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SEL POWER MAX ® T ECHNICAL D ESCRIPTION

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or of any information contained herein is specifically prohibited. This legend must appear on any authorized reproduction (in whole or in part)
Table Of Revisions
Rev Datecode Notes Author
0 20150604 First issue of this document SEL Engineering Services, Inc.
1 20151023 Based on internal review SEL Engineering Services, Inc.
2 20170113 Pictures updated SEL Engineering Services, Inc.

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without written permission. SEL, Inc. products appearing in this document may be covered by U.S. and Foreign patents.
Contents
1 Executive Summary 4

2 System Architecture 5

3 Load Shedding System (LSS) 7


3.1 Load Shedding Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2 Load Shedding System Key Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Cascading Contingency Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4 Contingency Based Load Shedding System 11


4.1 Load Shedding Round Trip Time Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5 Frequency Based Load Shedding System 13

6 Progressive Overload Load Shedding System 15

7 Generation Control System (GCS) 17


7.1 Automatic Generation Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.2 Voltage Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.3 Island Mode Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.4 Auto-synchronization (A25A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

8 Human Machine Interface 24

9 Islanding Detection and Decoupling System (IDDS) 29


9.1 Direct Transfer Trip (DTT) Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.2 Local Based Detection Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.3 Wide Area Based Detection Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

10 Testing with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS®) 31


10.1 Model Creation and Studies for RTDS® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
10.2 RTDS® Model Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

11 About SEL 33
11.1 Making Electric Power Safer, More Reliable, and More Economical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.2 Innovative Research and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11.3 Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11.4 Customer Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11.5 SEL Worldwide 10-Year Warranty, Over 25-Year Service Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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List of Figures
1 Dual ring/ladder Ethernet Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Loads List HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 Calculation of the Round Trip time for SEL Load Shedding System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4 Typical Frequency based Load Shedding HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5 Progressive Overload Load Shedding algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6 Typical AGC HMI interface Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7 Typical ICS HMI interface Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8 Advance angle equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
9 Typical HMI Auto-synchronization Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
10 Typical Contingency Summary HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
11 Typical Loads Status HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
12 Typical Crosspoint HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
13 Typical PMS Diagnostic HMI Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
14 81RF Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
15 RTDS® simulator at SEL Pullman facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
16 SEL Campus in Pullman, WA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

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1 Executive Summary
SEL is pleased to provide this technical description for an SEL PowerMAX® System. All features described in this
technical document are presented for information only. Please contact SEL for any question related to the features or
scope for the project.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 4


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2 System Architecture
The SEL PowerMAX Load Shedding System is ideal for industrial customers with on-site generation and/or significant
imported (purchased) power. PowerMAX contains automated control functions specifically designed to prevent, de-
tect, and mitigate system blackouts.

By properly collecting, manipulating, and presenting power system data as usable information, the SEL PowerMAX
system enables operators, maintenance personnel, and engineering staff to diagnose system events, predict equipment
failures, and minimize unnecessary maintenance.

SEL PowerMAX is built on a fully redundant dual Ethernet network with SEL-2730M Ethernet Switches and fiber
optic communication links. This architecture is extremely robust because the loss of a single Ethernet switch or of
a communication link will not result in any loss or data, or in degraded performances. The SEL-2730M Ethernet
Switches will be connected in a dual redundant ring configuration. Rapid Spanning Tree protocol(RSTP) implemen-
tation convergence times are quicker than the competition, ensuring that failure scenarios do not result in missing or
delayed packets.

SEL strongly suggests using network architectures that are optimized for high reliability, such as a simple “ladder”
network design that minimizes network downtime due to switch or link disruptions. The picture below describes the
proposed Ethernet network architecture and the expected recovery times in the event of a fault.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 5


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Figure 1: Dual ring/ladder Ethernet Network

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 6


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3 Load Shedding System (LSS)
SEL Load Shedding System (LSS) is a set of applications written in IEC-61131 Standard for Programmable Logic Con-
trollers (PLCs). SEL LSS runs on dual modular redundant controllers with error supervision.

In System Engineering, Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) indicates a type of system configuration based on two
fully redundant components. In the case one of the components experiences a hardware failure, it detects it internally
and immediately disable itself. Traditional DMR systems detected system or software problems with output compari-
son, but did not offer any resilience due to the incapacity to determine which component had the correct output.

SEL DMR technique provides a solution to this problem with a supervising circuit that compares and replaces the
outputs of one of the components using a system quality algorithm. SEL LSS utilizes two schemes which can be used
independently or in a primary and backup configuration. The two schemes are:
• Contingency based Load Shedding Scheme (CLSS) - typically used as primary scheme because of its speed
• Underfrequency based Load Shedding Scheme (UFLSS) - typically used as backup scheme for its resilience to
system faults
Both the CLSS and UFLSS schemes dynamically select from a list the number of loads that are necessary to shed. In
both schemes, the individual plant loads are automatically selected for shedding based on operator-selectable priorities
and power system conditions.
The preparation of the list of loads to shed happens continuously on the SEL LSS Controllers. When a contingency
event occurs, or when one of the frequency based thresholds is reached, the LSS algorithm has already prepared the
list of loads to shed, so that the remedial actions can take place immediately.

3.1 Load Shedding Priorities


Regardless of the selected Load Shedding scheme, all SEL Load Shedding appliances automatically select loads for
shedding based on Operator selected priorities. The priorities are inserted through the Human Machine Interface.
While most load shedding system can assign priorities only to groups of loads, SEL solution allows to assign priorities
to each single load. This results in a much greater precision in matching the amount of power to shed. The figure
below displays a typical load shedding priorities screen from one of SEL Power Management Systems.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 7


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Figure 2: Loads List HMI Screen

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3.2 Load Shedding System Key Features
There are several key characteristics of the SEL load-shedding systems, including:

• Pre-armed load-shedding events. These arming signals are commonly loaded into a construct called a cross-point
switch matrix for ease of indexing and operator display.
• Operator selection of sheddable-load priorities.
• Operator selection of Incremental Reserve Margin (IRM) for each generator.

• Event reports that capture detailed analog and digital information from each event that occurs, with up to 1ms
accuracy and time durations of up to 30 seconds.
• Event logs that capture detailed information of the event in a printable format for quick analysis.
• SOE logs that capture all changes of state to digital signals with 1-millisecond accuracy.

• Time synchronization of all IEDs with IRIG-B satellite time-synchronization signals.


• System diagnostic logs to capture and time-stamp any equipment anomalies.
• Real-time, temperature-compensated modeling of the long-term reserve margin capabilities of generators and
turbines. This is used to provide realistic limits to any operator-entered IRM values.

• System topology tracking: This includes complete tracking of all breakers and disconnect statuses carrying power
between sources and loads. Load-shedding algorithms must know the routes of power flow between sheddable
loads and sources.

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3.3 Cascading Contingency Events
There are generally two acceptably safe methods by which to perform load-shedding on systems with multiple, con-
secutive contingency triggers. The methods that SEL uses include the following options:
Option A Allow one contingency-based load-shedding to occur, followed by a lockout (block) on the load-shedding system.
This contingency-based load-shedding method will lock out subsequent load-shedding actions.

Option B Perform multiple, fast contingency-based load-shedding without any lockout. This method is safe only when us-
ing data-freeze type logic. This system operates without any operator intervention because there are no lockouts.
When a power system event occurs, the power system requires time to return to steady-state conditions.
During these conditions, it can be dangerous to rely on power system analog data (MW, MVAR flows) for sub-
sequent firings of contingencies. Therefore, in these systems the SEL contingency-based logic processors freeze
system conditions (MW, MVAR flows) for an adjustable period after a primary contingency trigger.
Generally, this time is set for between 2 and 10 seconds, depending on the system inertia and the primary modes
(eigenvalues) of oscillation in the Customer’s power system. During the adjustable data-freeze period, the load-
shedding system continues to track system topology and adjusts for loads that were previously triggered to shed
and for subsequent generators that go offline.

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4 Contingency Based Load Shedding System
The Contingency based Load Shedding System (CLSS) provides automatic load reduction in response to several pre-
determined power system events (contingencies). The main contingencies include:

• Generator trips
• Bus couplers trips
• Utility ties trips
• Asset overloads

The calculation of the amount of power to shed is based on the power loss due to the contingency event. This
amount might be reduced by the amount of active spinning reserve or capacity available at the other power sources.
When a contingency occurs, this scheme will shed loads to make the total system load equal to the remaining available
generation capacity, thereby stabilizing system frequency.

4.1 Load Shedding Round Trip Time Calculation


A critical factor when trying to assure system stability is the operating speed of the load shedding system. SEL LSS
architecture and technology guarantee very fast load shedding operations. The table below illustrates the round trip
time calculation of SEL LSS. The calculations do not include the opening time of the circuit breaker to shed, and the
delay introduced by interposing relays that might be used to operate the trip coil of the circuit breaker.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 11


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Figure 3: Calculation of the Round Trip time for SEL Load Shedding System

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5 Frequency Based Load Shedding System
SEL frequency based load shedding scheme sheds load based on the following thresholds:
• Under-frequency thresholds

• Df/dt thresholds
SEL frequency based scheme utilizes the above frequency thresholds to initiate the load shedding remedial action,
but then it deviates from typical protective relay based under-frequency schemes. Such schemes typically relay on the
protective devices that detected the under-frequency to shed at a feeder level. This usually results in over shedding,
since many protective relays sense the under-frequency at the same time and proceed with tripping their own feeder.
SEL frequency based load shedding scheme dynamically selects from a list of user-configurable loads that are necessary
to shed and equalize the generation to load.

The time delays associated with under-frequency load shedding are set in protective relays (usually set between 0.1
and 1.5 seconds). After this initial time delay, the round trip time calculation is basically identical to the one dis-
played for the contingency based load shedding. The truly remarkable advances over traditional under-frequency load
shedding that this system provides include the following items:

• Loads are dynamically selected (only active loads are selected to shed)

• Load consumption (MW) is incorporated into the selection of load to shed


• Power system topology is tracked, guaranteeing that all loads that are shed are on the bus or island which
requires load shedding
• The incremental change in frequency (f) versus power consumption (MW) is selected by the user (∆f/∆MW).
This is a huge improvement over traditional systems. This guarantees that a correct amount of load is selected
for every under-frequency contingency. This ratio can be easily determined by a Real-Time Digital Simulator
(RTDS®) study, and is heavily based on system load make up.

The figure below displays a typical SEL frequency based load shedding HMI screen.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 13


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Figure 4: Typical Frequency based Load Shedding HMI Screen

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6 Progressive Overload Load Shedding System
The progressive overload portion of the LSS is treated as a contingency within the system, similar to a contingency
breaker being tripped. However, instead of monitoring the breaker state, this contingency will be asserted when the
progressive overload integrator value exceeds a user-settable value.

The integration starts when the power produced by a generator is above a user-settable percentage of the individ-
ual generator capacity, referred to as “excess load threshold.” It will integrate proportionally to the difference between
this user-settable threshold (percent of rated capacity) through the HMI and the present output of the unit. The
integrator will use the same proportionality to integrate backwards so that a brief power output lower than the user-
defined set point will not cause the integrator to reset immediately.

For example, for a single generator rated at 36.4 MW at 27.3°C from the factory but slightly derated because of
ambient temperature, its actual capacity might be 34.609 MW after 5 percent derating. If the user enters a value of 95
percent, then the integrator will begin integrating when this single generator exceeds 33.16 MW of load. The lowest
progressive overload setting will be coordinated with the PMS upper limit setting.

The amount of load to shed will be a set point that the user will set to trip off enough loads to return the genera-
tion to well below the integration threshold and begin the integrator counting down. The figure below depicts the
logic used within the controller.

The user-settable integrator pickup “in percent of actual MW capacity” and the user-settable threshold “in Power
(pu) • Seconds” are determined from a thermal-loading model of the GTGs. These parameters must ensure that the
system sheds load before the thermal limits of the governor cause the turbine to throttle back and suddenly drop load.
The LSS will calculate the MW to shed quantity to bring loading down to less than the user-entered integrator pickup
value. If all the units on an island are evenly loaded, the amount of load required to shed to reduce the loading to
below the integrator threshold is calculated using (2):

For a system with four identical generators, if a user sets 95 percent as the threshold of a 32 MW generator, then
the worst scenario is that there is an excess of (0.05 • 32) = 1.6 MW of load on this generator. In order to reduce
this generator to less than its pickup threshold, the system will have to lose [1.6 MW • 4 generators (worst case)]
= 6.4 MW. Rounding up, in order to be conservative, yields 7 MW of load to shed. Lastly, the Maximum Reset time
should be set longer than the system response and maximum lag times of the power measurements returning to the
LSS controller. The figure below displays a typical SEL progressive overload load shedding HMI interface.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 15


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Figure 5: Progressive Overload Load Shedding algorithm

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7 Generation Control System (GCS)
This section describes all the functionalities of SEL Generation Control System (GCS). Features in this section are il-
lustrated for information purposes, and they may or may not apply to the Customer system. They following sections
describe the GCS features that apply to the proposed system.

SEL GCS is a set of applications to control multiple generators across several electrical islands. It is capable of per-
forming the following functions:
• Active load sharing and frequency control with the SEL AGC module
• Reactive load sharing and voltage control with the SEL VCS module

• Generators mode management with the SEL ICS module


• Auto-synchronization with the SEL A25A Module
• Spinning reserve calculation with the Cabability Curve module

• Start/stop commands
The GCS runs on two SEL GCS Controllers operating in hot standby. The SEL GCS Controllers send control actions to
the generator governor and exciter through I/O modules which will be installed for each generator.

The Automatic Generation Control (AGC) module dispatches turbine governor set points for equal load sharing while
simultaneously controlling either the utility tie flow or an islanded system frequency. During grid-connected condi-
tions, the AGC controls the power flow from the generators across the buses using the utility interconnected system.
During islanded conditions, the generators are controlled to keep the frequency of all islands at nominal value.

The voltage Control System (VCS) module dispatches generator exciters for equal reactive load sharing, controls
generator terminal voltages to stay within acceptable limits, manages the utility tie line power factor, and maintains
key busbar voltages at the substations. The VCS can also control the automatic/manual and tap-up/tap-down func-
tionality of the On-Load Tap Changers (OLTCs).

The Island Control System (ICS) module controls the modes of the governors and exciters during islanded and non-
islanded modes. The ICS can also control the automatic/manual status of OLTCs. The ICS also advises the governor
and exciter controllers of the Island mode conditions. All island-mode conditions and all utility ties connections are
automatically detected by the ICS.

The PMS shall contain a universal autosynchronizing system for all bus couplers and all tie lines between plants. This
autosynchronization system measures voltage and frequency on both sides of the breaker, sends raise/lower correction
pulses to adjust the governor and exciter as necessary, and automatically closes the breaker on synchronization. This
process enables safe, secure, unattended resynchronization of independent islands. The relay shall have a configurable
angle window, breaker-close mechanism for time compensation, voltage-magnitude difference, frequency-magnitude
difference, and frequency rate-of-change and voltage rate-of-change acceptance criteria to allow automatic closing.
This relay shall send its voltage magnitude difference and frequency magnitude difference to the master generation
dispatch SEL PMS Controller; this SEL PMS Controller shall send raise and lower signals automatically to the correct
generators to reduce the slip and voltage difference across the breaker being synchronized.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 17


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Figure 6: Typical AGC HMI interface Screen

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7.1 Automatic Generation Control
SEL Automatic Generation Control (AGC) module is used to regulate the power output of the generators so as to pro-
vide load sharing. Simultaneously, the power system frequency will be regulated to nominal value, when the system
is islanded. The control mode of the generator are user-selectable between: Disabled mode, Maintained mode, and
Maintained mode plus Regulation.

Disabled Mode
The Disabled mode removes the generator from all control routines within the POWERMAX and prevents noncommis-
sioned generators from affecting the portion of the system that has already been commissioned. The AGC system does
not send any up or down controls to the generator governor. The generator will be treated by the AGC as though the
it is still in Local mode. This mode will only be available at the Engineer Access level. Only users with Engineer Access
can take a unit in or out of Disabled mode.

Maintained MW Mode
Unit output is controlled to the load set point displayed on the generator dialog box only; the AGC maintains the
generator at a constant power output. This mode can be used to maintain the units at a constant power output but
with the governors in Droop mode only. This mode is stable because in the event of a sudden load increase or decrease
on the system, this generator will still throttle up or down quickly in response to the step load change, the same as all
the other generators, based on its droop characteristic. This mode will be available at the Operator Access level. Users
with Operator Access can change a unit back and forth between Maintained MW and Maintained MW With Regulation
modes only. Maintenance MW mode will not be operational if the generator is in isochronous mode.

Maintained MW With Regulation


SEL recommends this mode be the normal operating mode for all generators. Unit output is biased towards the bias
point but is not constrained to it. Rather than attempting to maintain each generator at a specific set point, the bias
point is used to weight the relative load sharing of each generator as a percentage of generator capacity. If all gen-
erators are set with the same percentage of rated power, then all generators will be biased equally and will share
load equally. This mode will be available at the Operator Access level. Users with Operator Access can change a unit
back and forth between Maintained MW and Maintained MW With Regulation modes only. Maintenance MW With
Regulation mode will not be operational if the generator is in isochronous mode.

The AGC system shall remain operational and dynamically recalculate control set points under all system bus con-
figurations and all combinations of generators in and out of service. This module runs on an SEL GCS Controllers.

SEL solution will properly handle all contingencies (such as a loss of generation) with its adaptive algorithm. For
example, load sharing will automatically re-converge a solution within a few milliseconds after a loss of generation.
If this loss of generation is followed by a frequency excursion, the SEL algorithm will deviate from its control of the
tie-line flow to help support the frequency of the combined system. This is accomplished with the non-linear control
algorithms in the SEL AGC.

SEL PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 19


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7.2 Voltage Control System
SEL Voltage Control System (VCS) module is used to regulate the reactive power output of all the generators, UPSs, ca-
pacitors, and on-load tap changers (OLTCs) with regulators, so as to maintain power factor and/or MVAR interchange
at the utility inter-ties within predetermined limits. The control mode of the generator MVAR feedback control loops
shall be user-selectable between: Disabled mode, Maintained mode, or Maintained mode plus Regulation.

Disabled Mode The VCS system does not send any up or down controls to the generator exciter. The GTG will
be treated by the VCS as though the generator is still not in Remote mode. This mode will only be available at the
Engineer Access level. Only engineers can take a unit in or out of Disabled mode.

Maintained MVAR Mode Unit output is controlled to the MVAR set point entered on the GTG dialog box menu
only. The VCS maintains the generator at a constant MVAR output. This mode should be used primarily for tuning the
VCS during commissioning. However, this mode could be used to maintain the units at a constant MVAR output. It
will be available at the Operator Access level. Users with Operator Access can change a unit back and forth between
Maintained and Maintained MVAR With Regulation modes only.

Maintained MVAR With Regulation SEL recommends this mode be the normal operating mode for all generators.
Unit output is biased towards the MVAR bias point but is not constrained to it. Rather than attempting to maintain
each generator at a specific set point, the MVAR bias point is used to weigh the relative load sharing of each generator
as a percentage of generator capacity. If all generators are set with the same percentage of rated MVAR, then all gener-
ators will be biased equally and will share load equally. This mode will be available at the Operator Access level. Users
with Operator Access can change a unit back and forth between Maintained and Maintained MVAR With Regulation
modes only.

The VCS shall remain operational and dynamically recalculate control set points under all system bus configurations
and all combinations of generators in and out of service. This module runs on an SEL GCS Controllers.

When the utility interties are open, the VCS module automatically changes its operational configuration to regu-
late the reactive power output of generators, UPSs, capacitors, and OLTCs (with regulators) so as to maintain system
voltages of the islanded system. The VCS controls the reactive power flow through the utility transformer by adjusting
the generator exciters up and down. The main bus voltage shall simultaneously be controlled by raising and lowering
tap positions on the On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) at the utility interface. When the system is islanded, the control
shall automatically revert to bus voltage regulation while simultaneously dispatching the unit exciters to share the
MVAR load of the plant.

System voltage stability and robustness is best ensured if the exciters are run in Voltage Control mode (where the
voltage feedback signal is the generator terminals, not the main bus). SEL strongly advises against any form of trans-
former impedance (Xc) compensation; this has a poor track record in the industry because of causing voltage stability
problems between parallel running generators.

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7.3 Island Mode Control System
The SEL PMS island mode control system (ICS) shall detect breaker and/or switch openings that create islands within
the power system. For each island, the control system will alert the generator governors to the appropriate isochronous
or droop mode. The ICS then advises the AGC to change its operational configuration to regulate the active power
output of generators so as to keep the isochronous unit at the desired operating point.

For most systems, the ICS sends one generator on every island into isochronous mode, with all other units in droop
mode. The frequency is controlled by the isochronous unit, but the AGC system will control the droop units to keep
the isochronous unit at the desired bias point.

Figure 7: Typical ICS HMI interface Screen

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7.4 Auto-synchronization (A25A)
SEL auto-synchronization (A25A) module measures voltage and frequency on both sides of a breaker and sends propor-
tional correction pulses to adjust governors and exciters, as necessary, and automatically closes breakers on synchro-
nization. SEL auto-synchronization module enables safe, secure, unattended resynchronization of independent islands.
It utilizes a relay with configurable angle window, breaker-close mechanism for time compensation, voltage-magnitude
difference, frequency-magnitude difference, and frequency rate-of-change and voltage rate-of-change acceptance cri-
teria to allow automatic closing. This relay sends its voltage magnitude difference and frequency magnitude difference
to the master generation dispatch, the SEL GCS Controller. SEL GCS Controller sends raise and lower signals auto-
matically to the correct generators to reduce the slip and voltage difference across the breaker being synchronized.
Please visit SEL website and the “SEL Auto-synchronization Systems” flier for more details. The figure below shows an
example of the GCS Synchronization Screen.

SEL auto-synchronization module replaces manual breaker closing: it is more precise than manual systems, it in-
cludes advanced reporting and communications capabilities, and it does not require external switching of VT signals.
SEL auto-synchronization module features protection-class equipment and high-speed (sub-cycle) communications
over long distances. It can synchronize multiple machines across multiple locations.

Slip-Compensated Advance Angle Logic As the incoming and running buses slip past each other, a logic variable
asserts at an advanced angle based upon the slip rate and the breaker closing mechanism delay setting to cause clo-
sure to occur at zero degrees (12 o’clock on a synchroscope). The advance angle is calculated using the formula in
Equation below.

Figure 8: Advance angle equation

The picture below displays a typical HMI Auto-synchronization screen. The HMI screen duplicates the front panel
relay used for auto-synchronization. These are LEDs indications that are usually configured on the relay:

• Enabled: Illuminates when the relay is enabled.


• Freq OK to Initiate: Illuminates when the frequency is within range to initiate autosynchronization.
• Voltage OK to Initiate: Illuminates when the voltage is within range to initiate autosynchronization.

• Close Fail: Illuminates when the relay fails to perform a successful close during autosynchronization.
• Close Fail Lockout: Illuminates when the relay fails to perform a successful close during autosynchronization.
It will remain lit until reset by issuing a Target Reset.
• Comm Alarm: Illuminates when a communications alarm is detected by the relay on any upstream device.

• Breaker Open: Illuminates when the circuit breaker is open.


• Abort Sync: Does not indicate any specific conditions.

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• Initiate Sync: Flashes after being pressed or after the initiate command is sent from the HMI screen. It continues
to flash until one of the following occurs:
– A successful close operation has been performed, after which the LED will turn off.
– The maximum window for closing expires. The LED will then turn off, and the Close Fail LED will illuminate.
– The process is aborted after which the LED will turn off.
• Remote Mode: Illuminates when the Remote mode is active.
• Local Mode: Illuminates when the Local mode is active.

Figure 9: Typical HMI Auto-synchronization Screen

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8 Human Machine Interface
SEL Human Machine Interface (HMI) for the proposed PMS will be installed on an SEL Computing Plstform running
Zenon HMI Software package. The HMI will allow the Operator to perform the following activities:

• Monitor the whole electrical system


• Send controls to operate the electrical system
• Process and print alarms
• Record and process historical data...

The HMI workstation is an SEL-3355 Computers. The tough SEL-3355 Computer meets stringent IEEE C37.90 and
IEC 60255 requirements, has no moving parts or fans, operates over the range of –40° to +75°C, and has an innovative
watchdog processor to detect and alarm system problems.

The following is a summary of the SEL PMS HMI loaded on the Operator and Engineering workstations:
• Zenon HMI software and HMI applications for configuring and testing the SEL control systems. This includes
graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to administer set points and monitor the status of the AGC, system frequency
control system, automatic system islanding detection system, and the high-speed automatic load-shedding sys-
tem. This system includes a user logon system and the ability to limit rights associated with different users.

• This HMI system will visualize electrical data included in the provided I/O table. It will also process real-time
and historical alarms, real-time and historical trends, operator logs, and communications statuses.

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The figures below show examples of typical HMI screens.

Figure 10: Typical Contingency Summary HMI Screen

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Figure 11: Typical Loads Status HMI Screen

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Figure 12: Typical Crosspoint HMI Screen

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Figure 13: Typical PMS Diagnostic HMI Screen

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9 Islanding Detection and Decoupling System (IDDS)
For Industrial power systems, Islanding detection and decoupling needs are required for their standalone operational
capabilities. A complete solution for determining a power system islanding condition requires technologies such as
synchrophasors and/or microprocessor based relays. SEL IDDS solution can combine three independent schemes
working together in a coordinated fashion to reliably detect an islanding condition. It can operate under all power
import/export scenarios without sacrificing speed of detection, and it can guarantee speed and reliability for multiple
scenarios ranging from typical system operating conditions to most difficult operating conditions.

The effectiveness of the overall scheme should be functional tested, validated in a controlled test environment us-
ing a digital transient simulator such as the RTDS®.

SEL IDSS solution can support different schemes that can be programmed in protective relays. For some of these
schemes, the relays need to be capable of exchanging peer to peer synchrophasor data for high speed decision making.
(i) Direct Transfer Trip (DTT) Scheme

(ii) Local Based Detection Scheme


(iii) Wide Area Based Detection Scheme

9.1 Direct Transfer Trip (DTT) Scheme


The DTT is a communication based transfer tripping scheme used in protection systems. The DTT should be used to
detect an island condition through direct isolation of the line at the remote end via breaker status and decouple by
opening the breakers on the local end of the line.

9.2 Local Based Detection Scheme


The local based detection should include three sub schemes. These are passive detection schemes that should be
programmed in a protective relay. The three schemes are described below.

Fast Rate-of-change-of-frequency (81RF) The fast rate-of-change-of-frequency protection, 81RF, provides a faster
response compared to the frequency (81) and rate-of-change-of-frequency (81R) elements. The fast operating speed
makes the 81RF element suitable for detecting islanding conditions. The element uses a characteristic (see Figure 14)
based on frequency deviation from nominal frequency (DF = FREQ – FNOM) and rate-of-change-of-frequency (DF3C)
to detect islanding conditions. The element shall use a time window of at least three cycles to calculate the value of
DF3C. Under steady-state conditions, the operating point is close to the origin. During islanding conditions, depending
on the accelerating or decelerating of the islanded system, the operating point enters Trip Region 1 or Trip Region 2 of
the characteristic.

One State Rate-of-change-of-frequency This is the traditional rate of change of frequency element used to detect
frequency changes in power systems. The rate of change of frequency is typically used to identify the rate at which the
unbalance between load and generation is happening. This rate above a certain value can be used to indicate system
disturbances and can be used to detect and initiate a decoupling scheme.

Traditional Under/Over Frequency and Under/Over Voltage Alongside of 81RF and rate-of-change-of-frequency
protection, the IDDS schemes in microprocessor relays can be programmed with the traditional over and under fre-
quency elements and voltage elements with qualifying time delays. This way, the element that has the best chance of
picking up the disturbance is allowed to initiate the decoupling process.

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Figure 14: 81RF Characteristics

9.3 Wide Area Based Detection Scheme


The wide area based detection scheme shall be based on synchrophasors. Synchrophasors are time synchronized
phasor measurements of power system. These measurements can show the system dynamics that are not often visible
using SCADA systems. With advancements in GPS based time synchronization capabilities, IEDs connected hundreds
of miles away can exactly get a snapshot of the entire power system to the millisecond level when enabled through GPS
and synchrophasor capability. These snapshots are taken at regular intervals as defined by the IEEE C37.118 standard.
These snap shots contain valuable power system traces that can be utilized for solving various problems of today. The
wide area based schemes shall utilize communications for transferring time synchronized power system phasor data.
Wide area based detection is based on two sub schemes. These schemes can be programmed in protective relays.

Angle Difference based. This scheme shall utilize synchrophasor angles between two locations (local and remote)
to calculate the standing angle difference and shall be able to trip based on predefined thresholds. The local location
should be at the plant end of a transmission network in reference to a reliable point on the utility side.

Slip and Acceleration based. The slip and acceleration method should use Out of Step (OOST) characteristic. When
compared to the 81RF element, slip is frequency difference between the two power systems and the acceleration is the
rate of change of slip.

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10 Testing with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS®)
This section is for information only. This proposal does not include RTDS® testing. SEL has a Model Power Systems
(MPS) testing laboratory for complete testing of SEL systems. This laboratory has state-of-the-art RTDS® Technologies,
http://www.rtds.com, equipment that allows our engineers to model the dynamics of the customer’s power system with
a simulation time-step sufficiently fast to test all closed-loop controls and protection systems. Thousands of test cases
are run with the automated capability of the RTDS® equipment, allowing our customers a great amount of confidence
that all systems will react as expected under the most adverse of contingencies.
SEL can use RTDS® to build a model of the Customer power system completely interfaced to SEL POWER MAX in closed
loop configuration. The simulation can be used to correctly analyze the operating characteristics of the system and
validate the SEL POWER MAX control strategies.
SEL retains ownership of the RTDS® , this hardware is not for sale.
SEL engineers can create an RSCAD software model of the customer’s power system. RSCAD software is used to build
a dynamic RTDS model. In RSCAD, the engineer assigns portions of the model to one of the racks of RTDS equipment.
The RTDS owned by SEL is shown in Figure 15 for reference. A completed RSCAD model incorporates real-time inputs
and outputs with the control or protection system. For example, a load-shedding trip command goes directly into the
RSCAD model running on the RTDS.

10.1 Model Creation and Studies for RTDS®


To perform the dynamic testing of the customer power system, a model of the power system is created from data
provided by the customer. This model is then validated against short circuit studies, other similar power systems, and
in-field performance testing data.
Upon concluding the model validation, dynamic power system studies are performed. The dynamic studies and deliv-
erables created by SEL using the RTDS model will include the following data:

• Model development, validation


• Evaluation of the IRM of each generator
• RTDS®FAT Plan

10.2 RTDS® Model Development


SEL engineers can create an accurate power system dynamic model of the customer power system including both
mechanical and electrical subsystems such as governors, turbines, exciters, motors, adjustable speed drives (ASDs),
on-load tap changers (OLTCs), busbars, generator parameters, power system stabilizers, inertia of loads and gas turbine
generators (GTGs), non linear load mechanical characteristics, electrical component impedances, magnetic saturation
of electrical components, transient and subtransient reactance, and more. This level of modeling provides an accurate
depiction of frequency, voltage, current, turbine speed, generator rotor angles, and governor response characteristics.
The customer shall be responsible for supplying the necessary modeling information to build the RSCAD model. This
will include nameplate data and field test results.

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Figure 15: RTDS® simulator at SEL Pullman facility

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11 About SEL
11.1 Making Electric Power Safer, More Reliable, and More Economical
SEL designs, manufactures, and supports a complete line of products and services for the protection, monitoring, con-
trol, automation, and metering of electric power systems. Our solutions range from comprehensive generator and
transmission protection to distribution automation and control systems.

Figure 16: SEL Campus in Pullman, WA

In each of our four world class manufacturing centers, we maintain a close relationship between Manufacturing
and R&D, which enables us to rigorously adhere to high-quality standards, beginning with initial designs and extend-
ing through manufacturing and field support. We design and manufacture fault indicators and sensors in Lake Zurich,
Illinois, and panels and control houses in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Our other product lines are manufactured at our
corporate headquarters in Pullman, Washington, and at our facility in Lewiston, Idaho.

In addition to manufacturing, SEL provides services, education, and support for a variety of industries. Our Gov-
ernment Services Division is dedicated to the security, safety, and reliability of electric power at facilities ranging from

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ships to military bases, while our Engineering Services Division provides engineering expertise and system solutions to
customers worldwide.

SEL University offers training that helps our customers meet the technical challenges of integrating digitally based
technologies into the expanding power system infrastructure. We work daily to succeed at our mission—to make
electric power safer, more reliable, and more economical—by focusing on innovation, quality, and customer service.

11.2 Innovative Research and Development


At SEL, we are passionate about our work, knowing it contributes directly to improving the reliability of electric
power, keeping people safe, and helping customers conserve resources through efficiency, simplicity, and creativity.
The superior features and cost-saving technology we design reflects the constant two-way communication we have
with our customers.
We develop innovative products and services by focusing on the challenges our customers face. This helps us
create the best solutions for a wide range of industries and applications. Because SEL equipment becomes part of
critical—and complex—infrastructure, ranging from the electric powergrid to processing and manufacturing facilities,
we also focus on long-term reliability and quality. SEL backs these commitments with an unmatched ten-year warranty,
no-charge diagnostic and repair services, local support, and a variety of test procedures and certifications.

11.3 Quality
State-of-the-art manufacturing facilities reflect SEL’s commitment to offering customers unmatched value in products
and services. We lead in price, quality, features, innovation, delivery, and service. We practice lean manufacturing
techniques to keep costs low and to provide a better value for our customers. In the spirit of continuous improvement,
SEL designs new ways to reduce waste and make our products more reliable. To ensure superior, reliable functionality,
we test our products thoroughly and verify that they will perform for decades under demanding and harsh conditions.
SEL complies with the highest quality standards—such as IPC-A-610 Class 3 and ISO 9001:2008—and constantly
exceeds those requirements, and customer expectations, in specific ways:
• Monitoring and controlling processes to exceed the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems Standard
• Developing robust, repeatable, and scalable manufacturing processes to address design and process errors
• Ensuring that our test and calibration laboratories use the latest equipment and follow National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable standards for accuracy and maintenance
• Partnering with our suppliers for the highest possible quality and value

11.4 Customer Service


Our commitment to quality extends through a product’s installation and life as part of our customers’ critical infras-
tructure. With SEL products and solutions in more than 140 countries, we stay close to our customers, ensuring the
best possible user experience. We understand the importance of local support, which is why we have application and
integration engineers, customer service representatives, and sales managers in over 50 offices in the United States
and in more than 40 internationally. The SEL network of independent sales representatives and distributors provides
additional sales support in many regions. In an effort to help our communities and support our customers, SEL has a
standing commitment to offer a 10 percent discount on all products destined for natural disaster relief. When major
disasters occur, leaving residents without electric power, we rush deliveries and provide field support to restore power
as quickly as possible. Our outstanding customer service and support reflect who we are. SEL’s commitment to serving
our industry is consistent with our corporate responsibility and ethics. We believe strongly in our core company values,
which are not only an essential part of our working environment, but also the way we view our community, industry,
and the natural environment.

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11.5 SEL Worldwide 10-Year Warranty, Over 25-Year Service Life

SEL products are backed by our exceptional worldwide, ten-year, no-questions-asked product warranty, with excep-
tion for fault indicators, which are warrantied for five years. This warranty is the best in the industry and is proof of the
confidence we have in our product quality. We design our products for a wide operating temperature range of –40° to
+85°C (–40° to +185°F) and a service life of over 25 years. We test our products to IEEE and IEC standards with addi-
tional margins to verify that they will perform under demanding conditions for decades to come. SEL uses best-quality
components and conservative designs that apply components well within their ratings. We implement product margin
testing, exacting assembly standards, and manufacturing cleanliness. This strong commitment to quality enables us
to offer our ten-year product warranty. SEL control houses, panels, and custom enclosures are also included in this
ten-year warranty, with exception for customer-specified non-SEL products, which carry the product manufacturer’s
warranty.

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