• ECON Mach
• Opt FL
Cost Index • Top of Climb
• Top of Descent

Page 26
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Flight Preparation
The Cost Index
Most cost efficient routing defines
Optimized flight levels the Route Profile
Optimized routing(1)

High fuel planning accuracy


Improved flight crew confidence
Reduced extra fuel
Reduced fuel consumption

Page 32
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Flight Management

Page 33
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Flight Management
The Flight Planning
was based on
Optimal route for overall costs
the Cost Index Reduced/Increased speed will lead to
increased costs
Increased speed could lead to reduced fuel
reserves

If winds change compared to dispatch, adjust


OPT FL but do not change Cost Index

Minimum Fuel is not minimum cost!

Page 34
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Key messages

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Contents

Cost Index: the Basics

Operational Use

Alternative Use

Page 36
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Alternative use?
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕
Cost of time CI = Cost of fuel
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇

ATC time constraints may For some operations, fuel


Cost of delays may not be not be well taken into efficiency may be improved
part of the cost of time account in the cost index without degrading time
concept efficiency

Page 37
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Alternative use n°1 : cost index depending on flight phase

CI = 80

CI = 30 CI = 10

Page 39
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Alternative use n°1 : cost index depending on flight phase

REASONS
ATC requirements for climb/descent gradients or speeds

Reaching flight levels closer to the optimum faster/sooner

Improved fuel burn with negligible increase in flight time

RULES & CONSTRAINTS


The multiple cost index should be included in flight planning

Specific studies should be performed, taking into account operational specificities

The cost of the acceleration/deceleration should be assessed.

Page 40
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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints

LRC ECON MACH


Total cost $ 134 261 $ 134 097
Departure time 10.00
Trip time 12h 38min 12h 31min
Arrival time 22.38 22.31
Slot constraint Not before 22.35
Holding time 00.00 00.04
New Total cost $ 134 261 $ 134 723

$ + 462

Page 42
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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Modifying the cost index in Use of the RTA function
flight

Page 43
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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Modifying the cost index in
flight

HOW?
Flight planning re-computation by OCC

Successive iterations by the flight crew

RULES & CONSTRAINTS


Always check that Dest. EFOB is sufficient

Ensure that the gain is not offset by the non-optimal flight profile and speed
E.g. : cost of pax transfer per class, cost of holdings, …

Cannot be used after the top of descent


Page 44

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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Modifying the cost index in
flight

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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Use of the RTA function

Required
Time of
Arrival

Page 46
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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Use of the RTA function

RTA
22:35

CI = 62
80

10.00 22:35
22:31

Page 47
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Alternative use n°2 : dealing with time constraints


Use of the RTA function

HOW?

Enter the RTA on the MCDU

RULES & CONSTRAINTS


Always check that Destination EFOB* is sufficient

Ensure that the gain is not offset by the non-optimal flight profile and speed

Cannot be used after the top of descent

Page 48 * EFOB : Estimated Fuel On Board


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Alternative use?

The cost index should not be changed


For speed control

Because of wind changes

To get lower fuel burns, without extensive studies

The cost index can be changed…


Before departure: to cope with expected delays, constraints…

In Flight: to cope with ATC or airline time constraints


Plan with the expected Cost Index Assess the cost of the change

Page 49
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Conclusion

𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕
Cost of time CI = Cost of fuel
𝑪𝑪𝑪𝑪 𝒐𝒐 𝒇𝒇𝒇𝒇

Page 50
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Going further…
For more information

Flight Operations Community

customerservices.consulting@airbus.com

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