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8

Detail Surveying

In this chapter, methods are described for the preparation of plans at the common
engineering scales of between 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000. The drawings so produced are
used as records of existing areas or as a basis for the design and setting out of
engineering works.

8.1 Detail

The term detail is a general one that implies features both above and below ground
level and at ground level.
Buildings, roads, walls and other constructed features are called hard detail,
whereas natural features including rivers and vegetation are known as soft detail.
Other definitions include overhead detail (for example, power and telephone lines)
and underground detail (for example, water pipes and sewer runs).
Many types of symbols are used for representing detail and a standard format
has yet to be universally agreed. Those symbols and abbreviations shown in figure
8.1 are fairly comprehensive and their use is recommended.
When detail surveying, the amount and type of detail that is located (or picked
up) for any particular survey varies enormously with the scale (the ratio of ground
to plan lengths) and the intended use of the plan.

8.2 Methods

All detail surveys are based on a framework of control points which must be
established on the ground before detail can be located. This network can be fiXed
by traversing (chapter 5) or from measurements taken with a chain, details of
which are given in section 8.4. Using these control points, detail can be surveyed
using two methods.

J. Uren et al., Surveying for Engineers


© J. Uren and W. F. Price 1978
142 SURVEYING FOR ENGINEERS

CONVENTIONAL SIGN LIST

Building _ T {GPO) T_
Overhead lines

Building (open sided) .'""--


r--------~

------~
.' (with description)
~
(Ell

·-------- -, Public Utility prefixes electricity El


Foundations : Found : gas G
1.--------~
water W

Walls (under 200 mm wide) Wall Hedge

Gate
Walls (200 mm and over)
Stump
Retaining wall

Fences (with description) Individual tree


(r =surveyed radius)
corrugated iron CI

barbed wire BW
Embankments and
cuttings
chain link CL

chestnut poling CP

closebaord CB Contours
(to be drown on
interwoven IW natural surfaces
only)
iron railings IR
O.S. bench mark t BM 147.91
post and chain PC
Spot level +164.28
post and wire PW

post and roil PR Cover level CL

Street furn iture I nvert level IL


inspection cover IC Water level (with dote) WL
manhole MH
Traverse station
GPO inspection cover GPO
O.S. trig. station
gully G
grating Gr
drain Dr Roods

kerb outlet kerbs


KO
rood sign RS edge of surfacing -- - - - - - -

telephone call box TCB footpath ====""~= ===


ballard B track Track
lamp post LP
electricity post EP
tarmac TM
telegraph pate TP concrete CONC

"'igure 8.1

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