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1. Haseeb, M., Lu, X., Bibi, A., Dyian, M., & Rabbani, W. (2011).

Causes and Effects


of Delays in Large Construction Projects of Pakistan. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian
Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(4).

Findings:

The researchers discussed the 16 important causes of delay, which are: Finance and payments,
Inaccurate time estimation, Quality of material, Delay in payments to supplier and
subcontractor, Poor site management, Old technology, Natural disasters, Unforeseen site
conditions, Shortage of material, Delays caused by subcontractors, Changes in drawings,
Improper equipment, Inaccurate cost estimation, Change orders, Organizational changes and
Regulatory changes. Then researcher discussed the 5 main effects of delay, which are: Time
overrun, Cost overrun, Abandonment, Negotiations and court cases and Disputes. The
researcher also related these effects with the causes relating to these effects.

Methodology:

The researcher developed a questionnaire in order to assess the perceptions of different parties
involved in the construction process in Pakistan’s construction sector, for the evaluation of
frequency of occurrence and importance of the identified causes. The questionnaire is divided
into three parts. In first part, the writer requested the information and background of the
respondents. In second part, the researcher asked about the most frequent and important causes
of construction delay. In third part, the author asked about the most important and frequent
effects of construction delay.
The author applied a statistical formula to find out the relative importance of different causes
of delays and effects in construction projects. The author adopted a four-point scale ranging
from 1 (not important) to 4 (very important) and then for each causes and effects. The
researcher transformed the ranged values into RIR by the formula as follows:

RIR = PR/I*TR

Where:

RIR = Relative importance ratio (ranging from 0 to 1)


PR = Percentage of respondents
I = Importance
TR = Total respondents

Recommendations:

 The financial problems should be avoided, by making the payments on time.


 The time and cost estimation of the project should be accurate.
 The material should not face the shortage situation and the materials quality should be
checked properly so that less errors and problems happen.
 The subcontractors should complete their work on time and the suppliers should supply
the materials on time.
 The site should be managed properly and there should be proper equipment for the
construction.
 The new technology and techniques should be preferred and there should be skilled
workers and labour working on the construction project.

My Recommendations:

 The research should be done on provincial basis means separate for different provinces.
 Construction site interviews and reviews should also be considered in the results.
 Physical collection of data will be more beneficial.
2. Odeh, A. M., & Battainch, H. T. (2002). Causes of construction delay: traditional
contracts. International Journal of Project Management, 20, 67-73

Findings:

The researcher analysed that delays are costly and often result in disputes and claims, impair
the feasibility for project owners, and retard the development of the construction industry. To
improve the situation, the findings of the study must be addressed by a joint effort of all
participants in the construction industry. The enforcement of liquidated damages and offering
of incentives for early completion were also strong measures suggested by the author to
improve large scale construction project situations.

Methodology:

The researcher developed a questionnaire in order to assess the perceptions of different parties
involved in the construction process in construction sector. To determine the ranking of
different causes from the point of view of contractors and consultants, the relative importance
index (I) was computed as:
I = ∑𝟓𝒊=𝟏 𝑾𝑿/ ∑𝟓𝒊=𝟏 𝑿

Where:
I= Response category index = 1,2,3,4 & 5 for not-, Slightly-, moderately-, very-, &
extremely important.
W= The weight assigned to ith response = 0,1,2,3,4 & 5 respectively.
X= Frequency of the ith response given as percentage of the total response for each
cause.
Recommendations:

On the basis of above study, the author recommendations are as follows:

 Enforcing liquidated damage clauses and offering incentives for early completions.
 Adopting a new approach to contract award procedure by giving less weight to prices
and more weight to the capabilities and past performance of contractor.
 Adopting new approaches to contracting, such as design-build and construction
management types contracts.

My Recommendations:

 Developing human resources in the construction through proper training and classifying
of craftsmen.
 Adopting new types of contracting approaches, such contracts reduce the design and
improving the design and improving the contractual relationships among all parties to
the project.
 There is an urgent need for offering training courses in scheduling, time and cost
control, information systems, and management of human resources.
3. Olusegun, A. E., & Michael, A. O. (2011). Abandonment of Construction Projects in
Nigeria: Causes and Effects. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and
Management Sciences (JETEMS), 2(2), 142-145.

Findings:

Olusegun A, E and Michael A, O (2012) proposed that to diminish the effects of project
deserting clients should endeavour a sufficient planning for the project at start and should make
enough reserve accessible in perspective of solid estimate made by the quantity surveyor
toward the start. The client should associate with capable Construction specialists; the Architect
should to without a moment's delay and at initial stage create economic outline as succeeded
by budget design by quantity surveyor who similarly controls budget from initiation and all
over the length of agreement. The customer should not really differ venture scope.

Methodology:

The researcher developed a questionnaire to obtain results from the workers, engineers,
architectures and etc. The respondent rated each factor on scale 1 – 4. The sixty-two well
completed questionnaire retrieved formed the data in which the study is based. The data were
analysed by the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.) based on the work of Lim and Alum (1995).

R.I.I. = (4n4 + 3n3 + 2n2+ n1)/4N


Where:
n4 = most important;
n3 = important;
n2 = not important;
n3 = not most important;

Recommendations:

 To drastically reduce the effects of project abandonment clients should undertake an


adequate planning for the project at inception.
 Enough fund available based on reliable estimate made by the Quantity Surveyor at the
inception.
 The client should engage services of competent construction professionals; the
Architect should at once and at inception produce economic design as dictated by cost
plan prepared by the Quantity Surveyor who also controls cost from inception
 During the execution stage the client should not necessarily vary project scope.

My Recommendations:

 Prompt payment to the contractor as dictated by Quantity Surveyors valuation and


Architect’s certificate.
 The government should also put in all efforts to reduce inflation and when there is
change in political government, previously started job should not be abandoned for their
new idea.
 Government should also make sure competent contractor that have strong financial
stand are employed to execute contract works.
4. Sambasivan, M., & Soon, Y. W. (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian
construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 25, 517-52
Findings:

The problem of delays in the construction industry is a global phenomenon and the construction
industry in Malaysia is no exception. The main purpose of this study is to identify the delay
factors and their impact (effect) on project completion. This study takes an integrated approach
and attempts to analyse the impact of specific causes on specific effects. This study identified
10 most important causes of delay from a list of 28 different causes and 6 different effects of
delay. Ten most important causes were: contractor’s improper planning, contractor ‘s poor site
management, inadequate contractor experience, inadequate client’s finance and payments for
completed work, problems with subcontractors, shortage in material, labour supply,
(equipment availability and failure, lack of communication between parties, and mistakes
during the construction stage. Six main effects of delay were: time overrun, cost overrun,
disputes, arbitration, litigation, and total abandonment. This study has also established an
empirical relationship between each cause and effect.

Methodology:

A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceptions of clients, consultants, and contractors
on the relative importance of causes and effects of delay in Malaysian construction industry.
Kometa et al. used the relative importance index method to determine the relative importance
of the various causes and effects of delays. The same method was adopted in this study within
various groups (i.e. clients, consultants or contractors). The five-point scale ranged from 1 (not
important) to 5 (extremely important) was adopted and transformed to relative importance
indices (RII) for each factor as follows:
RII =∑W/A*N
Where:
W = Weighting given to each factor by the respondents (ranging from 1 to 5)
A = The highest weight (i.e. 5 in this case)
N = Total number of respondents.
Higher the value of RII, more important was the cause or effect of delays.

Recommendations:

 While selecting the contractors, clients have to make sure that the contractors are not
selected based only on the lowest bid. The selected contractor must have sufficient
experience, technical capability, financial capability, and sufficient manpower to
execute the project.
 Clients should not interfere frequently during the execution and cause inordinate delays
in the project.
 While drawing the contract between the client and contractor, the consultant must
include items such as duration of contract, mechanism to solve disputes, mechanism to
assess the causes of delay, if there are any and risk management plans.
 Consultants should prepare and approve drawings on time.
 Contractors should not take up the job in which they do not have sufficient expertise.
 Contractors should have able site-managers for the smooth execution of work.

My Recommendations:

 Client should not interfere frequently during the execution and keep making major
changes to the requirements. This can cause inordinate delays in the project.
 Clients should have the finances in time to pay the contractors after completion of a
work. Therefore, clients should work closely with the financing bodies and institutions
to release the payment on schedule.
 Clients must make quick decisions to solve any problem that arise during the execution.
 Consultants should monitor the work closely by making inspections at appropriate
times.
 Contractors must plan their work properly and provide the entire schedule to the clients,
and
 Contractors must make sure they have a sound financial backing.
5. Sambasivan, M., & Soon, Y. W. (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian
construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 25, 517-526.

Findings:

Three case studies were conducted in order to determine the different causes of delays in
activities in construction. The research was limited to look at the frequency of delayed
activities; further research could look at impact. Here, patterns could help mangers to decide
where to intervene. The studies revealed, besides the unidentified ones, 11 different causes of
delays. Six of which were often-occurring causes: connecting work, change in work plans,
workforce, external conditions, material and construction design. The other five were seldom-
occurring causes: space, rework, equipment, unexpected conditions and safety. Statistical
analysis revealed that connecting works was the most frequent cause of delay. With a likelihood
of 95%, delay caused by problems due to connecting works would occur between per 100
scheduled activities. The findings could indicate that the making-ready process in last planner
system is misused, for instance, by including unsound activities in the weekly work plans.

Methodology:

The study was conducted as a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
An advantage of using a qualitative approach is that the study is viewed in relation to its context
(Yin 2003). By understanding the context, an underlying appreciation of the problem is gained.
Furthermore, processes are influenced by the surrounding context (Hartley 2004). In every
case, multiple observations were collected, resulting in a qualitative data collection. The
quantitative approach secures a statistical validity of the collected data. Data was collected
mainly through archives (e.g., meeting minutes) and contains summaries from LPS meetings
and actual meeting participation. An LPS meeting is in lean construction projects conducted
every Friday, where all foremen plan the following week’s activities. The outcome of this
meeting is basically the weekly work plan, but an evaluation, in terms of the PPC measure
along with observed reasons for delays, of last week’s activities is also conducted.

Recommendations:

 The findings revealed a high number of changes in work plans, with a likelihood of
95% delay caused by Changes in work plans would occur between per100 scheduled
activities.
 A changing schedule is not desirable since the schedule should be reliable and binding.
 Orders are no longer clear and simple, and changes cause confusion that can lead to
misunderstandings.

My Recommendations:

 Scope of work should remind unchanged or with minimum changes


 Financial Condition of all the parties involved in construction industry does play a vital
role in Deferral of a project.
 The communication between all the parties involved should be clear and properly
conveyed.
 Contractors must plan their work properly and provide the entire schedule to the clients.
WAQAS ANJUM

STUDENT ID S2018136006

FINAL PROJECT

Submitted to: Dr Muhammad Latif