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1. A composite magnetic of varying cross-section is shown in Fig.

1 (a) the iron portion has

the B-H characteristics of Fig. 1 (b) Given N = 100 turns, 𝓵𝟏 = 𝟒𝓵𝟐 = 𝟒𝟎𝒄𝒎, 𝑨𝟏 = 𝟐𝑨𝟐 =
𝟏𝟎 𝒄𝒎𝟐 , 𝓵𝒈 = 𝟐𝒎𝒎, 𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒌𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒇𝒍𝒖𝒙, 𝝓𝒍 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝒎𝑾𝒃. Calculate 𝜤 required to
establish an air-gap flux density of 0.6 Tesla.

Fig. 1 (a) Fig. 1 (b)

Solution:

𝐻 𝑊𝑏
ℬ𝑔 = 0.6𝑇 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐻𝑔 ; 𝜇𝑜 = 4𝜋 𝑥 10−7 ; 𝑇𝑒𝑠𝑙𝑎 (𝑇) = 2
𝑚 𝑚
0.6 𝐴𝑡
𝐻𝑔 = = 4.78 𝑥105
4𝜋 𝑥10−7 𝑚
2𝑚𝑚 𝑚
ℱ (𝑚𝑚𝑓) − 𝐴𝑡; 𝓕𝒈 = 𝐻𝑔 𝑙𝑔 = (4.78 𝑥 105 ) ( 𝑥 ) = 956 𝐴𝑡
1000 𝑚𝑚
ℬ𝑔 = ℬℓ1 = 0.6 𝑇
𝐴
From Fig. 1 (b) @ 0.6 T, 𝐻ℓ1 = 100 𝑚 , 𝑠𝑜 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑤𝑜 ℓ1
𝐴 𝑚
𝓕𝓵𝟏 = (100 ) (40 + 40)𝑐𝑚 𝑥 = 80 𝐴𝑡
𝑚 100𝑐𝑚
𝑊𝑏 𝑚
The flux in the air gap, 𝜙𝑔 = ℬ𝑔 𝐴1 = (0.6 2 ) (10𝑐𝑚2 )( )2 = 0.6 𝑚𝑊𝑏
𝑚 100𝑐𝑚
The total flux produces by the coil, 𝜙𝑐 = 𝜙𝑔 + 𝜙𝜄 = 0.6 + 0.01 = 0.61 𝑚𝑊𝑏
𝜙𝑐 0.61𝑥10−3
The flux density in the portion of ℓ2 ; ℬℓ2 = = = 1.22 𝑇
𝐴2 5𝑥10−4
𝐴
From Fig. 1 (b) @ 1.22 T, 𝐻ℓ2 = 410 𝑚; so for ℓ2
𝓕𝓵𝟐 = (410)(0.1) = 41 𝐴𝑡
So the total required mmf ℱ = ℱ𝑔 + ℱℓ1 + ℱℓ2 = 956 + 80 + 41 = 1077 𝐴𝑡

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1077
For 𝑁 = 100 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠, 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒, 𝐼 = = 𝟏𝟎. 𝟕𝟕𝑨 ans.
100

2. A system of three coils on an ideal core is shown in Fig. 2, where 𝑵𝟏 = 𝑵𝟑 = 𝟐𝑵𝟐 =

𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒏𝒔, 𝒈𝟏 = 𝟐𝒈𝟐 = 𝟐𝒈𝟑 = 𝟒𝒎𝒎, 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑨 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒎𝟐 Calculate (a) the self-
inductance of coil 𝑵𝟏 and (b) the mutual inductance between coils 𝑵𝟐 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑵𝟑 .

Fig. 2
Solution:

For an ideal core, 𝜇 = ∞

𝒎
𝓵 𝒈𝟏 𝟒𝒎𝒎 𝒙 𝟒
𝑹𝒆𝒍𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 @ 𝓡𝒈𝟏 = = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒎 =
𝝁𝟎 𝑨 𝒎𝟐 𝝁𝒐
𝝁𝒐 (𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒎𝟐 𝒙 )
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐 𝒎𝒎𝟐
4 𝑚
𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2
𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 @ ℛ𝑔2 = ℛ𝑔3 = 2 1000𝑚𝑚 =
𝑚 2 𝜇𝑜
𝜇𝑜 (1000𝑚𝑚2 𝑥 )
10002 𝑚𝑚2
𝓡𝒈𝟐 𝓡𝒈𝟑 𝟒 𝟏 𝟓
𝑆𝑜, 𝓡𝑻 = 𝓡𝒈𝟏 + ( )= + =
𝓡𝒈𝟐 + 𝓡𝒈𝟑 𝝁𝒐 𝝁𝒐 𝝁 𝒐
ℱ 500𝐼
𝜙𝑔 = = = 100𝜇𝑜 𝐼
ℛ𝑇 5
𝜇0
𝑁1 𝜙𝑔 500(100)(4𝜋 𝑥 10−7 )𝐼
𝑎) 𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑓 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑁1 = 𝐿 = = =
𝐼 𝐼
𝐿 = 62.83 𝑚𝐻 𝑎𝑛𝑠.

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𝑏) 𝑀𝑢𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑠 𝑁2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑁3 =
𝑁2 𝜙𝑔 250(100)(4𝜋 𝑥 10−7 )𝐼
𝐿= = = 31.42 𝑚𝐻 𝑎𝑛𝑠.
𝐼 𝐼

3. A toroid has a core of square cross section, 2500 𝒎𝒎𝟐 in area, and mean diameter of
250mm. The core material is of relative permeability 1000 (a) Calculate the number of
turns to be wound on the core to obtain an inductance of 1 Henry (b) If the coil thus
wound carries a 1 Amp. What are the values of H and B at the mean radius of the core?

Solution:

ℓ 𝜋𝐷 𝜋(250𝑚𝑚)
a) ℛ = 𝜇𝐴 = 𝜇 = 𝐻 𝑚 = 250,000 𝐻 −1
𝑟 𝜇0 𝐴 1000(4𝜋 𝑋10−7 ) (2500𝑚𝑚2 )( )
𝑚 1000𝑚𝑚
𝑁𝐼 𝑁𝜙 𝑁2𝐼
𝜙= ; 𝐿= ; 𝑠𝑜, 𝐿𝐼 = ; ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒, 𝑁 = √𝐿ℛ
ℛ 𝐼 ℛ
𝑁 = √(1)(250,000) = 500 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠. 𝑎𝑛𝑠.
𝜙 𝑁𝐼 500(1)
b) ℬ = = 𝐴ℛ = 𝑚2
= 0.8 𝑇 𝑎𝑛𝑠.
𝐴 2500𝑚𝑚2 (250,000 𝐻 −1 )( )
10002 𝑚𝑚2
ℬ 0.8 𝐴𝑡
ℬ = 𝜇𝐻; 𝐻 = = −7
= 636.62 𝑎𝑛𝑠.
𝜇𝑟 𝜇0 (1000)(4𝜋𝑥10 ) 𝑚

4. The magnetic circuit of Fig. 3 is made of sheet steel having B-H characteristics shown in
Fig. 4 (b). Calculate the mmf of the coil to establish a 1-Tesla flux density in the air gap.

Fig. 3

Solution:

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𝐴𝑡 𝐴𝑡 𝑚
From Fig 4(b) @ ℬ = 1𝑇, 𝐻 = 200 𝑚 ; 𝓕𝓵𝟏 = (200 𝑚 ) (25 + 25)𝑐𝑚 𝑥 100𝑐𝑚 = 100 𝐴𝑡
𝑤𝑏
1 𝐴𝑡
ℬ = ℬ𝑔 = 1 𝑇 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐻𝑔 ; 𝐻𝑔 = 𝑚2 = 795,774.72
𝐻 𝑚
4𝜋 𝑥10−7 𝑚
𝐴𝑡 1𝑚
𝓕𝒈 = 𝐻𝑔 ℓ𝑔 = (795,774.72 𝑚 ) (1𝑚𝑚) (1000𝑚𝑚) =795.77 At
𝜙𝑔 𝑤𝑏 𝑚2
ℬ𝑔 = ; 𝜙𝑔 = (1 2 ) (25𝑐𝑚2 𝑥 ) = 2.5 𝑚𝑊𝑏
𝐴𝑔 𝑚 1002 𝑐𝑚2
𝜙𝑔 2.5 𝑥 10−3 𝐴𝑡
So, ℬℓ2 = = 1 = 0.25 𝑇 @ 0.25𝑇, 𝐹𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑖𝑔. 4(𝑏)𝐻ℓ2 = 60 𝑚
𝐴2 100𝑐𝑚2 𝑋
1002 𝑐𝑚2
𝐴𝑡 𝑚
𝓕𝓵𝟐 = (60 ) (10𝑐𝑚 𝑥 ) = 6 𝐴𝑡
𝑚 100𝑐𝑚
Therefore, the total mmf will be ℱ𝑇 = 100 + 795.77 + 6 = 901.77 𝐴𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑠.

5. A magnetic circuit made of a 5-cm stack of laminations is of the form shown in Fig. 4(a)
The material is steel sheet, having the B-H characteristics of Fig. 4 (b) for a core flux
density of 1 Tesla and a current of 2 Amp in the 500-turn coil. Determine the current in
the 1000-turn coil.

Solution:

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𝐴𝑡
From Fig. 4 (b) @ ℬ = 1𝑇, 𝐻 = 200 𝑚 ; so
𝐴𝑡 𝑚
ℱ = 𝐻ℓ = 200 (4 𝑥 25)𝑐𝑚 𝑥 = 200 𝐴𝑡 = 𝑁1 𝑖1 + 𝑁2 𝑖2
𝑚 100𝑐𝑚

200 = 500(2) + 1000𝑖2

200 − 1000
𝑖2 = = −0.8 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑠.,
1000
(−) 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑖𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

200 = 500(−2) + 1000𝑖2

200 + 1000
𝑖2 = = 1.2 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑠.,
1000
(+) 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

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