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VOCATIONAL TRAINING

KHARAGPUR RAILWAY WORKSHOP


(2018-2019)

REPORT ON POWER PACK OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE

SUBMITTED BY:

ARNAB ROYCHOWDHURY

B.TECH | MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | 3RD YEAR

MAKAUT ROLL NO : 25500715017

DR SUDHIR CHANDRA SUR DEGREE ENGINEERING


COLLEGE ( JIS)
DURATION: 13.06.2018 TO 03.07.2018
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Any accomplishment requires effort of many people and


this word is no different.This satisfaction drives
accomplishment would be with acknowledging the effort
of person behind it.
I express my gratitude to following person for allowing us
to carry the project in the KHARAGPUR WORKSHOP:-
→Mr. B. PRABHAKAR (Principal of S.T.C)
→Mr. A.K. NAG (ADME)
→MR. N.C.Khamurai (C.I.,B.T.C.)
I am grateful to sri. D.K.Sahoo, B.T.C for providing me
motivation & guidance during the entire training. His
valuable suggestions and comments have made it possible
to me to complete this report.
I am also thankful, for giving us the opportunity for the
vocational Training in DISEL POH Shop Under S.E.Railway,
KHARAGPUR.
Lastly i would like to thank our co-instructors. Without their
help it would have been difficult to complete my training.

THANK YOU
CONTENTs
Introduction to Indian Railway
Railway zone
Railway production unit
Indian Railway at a Glance
South Eastern Railway
Kharagpur Railway Workshop
Workshop Shop Details
Safety
Introduction to Engine
Working principle of Diesel Engine
Indian Locomotive(WDM2)
Specification of Diesel Locomotive
Working Principle of Diesel Locomotive(WDM3A)
Power pack of Diesel Locomotive
Main system of Power Pack
Main parts and accessories of Power Pack
Conclusion
INDIAN RAILWAYs
INTRODUCTION
Indian Railways(IR) is a state-owned railway company, responsible
for rail transport in India. It is owned and operated by the
Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is one of
the largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km(71,000 mi) of
tracks over a route of 67,312 km and 7,112 stations. In 2015-16, IR
carried 8.101 billion passengers annually or more than 22 million
passengers a day and 1.107 billion tons of freight in the year. In
2014-2015 Indian Railways had a revenues of Rs.1.709 trillion(US$25
billion) which consists of Rs.1.118 trillion from freight and Rs.451.26
billion from passengers tickets.

Indian Railways is the world’s seventh largest commercial or utility


employer, by number of employees, with over 1.376 million
employees. IR’s rolling stock comprises of over 245,267 Freight
wagons, 66,392 Passenger coaches and 10,499 Locomotives. IR
operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-
gauge network of board, metre and narrow gauges.
RAILWAY ZONEs
SL.NO. NAME ABR. DATE OF ROUTE HEAD DIVISIONS
ESTABLISHMENT (KM) QUARTERS
1 CENTRAL CR 05/11/1951 3905 MUMBAI MUMBAI, BHUSAWAL,
PUNE, SOLAPUR,
NAGPUR
2 EAST- EC 01/10/2002 3628 HAJIPUR DONAPUR, DHANBAD,
CENTRAL MUGHALSARAI,
SAMASTIPUR, SONAPUR
3 EAST- ECoR 01/04/2003 2677 BHUBANESWAR Khurda Rd, Sambalpur,
COAST Vizag

4 EASTERN ER April, 1952 2414 KOLKATA Howrah, sealdah, Malda,


Asansol

5 North NCR 01/04/2003 3151 ALLAHABAD Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi


CENTRAL

6 NORTH NER 1952 3667 GORAKHPUR Izza6tnagar, Lucknow,


EASTERN Varanasi

7 NORTH NWR 01/10/2002 5459 JAIPUR Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner,


WESTERN Jodhpur

8 NORTH NFR 15/01/1958 3907 GUWAHATI Alipur Duar, Katihar,


EAST Rangia, Lumbing,
FRONTIER Tinsukia
9 NORTHER NR 1952 6968 DELHI Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur,
N Lucknow, Moradabad

10 SOUTH SCR 02/10/1996 5803 SECUNDRABAD Vigayawada, Hyderabad,


CENTRAL Juntakal,
Guntur,Nandeed,
Secunderabad
11 SOUTH SECR 01/04/2003 2447 BILASPUR Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur
EAST
CENTRAL
12 SOUTH SER 1955 2613 KOLKATA Adra, Chakradharpur,
EASTERN Kharagpur, Ranchi

13 SOUTH SWR 01/04/2003 3177 HUBLI Hubli,


WESTERN Bangalore, Mysore

14 SOUHERN SR 14/04/1951 5098 CHENNAI Chennai, Trichy,


Madurai, Selem,
Palakad, Trivandrum
15 WEST WCR 01/04/2003 2696 JABALPUR Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota
CENTRAL

16 WESTERN WR 5/11/1951 6182 MUMBAI Central, Ratlam,


Ahmedabad, Rajkot

17 METRO MR KOLKATA KOLKATA


RAILWAY
PRODUCTION UNITs
Indian Railways Manufactures much of its rolling stocks and heavy
Engineering components at its six manufacturing plants, called
production units, which are managed directly by the ministry.
Popular rolling stocks such as CLW & DLW for electric & Diesel
locomotives; ICF and RCF for passenger coaches are production
units of Indian Railways. Over the years, Indian Railways has not
only achieved self-sufficiency in production of rolling stock in the
country but also exported rolling stock to other countries. Each of
these production unit is headed by a general manager, who also
reports directly to the Railway Board.

THE PRODUCTION UNITs ARE:-


NAME ABBR. YEAR ESTD. LOCATION MAIN
PRODUCTS
GOLDEN ROCK LOCOMOTIVE GOC 1928 TRICHY Diesel-electric
WORKSHOP locomotives

CHITTARANJAN CLW 1947 CITTARANJAN, ELECTRIC


LOCOMOTIVE WORKSHOP ASANSOL LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE DLW 1961 VARANASI DIESEL


WORKS LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL-LOCO MODERNIZATION DMW 1981 PATIALA DIESEL-ELECTRIC


WORKS LOCOMOTIVES

INTEGRAL COACH FACTORY ICF 1952 CHENNAI PASSANGER


COACHES

RAIL COACH FACTORY RCF 1986 KAPURTHALA PASSANGER


COACHES

RAIL WHEEL FACTORY RWF 1984 BANGALORE RAILWAY


WHEELS & AXLES

RAIL WHEEL FACTORY RWF 2012 CHHAPRA RAILWAY


WHEELS

RAIL COACH FACTORY RCF 2012 RAEBARELI PASSENGER


COACHES
INDIAN RAILWAY AT A GLANCE
TYPE- Ministry(Govt. Department)
INDUSTRY- Railways
FOUNDED- 16th April, 1853
HEADQUARTER- New Delhi, India.
AREA SERVED- INDIA
SERVICES- Passenger, Freight, Parcel, Catering & Tourism,
Parking-lot operation and other related service.
OWNER- Govt. of India(100%)
EMPLOYEES- 1.376 million
PARENT- Ministry of Railways
ZONES- 17 zones
DIVISIONS- 68 divisions
REPORTING MARK- IR
LOCATION- INDIA

DATES OF OPERATION- 16th April, 1853 to present


TRACK GAUGE- 1676mm; 1000mm; 762mm; 610mm
ELECTRIFICATION- 23,541 Kms
Length- 65,000 Km
sOUTH EAsTERN RAILWAY
The South Eastern Railway (SER) is one of the 17 railway
zones in India and Part of Eastern Railways. It is
headquartered at Garden Reach, Kolkata, West Bengal. It
comprises of four divisions:
1. ADRA Railway Division
2. CHAKRADHARPUR Railway Division
3. KHARAGPUR Railway Division
4. RANCHI Railway Division
On 1 August 1955, the erstwhile Bengal Nagpur Railway portion was
separated and a new zone, the South Eastern Railway, came into
existence In July 1967, the South Eastern Railway took over the
Bankura Domodar River line.
Till April 2003, the South Eastern Railway comprised eight divisions:
Kharagpur, Adra, Sambalpur, Khurda Road, Visakhapatnam,
Chakradharpur, Bilaspur and Nagpur. In April 2003 two new zones
were carved out from the SER. On 1 April 2003 the East Coast
Railway(E.Co.R) comprising South Eastern Railway’s Sambalpur,
khurda road, and Vishakhapatnam divisions was dedicated to the
nation; on 5 April 2003 the South East Central Railway (S.E.C.R)
comprising South Eastern Railway's Nagpur and Bilaspur divisions
and a new Raipur division was dedicated to the nation. On 13 April
2003 the SER reorganized Adra and Chakradharpur divisions to form
the new Ranchi division.The South Eastern Railway has electric
multiple unit sheds in Tikiapara and Panskura. Electric locomotive
sheds are in Santragachi, Tatanagar, Bokaro Steel City and
Bondamunda. Diesel locomotive sheds are located in Kharagpur,
Bokaro Steel City, and Bondamunda. The coach maintenance yard is
in Santragachi. The South Eastern Railway has a major workshop
located in Kharagpur.
ADMINIsTRATION
The South Eastern Railway caters to the state of West Bengal,
Jharkhand, Odisha. S.E.R also runs regular electric multiple
units(E.M.U). Services to areas adjacent to Kolkata from Howrah,
Amta, Mednipur, Tatanagar, Balasore, Rourkella and Santragachi to
Shalimar. It also handles major freight traffic from Kolkata to Haldia.

KHARAGPUR RAILWAY WORKsHOP

Kharagpur Railway Workshop was established in 1898 as a small railway


workshop of Bengal Nagpur Railway. Kharagpur workshop has evolved and
grown over the years to become one of the largest maintenance workshop of
the Indian Railways. It carries out periodic overhaul of all vehicles B.G.Rolling
stock viz, Diesel locomotives, electric locomotives, coaches all type of wagons,
electric multiple units (EMUs) and a steam and Diesel cranes. Diesel POH has
the facilities for re-winding of traction machines, including coil manufacturing.
The supervisors training centre attached to this workshop have been provided
with simulator for training of diesel locomotive drivers.
QUALITY POLICY
To exceed the quality and delivery requirements of the
customers with respect to overhauling of coaches including EMU
motor and coaches, wagons, diesel and electric locomotives and
their accessories and to continually improve management
system.

QUALITY OBJECTIVEs
→ To ensure customer satisfaction as reflected through improvement in post-overhaul
reliability.

→ Reduce finished material rejection by continual development of equipment, inspection,


process control and competence among all staff and employees.

→ Continual development of product as per customer predicted need and delight to


customer through innovations.

→ To achieve quality targets established for each unit of Kharagpur workshop.

WORKsHOP AT A GLANCE
1 Gazetted employee 49

2 Non-gazetted employee(including wagon shop) 8900

3 Area of Workshop 150.73 Acres

4 Total covered workshop area 2.8 lakh sq. m

5 Total rail track length within workshop 91.63 km

6 Total road length inside workshop 22 km

7 Average Requirement of Electric Power 4.71 MWH per month

8 Availability of standby power 3 DG Sets of 1750 KW each

9 Water Consumption 4.2 Lakhs Gallons per day

10 Total staff provided with housing 4810

11 Budget Rs. 591.63 crores(Debit)


Rs. 584.68 crores(Credit)
DIFFERENT sHOPs IN KHARAGPUR RAILWAY WORKsHOP
SHOP SHOP NAME SHOP SHOP NAME
NO. NO.
1 CLOSED 25 BODY SHOP
2 CLOSED 26 ROOF LIFTING
3 WHITE METAL SECTION 27 LIFTING SHOP
4 SCHEDULE SECTION 28 LIFTING SHOP
5 SMITTING SHOP 29 CARRIAGE SMITH SHOP
6 WELDING SHOP 30 AIR BRAKE SHOP
7 MACHINE SHOP 31 PAINT SHOP
8 TOOL ROOM 32 TRIMMING SHOP
9 BRUSH SHOP 33 CORROSION REPAIR SHOP
10 MILL WRIGHT SHOP 34 CLOSED
11 FITTING SHOP 36-48 WAGON SHOP
12 ERS-POH 49 CLOSED
13 HEAR-TREATMENT SHOP 50 POWER HOUSE
14 PLATE SHOP 51 TRAIN LIGHTING SHOP
15 CLOSED 52 ELECTRIC MAINTENANCE
SHOP
16 MOTOR TRANSPORT 53 HEAVY REPAIR SHOP, CETL, EMU,
MOTOR COACH
17 CLOSED 54 PAINT SHOP
18 BTC 55 AIR-CONDITIONING
MAINTENANCE
19 WHEEL SHOP 56 EMU SHOP
20 PRODUCTION CONTROL
SHOP
21 DIESEL SHOP
22 CLOSED
23 SAW MILL SHOP
24 CARRIAGE WINDOW SHOP
sAFETY
PERsONAL sAFETY:
→ Watchful eyes for impending danger.

→ Easy fitting garments should be avoided.


→ Slipping footwear should be avoided.
→ Do not wear tie, wrist watch and finger rings.

WORKsHOP sAFETY:
→ Floor should be kept clean.
→ Their should not be any passenger under or over the line shaft.
→ Must place guard at proper place.
→ Sufficient place is required around the machine and working area.

GENERAL sAFETY:
→ Do not stand at opposite to chipping, hammering and grinding person.

→ Never disturb the worker’s attention.


→ Never use tool in improper condition.
→ Do not leave the machine in running condition.
→ Switch OFF the machine when it is not in running condition.
INDTRODUCTION TO ENGINE

ENGINE-
An engine is a mechanical device, which converts thermal
energy into mechanical energy or power to produce force
and motion.

TYPEs OF ENGINEs-
1. External Combustion engine.
2. Internal combustion Engine.

◊ EXTERNAL COMBUsTION ENGINE:


In this type of engine the burning of fuel takes place outside of the cylinder
Example: Steam Engine.

◊ INTERNAL COMBUsTION ENGINE:


In this type of engine the burning of fuel and use of energy takes
place inside the cylinder at one place only. Example: Diesel Engine.

TYPEs OF INTERNAL COMBUsTION ENGINE-


▪ Spark Ignition (S.I) engine.

▪ Compression Ignition (C.I) engine.


DIEsEL ENGINE

The Diesel engine (also known as compression ignition engine)is an


internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has
been injected into the combustion chamber is caused by high
temperature which a gas achieve (i.e. air) when greatly compressed
(adiabatic compression). Diesel engine works by compressing only
the air. This increases the air the air temperature inside the cylinder
to such a high degree that it ignites atomized fuel that is injected
into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition
engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas
engine(using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which uses spark
plug to ignite an air fuel mixture. In compression ignition engines,
glow plugs may be used to aid starting in cold weather or when the
engines uses a lower compression-ratio, or both. The original
compression-ignition engine operates on the “constant pressure”
cycle of gradual combustion and produce no audible knock.
DIEsEL ENGINE WORKING PRINCIPLE
1. SUCTION STROKE: With pistons moving
downwards and opening of the inlet valve creates
suction of clean air into the cylinder.

1. COMPRESSION STROKE: With closing of inlet


valve the area above the piston gets closed. The
piston move up resulting in compression the air in a
confined space under higher compression ratio.

COMBUSTION PROCESS: At this stage the


injector sprays the diesel into the combustion
chamber. The rise in temperature of the air caused by
its compression; results in instantaneous burning of
diesel with an explosion. This cause heat to release
resulting in generation of expanding forces known as
power.

1. POWER STROKE: These forces again push piston


downwards resulting in their reciprocating motion.

4. EXHAUST STROKE: On their way up, the piston


push the exhaust gases above them through the
exhaust valves which opens during exhaust stroke.
TYPE OF DIEsEL LOCOMOTIVE
In Indian Railways type of engines are used -
1. WDM2 4.WDG3A
2. WDS6 5.WDP4
3. WDM3A 6.WDP4B

INDIAN LOCOMOTIVE CLAss WDM2


INDIAN LOCOMOTIVE CLASS WDM2 – The class WDM2 is Indian
railways workhorse diesel locomotive. The first units were imported
fully built from the American locomotive company (Alco)in
1962.Since 1964, it has been manufactured for broad gauge(W),
diesel(D), mixed traffic(M) engine. The WDM2 is the most common
diesel locomotive of Indian Railways.

The WDM-2A is a variant of the original WDM-2. The units have been
retrofitted with air brakes, in addition to the original vacuum brakes.
The WDM-2B is a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as
original equipment. The WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120
km/h(75 mph),restricted to 100 km/h(62 mph) when run long forward-
the gear ratio is 65:18.
sPECIFICATIONs OF DIEsEL LOCOs

Sl Specification WDM2 WDM3A WDG3A


no.
1 Types of Bogie Co-co Co-co Co-co
2 No of engine cylinder 16 16 16
3 Horse Power Generated 2600 3100 3100
4 Cylinder Bore 228.6mm 228.6mm 228.6mm
5 Fuel Oil Tank Capacity 5000ltr 5000ltr 6000ltr
6 Lube Oil Tank Capacity 910ltr 1150ltr 1450ltr
7 Cooling Water Capacity 1210ltr 1280ltr 1280ltr
8 Expresser oil capacity 22.8ltr - 21ltr
9 Governor oil capacity in wood 1.75ltr 1.75ltr 1.75ltr
word type
10 Governor oil capacity in electro 3.8ltr 3.8ltr 3.8ltr
hydraulic type
11 Gear case cardium compound 2.25kg - 5kg
12 Sand capacity(4 boxes) 14cu ft 4 cu m
13 Length 17120mm 17120mm 19150mm
14 Width 3016mm 3016mm 3016mm
15 Height 4185mm 4162mm 4162mm
16 Weight 112.8t 112.8t 123t
17 Axle Load 18.8t 18.8t 20.5t
18 Break Cylinders 8 8 8
19 Wheel Diameter 1092mm - -
20 Gear Ratio 18:65 18:65 18:74
21 Max permissible speed of loco 121kmph 121kmph 100kmph
22 i) engine speed-idle 400rpm 400rpm 400rpm
ii) engine speed-over 1000rpm 1050rpm 1050rpm
iii) engine speed-over 1100-1150rpm 1170-1200rpm 1170-1200rpm
23 Ideal speed fuel oil consumption 25ltr - -
24 No. of traction motors 6 6 6
25 Traction motor cable connection 24 24 24
26 No. of air ducts 6 6 6
27 No. of suspension bearings 12 12 12
28 Gear cases 6 6 6
29 Battery (8.8v each, total 70.4volt) 8 8 8
30 Horse power input to traction 2400 2750 2750
motor
31 Services Mixed Mixed

32 Lube oil for consumption 360ltr 600ltr

33 Suspension bearing oil capacity 6.5ltr 8ltr 8ltr

34 Traction motor arrangement LLR/LRR LLR/LRR LLR/LRR

35 Transitions 3 1 1

36 Bogie cast Cast Fabricated

37 Cranking done by T/Gen. working Exciter & Aux. Exciter & Aux.
gas Gen Gen
38 Electric transmission type Dc/dc Ac/dc Ac/dc
39 Generator through Traction Alternator & Alternator &
generator rectifier rectifier
40 Tractive effort (max) 28050 kg 28050 kg 37884 kg
41 Brake system 28 LAVI & IRAB IRAB
IRAB
42 Booster air fresher 1.05- 1.26 1.82-2.2 1.82-2.2
KG/CM CM KG/CM CM KG/CMCM
43 Expansion tank capacity (each 155 ltr - -
tank)
44 Fuel oil consumption during 12 ltr 12 12
starting
45 Fuel oil consumption full load on 7.5
8th notch
46 Turbo supercharger speed 18000-26000
47 Crank case exhauster motor 1720 rpm
speed
48 Aux. and exciter alternator speed 2386 rpm
49 Water circulating speed pump 1725 rpm
50 Lube oil pump speed 1180 rpm
51 Grid motor blower speed 954-3600 rpm
52 T/M armature speed 2248 rpm
53 Radiator fan full speed 1200 rpm
54 Cylinder stroke length 226.7 mm 266.7 mm 266.7 mm
WORKING OF DIEsEL LOCOMOTIVE

Most of the diesel locomotives (including WDM-2) are actually


Diesel electric Locomotives. An internal combustion diesel engine
rotates an electric generator first, producing electric current. The
electricity thus produced by the generator is fed to different electric
motors, placed near to local axles. This motor output is connected
mechanically to the wheels through suitable gear system.
POWER PACK OF DIEsEL LOCOMOTIVEs

This is the main power source for the locomotive. It comprises a


large cylinder block, with the cylinder arranged in V-shaped
arrangement. The engine rotates the crank shaft at up to 1000 rpm
and this drives the various items needed to generate power for the
locomotive. As the transmission is electric, the engine is used as the
power source for the electricity generator or alternator, as it is called
nowadays.
CROss-sECTIONAL VIEW OF POWER PACK

MAIN sYsTEM OF POWER PACK

1. FUEL OIL SYSTEM


2. LUBE OIL SYSTEM
3. WATER COOLING SYSTEM
4. ENGINE AIR SYSTEM
FUEL OIL sYsTEM

1.Fuel oil is stored in oil tank or reservoir of capacity


5000 litre.
2.When the fuel oil is sucked it first passes through
the primary filter.
3.The fuel oil passes through the relief valve where the
pressure is 8-10 kg/sq cm.
4.Then the fuel oil passes through the secondary filter.

5.Fuel oil then passes through the regulating valve, whose


function is to regulate the pressure. There the pressure
remains 4.5 – 6.5 kg/sq cm.
6.After that the fuel oil gases to the right side main header
and by the cross over pipe to the left side main header.
From the main header through the banzo bolt the fuel goes
to the FIP (fuel injection pump).
7.The fuel oil then enters the fuel oil injection pump
where 3600 psi pressure is created.
8.The pressurized oil through the high pressure line goes
to the fuel injection nozzle. At the end of the compression
stroke the pressurized oil is sprayed inside the cylinder.
LUBE OIL sYsTEM
1. The lube oil is stored in the lube oil sump whose
capacity is 910 litre and in the modified system the sum
capacity has been increased up to 1100 lt.
2. The lube oil at first is sucked to the pump through the
slotted pipe which remains immersed in the lube oil of
the pump.

3. In between the suction pipe and lube oil there is a


relief valve where pressure is maintained up to 10
kg/sq cm.
4. At the delivery end of the pump there is a
regulating valve where pressure is maintained at
6-8 kg/sqcm.
5. Then goes to the lube oil filter and the lube oil cooler.
6. The lube oil then goes then goes to the junction box. From the
junction
box the lube oil is distributed in 3 pipes.
a) First
Pipe > ‘s’ pipe > main bearing of crank shaft > the oil
passes through a hole of big end bearings > through rifle
hole of connecting rod to small end bearing > then it
enters the piston head > cooling is done > comes back to
the sump through the cylinder liner.
b) Second pipe > to lube oil main header > one pipe
lubricates the rocker arm assembly at the cylinder head >
that oil comes to push rod> cam lobe > sump.
c) Third pipe > TSC inlet lubricating pipe > outlet pipe to sump.
WATER COOLING sYsTEM
1. Water is stored in the expansion tank. There are two
water tanks connected by a connecting pipe.
2. Through a pipe > gear type pump > split gear connected with
it > water pump(discharge pressure 2.5 kg/sq cm).
3. First pipe from pump > Engine block right and left side >
cools body of cylinder or liner > return through a pipe.
1. 2nd pipe from sump > TSC > then goes to radiator > water is
cooled > then again goes to pump.

AIR INTAKE sYsTEM


1. The atmospheric air enters the TSC after passing through the car body
filter and air maze oil bath filter.
2. The dust free air then moves to the TSC inlet chamber then through
after cooler the pressurized air goes to air channel of the engine block.
1. From the air channel the pressurized and filtered air goes to the cylinder
head through the inlet elbows.
2. The inlet air be compressed at a ratio of 1:13 in the cylinder which
creates sufficient temperature to ignite the injected fuel.
3. At the end of compression stroke firing occurs.
4. Then piston moves from TDC to BDC due to pressure of the burned gas.
5. Due to inertia piston again moves from BDC to TDC the exhaust gases is
expelled from the cylinder through the opened exhaust valve.
6. This exhaust gas goes to the atmosphere through TSC.
7. At the extreme end of the exhaust stroke for a moment both the inlet
and exhaust valves remains open which helps to push out the complete
burned gas from the cylinder by the inlet air. This is called scavenging.
MAIN PARTs AND ACCEssORIEs OF POWERPACK
ENGINE BLOCK: Engine Block is the main body frame of the engine. It
holds the engine components. It is attached with the sump of the engine.

→TEsT ON ENGINE BLOCK IN POH sHOP:


1. DP test for checking surface crack.
2. Saddle bore dia test.
3. Cam bore test.
4. Alignment checking of cylinder head stud.
5. Alignment test (8 bore mandrel).

LUBE OIL sUMP: Lube oil sump is the lube oil reservoir of
engine. Its capacity is either 910 litre, in modified system it is
1100 litre.
→TEsTs RUN IN DIEsEL POH:
1. DP Test
2. Hydraulic test of main header
CRANK sHAFT: Main Crank shaft have 9 bearings. It has 8 crank pins
at different angles. Connecting Rod are coupled to main crank shaft.
At power of crank shaft a split gear is provided to rotate cam shaft
gears. On free end side extension shaft is provided for expresser
and also one gear to drive lube oil and water pump. For smooth
rotation of main crank shaft a flywheel is provided in the power end
and a vibration damper in the free end is also provided.

→TEsTs ON CRANK sHAFT IN POH:


1. Run out checking
2. DP test on crank pin area for surface crack.
3. Alignment test.

CAM sHAFT: In internal combustion engines with pistons, the


camshaft is used to operate the poppet valves. It then consists of a
cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number
of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The cam
lobes force the valves open by pressing on the valve or on some
immediate mechanism as they rotate.
→TEsTs ON CAM sHAFT IN POH:
1. Run out test.

CONNECTING ROD: In a reciprocating piston engine the connecting


rod connects the piston to the crank at the crank shaft. Together
with crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts linear
motion to rotatory motion.
→TEsT ON CONNECTING ROD IN POH
1. DP test for checking surface and thermal crack.
2. Zyglo test for checking surface crack.

PIsTON: In the piston there are 4 grooves where 5 rings are provided
above the piston pin. Out of the four rings the above top three are
named as compressor ring and lower two are scrapper ring. In
addition to these rings two rings are provided below the piston pin,
called oil scrapper ring. The piston head is either made of steel or
aluminium. The low portion below the piston head is made of
aluminium. The 5 rings provided on the piston head, each have
different function, they are as follows:
1. Plasma or compression ring to check fuel leakage.
2. Borral or compression ring (2nd from top) also checks fuel leakage.
3. Tapper face ring(3rd from top)
4. Scrapper ring (bottom 2 rings) stops the lubricating oil to get
mixed with the diesel.
→TEsTs ON PIsTON IN DIEsEL POH:
1. Zyglo test for checking crack on surface.

DIMENsIONs:
DIA OF PISTONIS 10.618 INCH

LINER: A cylindrical liner is a cylindrical part to be fitted into an


engine block to form a cylinder. It is one of the most important
functional part to make up the interior of an engine. These are also
called cylinder sleeve.

→TEsT ON LINER IN POH


1. Size check
Dimensions:
Dia of the Liner is 10.625 inch
CYLINDER HEAD: Cylinder head needs to be robust. They have to
withstand huge pressures and very high temperatures, while
retaining their shape and form to seal the cylinder block via the
head gasket. They’re key to controlling air flow in and out of the
cylinders and fuel development. The cylinder head also holds the
injectors and valves- and contains moving parts than any other
part of the engine.

→TEsT ON CYLINDER HEAD IN DIEsEL POH:


1. Pneumatic test to check air leakage, it is done by tightening
the cylinder head with 5 kg of air in each hole and putting it
water tank.
2. Blow bye test for checking leakage.
3. DP test for checking surface crack.
4. Zyglo test for surface crack checking.
5. DP test on each cylinder head load spring.
6. Checking the length of the springs in it.
FUEL INJECTION PUMP: An injection pump is the device that pumps
diesel into the cylinders of a diesel engine. Traditionally, the
injection pump is driven indirectly from the crank shaft by gears,
chains or a toothed belt that also drives the cam shaft. It rotates at
half crank speed in a conventional four stroke diesel engine. Its
timing is such that the fuel is injected only very slightly before start
of that cylinder’s compression stroke.
TEsT ON FIP IN DIEsEL POH:

1. Calibration Test on pump.


WATER PUMP: The water pump, a container made of aluminium or
iron, is part of the cooling system. It contains an impeller that
circulates water and coolant throughout the cooling system,
keeping the engine from overheating.
→TEsT ON WATER PUMP IN DIEsEL POH
1. Hydraulic test, checking 3 kg/sq cm press. Is generated.

INLET ELBOW: In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or


intake manifold or intake manifold is the part of an engine that
supplies the fuel /air mixture to the cylinders. The word manifold
means multiplying one pipe into many.
In contrast, an exhaust manifold collects the
exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from
multiple cylinder into a small pipe.
The primary function of the intake manifold is to evenly
distribute the combustion mixture(or just air) to each intake
port in the cylinder heads.
TEsT ON INLET ELBOW IN DIEsEL POH:
1. DP Test for checking surface crack.

EXHAUsT MANIFOLD: An exhaust manifold collects the exhaust


gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. Exhaust manifolds are
generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect
engine gas from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust
pipe. For many engines, there are aftermarket
tubular exhaust manifolds known as headers. These consists of
individual exhaust headpipes for each cylinder, which then
usually converge into one tube called a collector.

→TEsT ON EXHAUsT MANIFOLD IN DIEsEL POH


1. DP Test on each exhaust manifold for checking surfacecrack.

TURBO sUPER CHARGER: A turbocharger, or turbo is a


turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal
combustion engine’s efficiency and power output by forcing extra air
into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally
aspirated engine’s power output is because the compressor can force
more air- and proportionately more fuel into the combustion chamber
than atmospheric pressure alone.
→TEsT ON TsC IN DIEsEL POH:
1. DP Test in turbine blade for any thermal crack on surface.
2. DP Test in Impeller for checking any surface crack and hole.

AFTER COOLER: It consists of few numbers of copper tubes. One


upper chamber and lower chamber. Inlet portion and delivery
portions remains separate by a separator. The pressurised air runs
through the copper tubes which is surrounded by water circulation.
As a result the delivery air of the engine block gets increased in
density which helps to supply maximum volume of air inside the
cylinder.

LUBE OIL PUMP: The oil pump in an internal combustion engine


circulates engine oil under pressure to the rotating bearings, the
sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. This lubricates the
bearings and also assists in cooling the engine. Its primary purpose
for lubrication, pressurized oil is increasingly used as a hydraulic fluid
to power small actuators.

→TEsT ON LUBE OIL PUMP IN DIEsEL POH


1. DP Test in lube oil sump gear.
2. Checking pressure generation.
CRANK sHAFT sPLIT GEAR: It is a spur gear splitted into two
haves diametrically and mounted in the crankshaft by two bolts.
This type of gear transverse the motion to the cam shaft of the
engine, when crankshaft is rotating then split gear rotates the
cam shaft and intake valve and exhaust valve opening is occurred.

→TEsT IN CRANK sHAFT GEAR IN DIEsEL POH:


1. DP test in the teeth for surface defects checking.
2. Diameter checking

CAM sHAFT GEAR: The spur gear is mounted on one end and
connected to the cam shaft gear. It is smaller than crankshaft gear.
CONCLUsION
• I am very pleased to conclude that in this Vocational training
period at Kharagpur Railway Workshop, I achieved a vast
knowledge about industry & its working procedure this short term
Internship training will be very helpful for us in our working life. It’s
has helped me to gain much practical knowledge on the railway,
through 21 days is very much less to learn anything.

•Hence as mechanical engineering student it is most essential to


acknowledge with technologies used by railway and its subsequent
accessories. My project is based on “POWER PACK DIESEL
LOCOMOTIVE” and i am very much grateful for the respectful
instructors who had guided me to learn about the different works on
DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE POH SHOP.

•I will be highly obliged to the KHARAGPUR RAILWAY


WORKSHOP for giving a scope of learning many things through
this Internship training and my special thanks to all those who
helped me during my training period .