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Engineers Newsletter volume 44 –1

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013


HVAC and Power section highlights

climate zone and building type. On Compliance paths. There are multiple
This newsletter is intended to help average, 90.1-2010 came close to paths to compliance with Standard 90.1
readers interpret and apply the new achieving that goal, with 25 percent (Figure 1). All buildings must meet the
requirements in Standard 90.1-2013.
Unlike the 2010 version, the 2013
energy cost savings for the whole mandatory requirements, which are
version has significant changes to the building. located in Section "x.4" of each chapter.
building envelope and energy For example, the mandatory provisions
modeling requirements, however for Recent modeling funded by ASHRAE and in the HVAC chapter are in Section 6.4,
brevity, only the more significant the U.S. Department of Energy estimated
changes to the HVAC and power
and in Section 8.4 of the Power chapter.
that buildings following the 2013 version
requirements are discussed in this
newsletter. will save, on average, 38 percent of their
whole building energy cost compared to
those complying with the 2004 version. Site Energy Use Intensity (EUI)
The analysis also calculated energy use by One of the challenges with using site EUI
building type and climate zone, in terms of (kBtu/ft2) as a measure of energy use is
kBtu/ft2. (See sidebar for limitations of fuel selection. Different fuels have a
Scope different impact on site EUI, regardless
comparing this value for the same type of
of how efficiently the process or system
The scope of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 building constructed in different locations.) uses the energy. This would be a problem
widened slightly in this 2013 version. It if our energy codes were based on site
EUI.
is still focused on commercial and high-
rise (≥4 stories) residential buildings. It
still applies to both new buildings and
renovations of existing buildings. New Figure 1. Compliance path for Section 6 of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013
requirements have been added to
address refrigeration equipment, such Mandatory Prescriptive
requirements
as walk-in coolers and freezers, and (S6.4)
requirements
(S6.5)
refrigerated display cases.
Alternative
compliance method
Progress by version. The goal of the (S 6.6 , computer rooms)
2010 version was to create a cost
justified path to 30 percent energy cost proposed Energy Cost 90.1-compliant
HVAC design Budget HVAC system
savings for the whole building, (S11)
compared to its 2004 predecessor.
Simplified
Whole building meant that the savings Approach
calculation included energy uses not (S6.3)
restricted by 90.1, effectively reducing
the percent savings of the covered
building components and equipment.
The calculation was weight-averaged by

© 2015 Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand. All rights reserved. 1


Table 1. Air-cooled air conditioners
Mandatory Requirements class size heat type sub-category efficiency-old efficiency-new
13.0 SEER
Mandatory requirements are just that: all split system 13.0 SEER
< 65,000 Btu/h (no change)
mandatory. They cannot be traded off (3-phase) single
using any of the alternative compliance all 13.0 SEER 14.0 SEER (1/1/2015)
package
paths, such as the Energy Cost Budget split and 11.2 EER 11.2 EER
(Chapter 11) or the new alternative none/electric
> 65,000 and single package 11.4 IEER 12.9 IEER (1/1/2016)
compliance path for computer room < 135,000 Btu/h 11.0 EER
split and 11.0 EER
systems (Section 6.6). other
single package 11.2 IEER 12.7 IEER (1/1/2016)
Many of the changes to the mandatory split and 11.0 EER 11.0 EER
none/electric
requirements in the HVAC chapter Air > 135,000 and single package 11.2 IEER 12.4 IEER (1/1/2016)
(Section 6.4) are summarized in the conditioners, < 240,000 Btu/h split and 10.8 EER 10.8 EER
air-cooled other
following section. single package 11.0 IEER 12.2 IEER (1/1/2016)

split and 10.0 EER 10.0 EER


none/electric
Equipment Efficiency Changes. > 240,000 and single package 10.1 IEER 11.6 IEER (1/1/2016)
The mandatory minimum equipment < 760,000 Btu/h split and 9.8 EER 9.8 EER
other
efficiency levels were changed for single package 9.9 IEER 11.4 IEER (1/1/2016)
several classes of equipment, split and 9.7 EER 9.7 EER
none/electric
including: > 760,000 and single package 9.8 IEER 11.2 IEER (1/1/2016)

• Air-cooled air-conditioners. More split and 9.5 EER 9.5 EER


other
single package 9.6 IEER 11.0 IEER (1/1/2016)
stringent requirements for
packaged units (Table 1).
Table 2. Air-to-air heat pumps
• Air-to-air heat pumps. class size heat type sub-category efficiency-old efficiency-new
See Table 2.
all split system 13.0 SEER (clg) 14.0 SEER (clg)
• Chillers. Centrifugal chillers 7.7 HSPF (htg) 8.2 HSPF (htg)
< 65,000 Btu/h
optimized for non-standard all single package 13.0 SEER (clg) 14.0 SEER (clg)
conditions use formulas to 7.7 HSPF (htg) 8.0 HSPF (htg)
calculate requirements for kW/ton none/electric split and 11.0 EER 11.0 EER
and IPLV (spreadsheet available > 65,000 and single package 11.2 IEER 12.2 IEER (1/1/2016)
from ASHRAE.org). See Tables 3 < 135,000 Btu/h other split and 10.8 EER 10.8 EER
and 4. Heat pump, single package 11.0 IEER 12.0 IEER (1/1/2016)
air-cooled
• Commercial refrigeration. New none/electric split and 10.6 EER 10.6 EER
single package 10.7 IEER 11.6 IEER (1/1/2016)
requirements to cover this type of > 135,000 and
equipment. < 240,000 Btu/h other split and 10.4 EER 10.4 EER
single package 10.5 IEER 11.4 IEER (1/1/2016)
• Computer room units. Efficiency
none/electric split and 9.5 EER 9.5 EER
requirements modified following a single package 9.6 IEER 10.6 IEER (1/1/2016)
change to the test procedure. > 240,000 Btu/h
other split and 9.3 EER 9.3 EER
• Condensing units. See Table 5. single package 9.4 IEER 10.4 IEER (1/1/2016)
• Cooling towers. The required
efficiency for open-circuit towers Table 3. Positive displacement chillers
increased by about 5 percent. class size efficiency-old efficiency-new

• Escalators and moving walks. Path A Path B Path A Path B

New requirement to reduce speed Air-cooled < 150 tons


9.562 EER N/A 10.10 EER 9.70 EER
12.50 IPLV 13.70 IPLV 15.80 IPLV)
when no passengers are present chillers
(Section 10.4.4). 9.562 EER N/A 10.10 EER 9.70 EER
> 150 tons
12.750 IPLV 14.00 IPLV 16.10 IPLV)
• Evaporative condensers. New 0.780 kW/ton 0.800 kW/ton 0.750 kW/ton 0.780 kW/ton
< 75 tons
requirements to cover this type of 0.630 IPLV 0.600 IPLV 0.600 IPLV 0.500 IPLV
equipment. > 75 tons and 0.775 kW/ton 0.790 kW/ton 0.720 kW/ton 0.750 kW/ton
< 150 tons 0.615 IPLV 0.586 IPLV 0.560 IPLV 0.490 IPLV)
• Motors. More stringent
Water-cooled
requirements for integral hp positive
> 150 tons and 0.780 kW/ton 0.718 kW/ton 0.660 kW/ton 0.680 kW/ton
0.630 IPLV 0.540 IPLV 0.540 IPLV 0.440 IPLV
motors and new requirements for displacement < 300 tons
fractional hp motors (Chapter 10). > 300 tons and 0.610 kW/ton 0.625 kW/ton
This affects general-purpose < 600 tons 0.520 IPLV 0.410 IPLV
0.620 kW/ton 0.639 kW/ton
designs A and B up to 600 V, 0.540 IPLV 0.490 IPLV
0.560 kW/ton 0.585 kW/ton
> 600 tons
general-purpose subtypes 1 and 2 0.500 IPLV 0.380 IPLV
up to 600 V, and small motors
down to ¼ hp.

2 Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer
• Single-package vertical units Table 4. Centrifugal chillers
(SPVUs). In addition to Table 6, a class size efficiency-old efficiency-new
new table was added for a special 0.634 FL 0.639 FL 0.610 FL 0.695 FL
< 150 tons
class of SPVUs, which can only be 0.596 IPLV 0.450 IPLV 0.550 IPLV 0.440 IPLV
used in certain replacement > 150 tons and 0.634 FL 0.639 FL 0.610 FL 0.635 FL
situations (Table 7). < 300 tons 0.596 IPLV 0.450 IPLV 0.550 IPLV 0.400 IPLV

• Water-cooled air-conditioners. Water-cooled > 300 tons and 0.576 FL 0.600 FL 0.560 FL 0.595 FL
centrifugal < 400 tons 0.549 IPLV 0.400 IPLV 0.520 IPLV 0.390 IPLV
See Table 8.
> 400 tons and 0.576 FL 0.600 FL 0.560 FL 0.585 FL
• Water-source heat pumps. < 600 tons 0.549 IPLV 0.400 IPLV 0.500 IPLV 0.380 IPLV
See Table 9.
0.570 FL 0.590 FL 0.560 FL 0.585 FL
> 600 tons
0.539 IPLV 0.400 IPLV 0.500 IPLV 0.380 IPLV
Some of the minimum efficiency
requirements have a future effective
date, allowing manufacturers time to
adjust product designs and production. Table 5. Condensing units
class size efficiency-old efficiency-new

Direct digital control (DDC) Air-cooled > 135,000 Btu/h


10.1 EER 10.5 EER
requirement thresholds. One of the 11.4 IEER 11.8 IEER
more significant changes in the 2013 13.1 EER 13.5 EER
Water-cooled > 135,000 Btu/h
standard is the requirement for direct 13.6 IEER 14.0 IEER
digital controls (DDC), triggered by 13.1 EER 13.5 EER
certain thresholds and situations. For Evaporatively-cooled > 135,000 Btu/h
13.6 IEER 14.0 IEER
new buildings with systems that serve
more than three zones, DDC is required if
1) an air-handling fan system is 10 bhp or
Table 6. Single-package vertical units (SPVUs)
larger, 2) a chilled-water plant is 25 tons
outdoor air
or larger, or 3) a hot-water plant is 300 class size efficiency-old efficiency-new
(db/wb)
MBh or larger. In existing buildings, the
95ºF/
thresholds relate to how much of the < 65,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER 10.0 EER
75ºF
building is being changed, and the type of
Single-package vertical air- 95ºF/
system that is being altered conditioner or heat pump (cooling
> 65,000 and 8.9 EER
10.0 EER
(see Table 10). < 135,000 Btu/h 75ºF
mode)
> 135,000 and 95ºF/
8.6 EER 10.0 EER
< 240,000 Btu/h 75ºF
Electric power monitoring and
reporting (sub-metering). Section 47ºF/ 3.0 COP
< 135,000 Btu/h 3.0 COP (htg)
8.4.3.1 is a new section of mandatory Single-package vertical heat pump 43ºF (htg) (no change)
requirements for monitoring and (heating mode) > 135,000 and
2.9 COP (htg) 3.0 COP (htg)
reporting electrical data. Energy use of < 240,000 Btu/h
the following systems needs to be New category added for replacement units (see Table 7)
monitored separately: HVAC, interior and
exterior lighting, and receptacles.

Important things to note: Table 7. Special* single-package vertical units (SPVUs)


outdoor air
• Up to 10 percent of the load for each class size
(db/wb)
efficiency - old efficiency-new
of the subcategories may be
95ºF/
miscategorized. Single-package vertical air-conditioner < 30,000Btu/h 9.0 EER 9.2 EER
75ºF
or heat pump (cooling mode)
• Buildings with tenants must monitor > 30,000 and 95ºF/ 9.0 EER
non-weathered space constrained 9.0 EER
each tenant area separately. < 36,000 Btu/h 75ºF (no change)

• Data must be recorded at least every Single-package vertical air-conditioner


< 36,000 Btu/h
47ºF/
3.0 COP (htg)
43ºF (htg) 3.0 COP (htg)
15 minutes, and reported hourly, daily, or heat pump (heating mode)
(no change)
monthly, and annually. non-weathered space constrained
*"special" means indoor use, requires an opening in an exterior wall with existing sleeve that is space limited, and is for replacement
• Maintain data for at least three years. applications only, duly marked on the equipment

• Exceptions: buildings less than


25,000 ft2, individual tenant spaces
less than 10,000 ft2, dwelling units,
residential buildings with less than
10,000 ft2 of common area, and
critical and equipment branches of
NEC Article 517.

providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 3
Energy monitoring and reporting, all Table 8. Water-cooled air conditioners

utilities. Building level energy use data class size heat type sub-category efficiency-old efficiency-new
must be collected and reported for electric split and 12.1 EER
12.1 EER
and non-electric utilities also (Section < 65,000 Btu/h all 12.3 IEER
single package 12.3 IEER
(no change)
10.4.5.2). The energy data is to be recorded
at least every 60 minutes, reported and none/electric split and 12.1 EER 12.1 EER
> 65,000 and single package 12.3 IEER 13.9 IEER (1/1/2016)
retained for three years. Exceptions:
buildings or additions less than 25,000 ft2, < 135,000 Btu/h other split and 11.9 EER 11.9 EER
single package 12.1 IEER 13.7 IEER (1/1/2016)
individual tenant spaces less than
10,000 ft2, dwelling units, residential none/electric split and 12.5 EER 12.5 EER
single package
buildings with less than 10,000 ft2 of > 135,000 and 12.5 IEER 13.9 IEER (1/1/2016)
common area, and fuel used for on-site Air conditioners, < 240,000 Btu/h other split and 12.3 EER 12.3 EER
water cooled single package
emergency equipment. 12.5 IEER 13.7 IEER (1/1/2016)
none/electric split and 12.4 EER 12.4 EER
single package 12.6 IEER 13.6 IEER (1/1/2016)
Humidity control. Section 6.4.3.6 now > 240,000 and
prohibits the use of fossil fuels and < 760,000 Btu/h other split and 12.2 EER 12.2 EER
single package 12.4 IEER 13.4 IEER (1/1/2016)
electricity for humidification above
30 percent RH and dehumidification to none/electric split and 12.2 EER 12.2 EER
60 percent RH, except in special single package 12.4 IEER 13.5 IEER (1/1/2016)
> 760,000
circumstances. Recovered or site solar other split and 12.0 EER 12.0 EER
energy must be used instead. single package 12.2 IEER 13.3 IEER (1/1/2016)
Exceptions are made for:
• Systems that use desiccants with direct
evaporative cooling in series. Table 9. Water-to-air heat pumps
• Systems that serve space types with class size entering water efficiency-old efficiency-new
their own code requirements or 86ºF (clg) 11.2 EER (clg) 12.2 EER (clg)
< 17,000 Btu/h
accreditation standards for humidity 68ºF (htg) 4.2 COP (htg) 4.3 COP (htg)
control, such as museums, hospitals, Water-air: water loop
> 17,000 and 86ºF (clg) 12.0 EER (clg) 13.0 EER (clg)
vivariums, pharmacies, and < 135,000 Btu/h 68ºF (htg) 4.2 COP (htg) 4.3 COP (htg)
supermarkets. For such systems, the
59ºF (clg) 16.2 EER (clg) 18.0 EER (clg)
deadband must be at least ±10 percent Water-air: ground water < 135,000 Btu/h
3.6 COP (htg)
50ºF (htg) 3.7 COP (htg)
RH. In zones where tighter control is
77ºF (clg) 13.4 EER (clg) 14.1 EER (clg)
required by code or accreditation Brine-air: ground loop < 135,000 Btu/h
32ºF (htg) 3.1 COP (htg) 3.2 COP (htg)
standard (±5 percent RH), new energy
may be used.

This new section also prevents Table 10. DDC applications and qualifications
simultaneous humidification and Bldg. status application qualification
dehumidification.
air-handling system and all zones individual systems supplying morethan three zones and
served by the system with fan system bhp > 10 hp
Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). The chilled-water plant and all coils and individual systems supplying more than three zones and
New building
occupancy threshold for DCV was reduced terminal units served by the system with design cooling capacity > 300,000 Btu/h
from greater than 40 people per 1000 ft2 to hot-water plant and all coils and individual systems supplying more than three zones and
25 or more people per 1000 ft2, with terminal units served by the system with heating capacity > 300,000 Btu/h
exemptions for certain occupancy classes. zone terminal unit such as a VAV box
where existing zones served by the same air-handling,
chilled-water, or hot-water system have DDC
This change will expand the occupancies
where DCV is required. Based on Standard where existing air-handling system(s) and fan-coil(s)
air-handling system or fan coil
served by the same chilled-or hot-water plant have DDC
62.1 default densities, new spaces that
Alteration or individual systems with fan system bhp > 10 hp and
would be required to have DCV include: new air-handling system and all new
addition supplying more than three zones and more than 75
classrooms, music/dance class, lobbies, zones served by the system
percent of zones are new
office reception, museum, mall commons, where all chillers are new and plant design cooling
gym and health club, daycare, computer new or upgraded chilled-water plant
capacity is > 300,000 Btu/h
labs, and break rooms. where all boilers are new and plant design heating
new or upgraded hot-water plant
capacity is > 300,000 Btu/h
Exempt occupancies include correctional
cells, daycare sickrooms, science labs,
barber, beauty & nail salons, and bowling
alley seating.

4 Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer
The requirement can be met with Cooling towers. New requirements for
whichever DCV method is appropriate, Prescriptive Requirements cooling towers relate to how variable-
e.g. scheduling, occupancy sensing, CO2 speed fans must operate. Multiple cell
measurement. Meeting all the prescriptive requirements, heat rejection equipment with variable-
in addition to the Mandatory requirements, speed drives must operate the maximum
Setback controls. This section now is one of the compliance paths in the number of fans and control all fans to the
requires the system to maintain an Standard (Figure 2). Some, or potentially same speed instead of staging them,
adjustable space temperature at least all, of these prescriptive requirements can subject to manufacturer limits for
10°F below the occupied heating be avoided if the user elects to use either minimum speed.
setpoint and at least 5°F above the the Energy Cost Budget Method (Chapter
11) or the new alternative compliance path Open-circuit cooling towers used on
occupied cooling setpoint. Radiant
for computer room systems (Section 6.6). water-cooled chiller systems that have
heating systems are treated slightly
multiple or variable-speed condenser-
differently than in the past: they must
Many of the changes to the prescriptive water pumps must be designed so that
setback at least 4°F below the occupied
requirements in the HVAC chapter (Section all open-circuit tower cells can be run in
heating setpoint.
6.5) are summarized below: parallel with the larger of:

Optimum start. Previously this was Fan Efficiency Grade (FEG). FEG is a new • the flow produced by the smallest
only required for large systems. The designation introduced by AMCA that pump at its minimum expected flow
2013 version removed the 10,000 cfm seeks to enable selection and application rate, or
threshold, and now requires optimum of more-efficient fans. Some fans are • 50 percent of the design flow for the
start on any system that must be better suited than others for a given cell.
equipped with both setback controls (not application. Fans included in equipment
continually operated and 15,000 Btu/h or listed under Section 6.4.1.1 (such as Boilers. Improved boiler heating
larger) and DDC (see page 4 for DDC packaged rooftops, cooling towers, turndown is required, depending on the
threshold). condensers, water-source heat pumps, air- capacity of the heating system.
cooled chillers, PTACs, furnaces, and VRF
A provision was added to require that systems) or equipment that bears a third- This turndown may be achieved
outdoor air temperature be used in the party seal for air or performance (such as through multiple, single-input boilers,
optimization sequence so that it's less cataloged air-handling units and blower- one or more modulating boilers, or a
likely to be disabled due to not coils) are exempt from this requirement. combination.
responding quickly enough during FEG67 is the minimum requirement for
extreme weather. Optimum start must covered fans, and the selection point must
consider, at a minimum, the difference be within 15 percent of peak efficiency. Fan
between the current space temperature system power limits still apply at the
and occupied setpoint, outdoor air Though located under Section 6.5.3,
system level.
which covers systems with total fan
temperature, and time to scheduled
system motor nameplate of 5 hp and
occupancy. For more information on fan metrics larger, fan airflow control was not
including FEG, read the 2014 Engineers intended to apply only to larger
This requirement was expanded beyond Newsletter, "FANtastic! A Closer Look at systems. Table 6.5.3.2.1 covers DX
air-based systems so that convection and Fan Efficiency Metrics," vol. 43-3 (2014). cooling system fan-motors of any size
radiant systems are included. Mass Visit trane.com/EN and chilled-water and evaporative-
cooling system fan-motors down to ¼
radiant floor slabs must use floor hp. The error is currently in the
temperature in the optimum start process of being corrected by an
algorithm also. addendum, though not yet published.

Figure 2. Mandatory plus prescriptive requirements

Mandatory Prescriptive
requirements requirements
(S6.4) (S6.5)

Alternative
compliance method
(S6.6, computer rooms)

proposed Energy 90.1-compliant


HVAC design Cost Budget HVAC system
(S11)

Simplified
Approach
(S6.3)

providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 5
Fan airflow control (often referred to Table 11. DX cooling stage requirements for units with air economizer
as "single-zone VAV control") was minimum
added as a mandatory requirement in minimum no. of compressor
rated capacity control type cooling changes displacement effective date
the 2010 version. In the 2013 version,
the former mandatory requirement capacity control based on
> 75,000 Btu/h 2 stages no requirement 1/1/2014
space temp.
was replaced by an expanded,
prescriptive requirement that applies to > 65,000 Btu/h capacity control based on 2 stages no requirement 1/1/2016
space temp.
DX, chilled-water, and evaporative
> 65,000 Btu/h and modulating airflow to 1/1/2014
cooling equipment. 3 stages < 35% of full load
< 240,000 Btu/h control space temp.

If the cooling equipment controls > 240,000 Btu/h modulating airflow to 4 stages < 25% of full load
1/1/2014
control space temp.
capacity directly based on space
temperature, it shall have at least two
stages of fan airflow control, with low equipment that is certified per Section Fan system power limit. Single-zone
speed not exceeding 66 percent of full 6.4.1, and motors covered by Tables variable-volume systems are now
speed. 10.8-4 or 10.8-5 (generally more required to comply with the more
stringent but skipping several sizes) stringent constant-volume fan power
All other cooling equipment, including are also exempted from this limit in Section 6.5.3.1, because they
that which controls space temperature requirement. typically have much less ductwork and
by modulating airflow to the space, few or no pressure control devices.
shall have modulating fan control, with Other minor changes to the system fan
Simultaneous heating and cooling
a minimum speed not exceeding 50 power limit include:
(including humidification and
percent of full speed. dehumidification). The current • No sound attenuation credit is
wording of Standard 90.1 limits given unless the space NC is 35 or
In addition, at least two fan speeds are
simultaneous heating and cooling less.
required during air economizer
within the sections on zone controls,
operation. • Deduction for systems that do not
hydronic systems, dehumidification
have a central cooling device.
Compressor stages for integrated systems, and humidification systems.
economizer control. This was added • Deduction for systems that do not
Zone level VAV reheating control is have a central heating device.
in 2013, to limit "fighting" between the
required to use "dual maximum"
air economizer and the compressor
control sequence (Figure 3), if the Door switches. The intent of the new
once the economizer can no longer
system has DDC controls. (See DDC requirements for interlocking door
offset the entire cooling load. The
requirement thresholds on page 4.) switches with heating and cooling
effect of this change is far reaching,
particularly for smaller units that operation is to reduce energy wasted
Preheat coils must be controlled so
haven't traditionally had as many when doors are left open and the
that they are turned off whenever
stages of cooling capacity. Some outdoor temperature is too warm or
mechanical cooling or economizer
manufacturers have elected to apply too cold. This is typically accomplished
operation is occurring.
variable-speed or variable-capacity with a mechanical switch that
compressors in more products to meet Automatic shut-off valves are integrates the HVAC system operation.
this requirement. Table 11 shows the required for humidifiers with
required minimum compressor This section requires turning off zone
preheating jackets, as is insulation
displacement and number of stages heating (or resetting the zone setpoint
(R-0-5) on dispersion tube hot surfaces
based on the cooling capacity. to 55°F) or the zone cooling (or
located in the airstream.
resetting the setpoint to 90°F), if an
exterior door in that zone is left open
Fractional motors. This equipment
for 5 minutes.
entered Standard 90.1 in two ways this
Figure 3. Dual maximum VAV control sequence
cycle: in the previously mentioned
Chapter 10 mandatory section, and 100% maximum primary
through Section 6.5.3.5 which requires airflow
heating coil activated
that motors smaller than 1 hp (down to
1/12 hp) be either electronically- maximum discharge-air
temperature for heating
dis per

commutated or at least 70 percent


tem
ch atu
arg re

efficient. Fans that only operate when


e-a se

maximum primary
% airflow to space

providing heating are exempted,


ir

heating airflow
because the motor heat offsets other
tpo
int

heat energy that would otherwise be


necessary. Motors must be able to
minimum primary
have their speed adjusted for either cooling airflow
balancing or remote control. (Belt- design discharge-air
driven fans may use sheave temperature for cooling
0%
adjustments.) Motors installed in design space lo ad design
heating load cooling load
6 Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer
Economizers. The 2010 version Table 13. Eliminate required economizer for
Exceptions include: significantly expanded the requirement comfort cooling by increasing cooling
for economizers to all climate zones efficiency
• building entries with automatic
closing devices, except 1A. The 2013 version climate zone efficiency
incorporates changes to the allowable improvement
• any space without a thermostat, economizer control types, and adds 2A 17%
• alterations to existing buildings, new requirements for sensor accuracy 2B 21%
and integrated economizer control.
• loading docks, or 3A 27%

You may trade off an economizer by 3B 32%


• if the outdoor temperature is below
the space temperature during using higher performance equipment 3C 65%
cooling mode. (Table 13). 4A 42%
4B 49%
We will be publishing a follow-up EN
Exhaust air energy recovery. The later this year that specifically 4C 64%
2013 version has additional addresses the economizer 5A 49%
requirements for energy recovery on requirements. 5B 59%
systems in climate zones 1A, 2A, 3A,
5C 74%
4A, 5A, 6A, 7 and 8 (Table 12). The
requirements expand the requirement 6A 56%
for exhaust air energy recovery to 6B 65%
systems with as little as 10 percent 7 72%
outdoor air. Buildings with continuous 8 77%
operation of the ventilation system
(8,000 hours per year) now follow a
second table which further expands
the requirements.

Table 12. Exhaust air energy recovery


Ventilation system operating hours < 8000 hours per year
% outdoor air at full design airflow rate
> 10% > 20% > 30% > 40% > 50% > 60% > 70% > 80%
climate zone and and and and and and and
< 20% < 30% < 40% < 50% < 60% < 70% < 80%
design supply fan airflow rate (cfm)
3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
1B, 2B, 5C NR NR NR NR > 26000 > 12000 > 5000 > 4000
6B > 28000 > 26500 > 11000 > 5500 > 4500 > 3500 > 2500 > 1500
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A > 26000 > 16000 > 5500 > 4500 > 3500 > 2000 > 1000 >0
7, 8 > 4500 > 4000 > 2500 > 1000 >0 >0 >0 >0
Ventilation system operating > 8000 hours per year
% outdoor air at full design airflow rate
> 10% > 20% > 30% > 40% > 50% > 60% > 70% > 80%
climate zone and and and and and and and
< 20% < 30% < 40% < 50% < 60% < 70% < 80%
design supply fan airflow rate (cfm)
3C NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
1B, 2B, 3B, 4C, 5C NR > 19500 > 9000 > 5000 > 4000 > 3000 > 1500 >0
1A, 2A, 3A, 4B, 5B > 2500 > 2000 > 1000 > 500 >0 >0 >0 >0
4A, 5A, 6A, 6B, 7, 8 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0

providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 7
Economizer humidification system Figure 4. Alternative compliance path (new)
impact. While there has always been
a section on the economizer's heating
Mandatory Prescriptive
system impact, a new requirement requirements requirements
related to humidification system (S6.4) (S6.5)
impact was added in the 2013 version. Alternative
The use of a water economizer is compliance method
(S6.6, computer rooms)
required if the systems uses hydronic
cooling and includes a humidification proposed Energy 90.1-compliant
system that is designed to maintain HVAC design Cost Budget HVAC system
(S11)
zone humidity higher than 35°F
dewpoint. Simplified
Approach
(S6.3)

Alternative Compliance Table 16. Maximun PUE for computer room systems
Path climate zone PUEa climate zone PUEa climate zone PUEa
1A 1.51 1B 1.53
Computer rooms and data centers are
2A 1.49 2B 1.45
included in the scope of Standard 90.1-
2013, as they were in the 2010 version. 3A 1.41 3B 1.42 3C 1.39
But the 2013 version added an 4A 1.36 4B 1.38 4C 1.38
alternative compliance path (Section 5A 1.36 5B 1.33 5C 1.36
6.6) for computer room systems, 6A 1.34 6B 1.33
which includes data centers, based on
7 1.32
power use effectiveness (PUE). This is
8 1.30
an alternative to complying with the
prescriptive requirements (Section
aPUE
6.5). The mandatory requirements still 0 and PUE1 shall not include energy for battery charging
apply (Figure 4).

The PUE compliance path:


Many changes to the HVAC and Power
• Is climate specific, Closing sections within Standard 90.1-2013
may cause system and equipment
• Allows the use of full load PUE0 or
In the September 26, 2014 publication redesigns. The increasing focus on
annualized PUE1, and
of the Federal Register, the U.S. controls means that "business as
• Was derived from full-year analysis Department of Energy published its usual" may not be adequate-or even in
of annualized energy use. final determination stating that it has compliance with local energy codes.
found ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 to
The maximum allowed PUE values improve building energy efficiency There are numerous changes
were developed from energy compared to Standard 90.1-2010. As a throughout the new version of 90.1.
simulations that use both water-cooled result, states are "required to certify Standard and red-line (indicating
chillers with water economizers and air- that they have reviewed the provisions specific changes) copies of the
cooled chillers with air economizers (no of their commercial building code standard can be purchased from the
humidification); and setting the PUE to regarding energy efficiency, and, as ASHRAE Bookstore. The standard
be equivalent to the less stringent of necessary, updated their codes to remains in continuous maintenance,
the two. The data centers were meet or exceed Standard 90.1-2013." which means that changes will
modeled to meet the prescriptive continue to be made in an effort to
requirements in Section 6.5. The PUE In late 2014, the International Code reduce building energy cost. Visit the
values for all climate zones are Council published the 2015 ASHRAE website to view Standard
achievable by either of these International Energy Conservation 90.1 addenda, addenda drafts up for
conventional system types, but any Code (IECC), which specifically cites public review, and errata.
system design that does not exceed Standard 90.1-2013. As of this
the maximum PUE is permitted. publication, the 2015 IECC has already By Susanna Hanson, Trane. You can find this and
been adopted as a model code by previous issues of the Engineers Newsletter at
www.trane.com/engineersnewsletter. To
several jurisdictions. comment, e-mail us at ENL@trane.com.

providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 8
www.Trane.com
New Resources to Help you Design
On-demand tutorials to help you get the
References most from your Trane energy modeling
software. These monthly short tutorials
[1] American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, cover specific topics to help you work
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Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE. Available at and cost with myPLV™. This free,
www.ashrae.org/bookstore. manufacturer-agnostic tool is designed
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[4] Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office. Notice of Determination:
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90.1-2013: Energy Standard for Buildings, operating conditions The tool uses
Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. Federal
industry standard building model data
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09/26/2014-22882/determination-regarding- information where users select their
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ansiashraeies-standard-901-2013-energy peak load; number and size of the
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International Code Council, Washington, D.C. condenser control strategy.
ICC. 2014. Download a free copy of the tool at
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providing insights for today’s HVAC system designer Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 9
www.Trane.com/bookstore
Learn HVAC design strategies and earn credit

2015
Engineers
Newsletter
LIVE!
For event details and registration
contact your local Trane office.

March
Variable-Speed
Compressors On-demand continuing education credit Application manuals. Comprehensive
for LEED® and AIA. These 90-minute on- reference guides that can increase your
On Chillers demand programs are available at free of working knowledge of commercial HVAC
charge. The list of HVAC topics includes many systems. Topics range from component
LEED-specific courses. Check out the latest combinations and innovative design
May courses: Specifying Quality Sound, Applying concepts to system control strategies,
Variable Refrigerant Flow and Chilled-Water industry issues, and fundamentals. The
Evaluating Terminal Systems. All courses available at following are just a few examples. Please
Sound Data www.trane.com/continuingeducation. visit www.trane.com/bookstore for a
complete list of manuals available to order.
Engineers Newsletters. These quarterly
Coil Selection and articles cover timely topics related to the
Central Geothermal Systems discusses
proper design and control of central
Optimization design, application and/or operation of
commercial, applied HVAC systems. geothermal bidirectional cascade systems
Subscribe at www.trane.com/EN. that use borefields. This manual covers

October Air conditioning clinics. A series of


central geothermal system piping, system
design considerations, and airside
Small educational presentations that teach HVAC considerations. (SYS-APM009-EN, February
Chilled-Water fundamentals, equipment, and systems. The 2011)
series includes full-color student workbooks,
Systems which can be purchased individually. Approved Chilled-Water VAV Systems discusses the
by the American Institute of Architects for 1.5 advantages and drawbacks of the system,
(Health, Safety and Welfare) learning units. reviews the various components that make
Contact your local Trane office to sign up for up the system, proposes solutions to
training in your area. common design challenges, explores several
system variations, and discusses system-
Engineers Newsletter Live. A series of 90- level control.
(SYS-APM008-EN, updated May 2012)
minute programs that provide technical and
educational information on specific aspects of Water-Source and Ground-Source Heat
HVAC design and control. Topics range from Pump Systems examines chilled-water-
water- and airside system strategies to system components, configurations,
ASHRAE standards and industry codes. options, and control strategies. The goal is to
Contact your local Trane office for a schedule provide system designers with options they
or view past programs by visiting can use to satisfy the building owners’
www.trane.com/ENL. desires. (SYS-APM010-EN, updated
November 2013)

Trane, Trane believes the facts and suggestions presented here to be accurate. However, final design and
A business of Ingersoll Rand application decisions are your responsibility. Trane disclaims any responsibility for actions taken on
the material presented.
For more information, contact your local Trane
office or e-mail us at comfort@trane.com

10 Trane Engineers Newsletter volume 44–1 ADM-APN053-EN (March 2015)