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Review Article

Studies of Parameters on Heat Transfer

through Glazing System using Guarded
Hot Plate Apparatus
Sunny Kumar1, Anuranjan Sharda2

Heat transfer through different modes from outside environment to inside occur by conduction,
convection and thermal radiation. Inclusion of automatic-advance-generation-software;
‘WINDOW 6.3’ makes possible the detailed true picture of the impact of glazed material and its
thickness/ pane spacing on its Thermal Transmittance.. This technique makes the user easy to
understand thermal performance of glazing system without extensive knowledge of numerical
methods of heat transfer. The U-value and solar heat gain coefficient are the key parameters to
analyze heat transfer through window 6.3. Therefore, an attempt has been made to carry out the
study to calculate U-value, solar heat gain coefficient of different glazing systems with varying
thickness/pane spacing in prevailing seasons. Composite climate of Una persisting in different
season was well defined. The U-value obtained from simulation were validated using the
guarded hot plate apparatus After analysis the experimental results, it was concluded that the U-
value and Solar Heat gain coefficient was noted maximum in single glazed window consists of
3mm thickness during the hot dry weather. The authors finally recommended Double-glazed
windows with 19mm pane spacing to be preferably used in Una region.

Keywords: Glazing, U-value, Window 6.3

Heat transfer through a single/double - Glazed Window take place through three modes of heat transfer i.e.
conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction occurs in window panes and convection in fluid and radiation
through electromagnetic waves. Hence convection/radiation occurs in cavity and at the indoor and outdoor faces
of window. Window with both good looks and desired control for heat flow requires a thorough understanding of
mechanism of how glass responds to solar gain and thereafter measures needs to be taken to control that heat
transfer. Normal clear glass is almost transparent to high frequency solar radiation, but is a difficult to low
frequency or long wave radiation. The solar heat energy passing through the glazing warms up the various
surrounding surface by absorption and these surrounding surface then become heat radiators of low frequency
re-emitted heat which is trapped inside causing the temperature to rise.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sukhmani Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dera Bassi, Chandigarh, India.
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, GNA University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.
Correspondence: Mr. Sunny Kumar, Sri Sukhmani Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dera Bassi, Chandigarh, India.
E-mail Id: er.sunnykumar@gmail.com
Orcid Id: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9186-5664
How to cite this article: Kumar S, Sharda A. Studies of Parameters on Heat Transfer through Glazing System using Guarded
Hot Plate Apparatus.. J Adv Res Glass Leath Plast Tech 2017; 2(1&2): 12-17.

© ADR Journals 2017. All Rights Reserved.

J. Adv. Res. Glass Leath. Plast. Tech. 2017; 2(1&2) Kumar S et al.

Previously, shading coefficient was used to represent Measurement Technique through Guarded
the heat flowing through the window and was defined Heater Apparatus
as the solar gain through a given fenestration
compared, to what the solar gain would have been The apparatus consists of heaters i.e. main and guard
through an opening of the same size and orientation heaters, cold plate, heat plate, baths, power supply
glazed with a standard single pane of 1/8” double system and other accessories. Cold plate which act as
strength clear glass. the heat sinks, hot plate which act as heat source.

However complexity of modern glazing systems could Heater Design

not be properly evaluated by single shading
coefficient. However, ASHRAE devised an alternate The heater used consists baths, power supply system
method for determining this heat and presently in and instrumentation for ensuring measurements of
order to calculate the U-value and solar heat gain two main parts
coefficient through windows, windows 6.3 software
can be used. 1. Main heater
2. Guard heater
Need for Present Work
The cold and hot plates are maintained at constant
From the literature review it was clear that no temperature separately by passing the heated fluid
systematic study has been carried out so far on the through copper tubes, which are brazed in a
guarded heater plate method with temperature of hot rectangular spiral pattern at the backsides of each of
and cold plate in conjunction with Indian climate. In these plates. Three recesses (arranged as top, middle
the developing country like India, there is huge and bottom) are made symmetrically on the hot plate
scarcity of energy sources. We have to focus on the within three copper heater plates, each of an overall
alternatives, which not only conserve the energy but thickness of 6 mm thick and of surface area 200x200
also help in maximum use of renewable source of mm, are positioned.
energy. Therefore an attempt was made to study the
energy conservation with double glazed window with The middle heater is used to apply a unidirectional
the help of guarded heater plate method. This heat flux through Glazing-unit sample while the guard
apparatus has been used over the last several years to heaters are maintained at the same temperature as
perform U-value measurement on a variety of that of the main heater so that the entire heat is
prototypical glazing system. The primary objective of transferred through the sample thereby minimizing
this system is to control the heat flow through it from the heat losses. The heating material used is copper
inside to outside in winter and from outside to inside due to its high thermal conductivity aiding in achieving
in summer. a constant plate temperature.

Figure 1.Schematic of Experimental Setup

Kumar S et al. J. Adv. Res. Glass Leath. Plast. Tech. 2017; 2(1&2)

In order to measures the voltage current from the Window program has roots in a paper detailing a
exposed surface of the guarded heater plate, it is method for calculating the heat transfer through
necessary to measure the rate at which electrical windows. The various operating system of window 6.3
energy is supplied to heater plates. The electrical software configuration as follows:
supplied to the heater plate is simply.
Main Screen
Vh = Qe / Ih … (1)
Main screen is helpful in calculating the window
Where Ih = Current measured through the heater properties, these properties includes U-value, Shading
wire; Vh = Voltage drop through the heater wire Coefficient, Solar Heat Gain coefficient.
When the experiments are performed to determine Window Library
the glazing system U values, Ih is measured directly
using a digital multimeter. This method simplifies the Window Library is used to window properties, which
experimental procedures used for data reduction. We are created on MAIN SCREEN. NO calculations are
are providing D.C electrical power supply. associated with this screen.

A U-value based on measurement for the glazing Glass Library

system can be found by using suitable indoor and
outdoor side thermal conductance’s (hi and h0, Glass Library includes glazing layer properties
respectively). weighted average optical properties are obtained by
integrating these properties over the various
U =[C-1 + hi-1 + h0-1] -1 … (2) wavelength ranges, if spectral values of transmittance
and reflectance are available. In the present study
Simulation through Window 6.3 Software clear that glass were used as the pane spacing.
Window 6.3 is a publicly available LBNL Window LBM Gas Library contains two different mixtures of gases.
PC compatible computer program developed by the For the present study only pure air is considered
building technologies group at the Lawrence Berkeley whose thermo-physical properties are listed below:
Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical
properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of Software Parameters for Current Simulation
fenestration products. All the calculations are Studies Gas Used
discussed in the International System of units (SI).
Window 6.3 is the latest in a series of programs For the present study only pure air is considered
released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The whose thermo-physical properties are listed below:
Table 1.Thermo-physical Properties
ID Name Type Conductivity W/m-K Viscosity g/m-s Cp J/kg-K Density kg/m3 Prandtl
1 Air Pure 10.024069 0.000017 1006.103271 1.292171 0.7197

Type of Glazing System Used and Pane Spacing and quadruple glazing. The glass pane can be clear,
tinted, or coated with reflective units were
Glazing System investigated, as listed in Table glass with thermal
conductivity of 1 W/ (m.K). For the present study, a
The glazing units can be categorized into single with double glazed window with clear glass was selected
multiple glazing layers are often called insulating for the analysis of U-value, Shgc and Rhg (ZHOU XU
Glazing Units IGUs are double glazing, triple glazing, 2011).
Table 2.Description of Selected Glazing Library
S. No Name Layers
Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3
1 Single glazing 4mm glass
2 Double glazing 4mm glass 10mm air gap 4mm glass
3 Double glazing 4mm glass 13mm air gap 4mm glass
4 Double glazing 4mm glass 16mm air gap 4mm glass
5 Double glazing 4mm glass 19mm air gap 4mm glass
6 Double glazing 4mm glass 25mm air gap 4mm glass

J. Adv. Res. Glass Leath. Plast. Tech. 2017; 2(1&2) Kumar S et al.

Though there have been studies explain the use of Glazing Pane
double glazed windows in the west, very in research
has been done in this area in Indian climate In the present study clear-dat glass of 3mm thickness
conditions. For the purpose this study has considered from generic glass manufacture. The various solar and
the following glazing units to analyze their effect as optical properties of this glass shown in table from
per composite climate of northern India. Gen were used as the pane spacing. Glass consists
Table 3.Glass Properties
Thickness Tsol Rsol1 Rsol2 Tvis Rvis1 Rvis2 Tir Emis1 Emis2
3.048 0.834 0.075 0.075 0.899 0.083 0.083 0.000 0.840 0.840

Environmental Conditions Library monsoon season and brings slightly lower

temperature with the majority of all rainfall for the
The environmental condition parameters important to year and large cloud cover; the final season lasts from
U-value calculation are temperature and airflow October to February, with temperatures getting
velocity. For the present study, the composite climate colder, but with little to no precipitation (ISHRAE
of Una was selected. The composite climate zone, 2005). Based on these three seasons the climate data
defined by 2005 National Building Code, contains for the year 2012 was consider to define wind speed
aspects of all other climates zones, and changes (http://m.accuweater. com/) and solar radiations. The
greatly over the course of the year. peak temperatures of each of the seasons were
chosen as the summers are more prom ante choring
On an annual basic, temperature, relative humidity and max temp. Difference between the extreme
and average rainfall data indicates three distinct outside condition and conditioned room space is 180C
seasons with transitional periods in-between. The first only. The inside conditions are always considered to
seasons is roughly from March to June and is be designed values for conditioned space is 250C as
characterized by hot temperature and little to no below.
precipitation. The second season is known as the
Table 4.Composite Climate Condition for Una Location
S. No Composite climate condition Tout (0C) Tin (0C) Solar radiation W/m2 Wind speed m/s
1 Hot and dry 43.0 25.0 6570 4.815
2 Hot and humid 34.0 25.0 5470 4.02
3 Cold and dry 5 25 3948 3.95
Season: Hot and Dry, Hot and Humid, Cold and Dry simulation value

Convection Force Used

There are so many wind directions, but according to the Indian point of view, particularly this direction is used.

Table 5.Effect of Glazing and its Thickness on U-Value (w/m2K) in Different Season (Predicated and Simulated
Readings for Hot and Dry)
Season - Glazing and its thickness/spacing Hot and dry predicated Hot and dry simulated (Software)
Single glazed 3MM 5.62 6.46
Double glazed 10MM Pane Spacing 2.98 3.35
Double glazed 13MM Pane Spacing 2.68 3.20
Double glazed 16MM Pane Spacing 2.87 3.13
Double glazed 19MM Pane Spacing 2.86 3.08
Double glazed 25MM Pane Spacing 2.73 3.07

Kumar S et al. J. Adv. Res. Glass Leath. Plast. Tech. 2017; 2(1&2)

Table 6.Effect of Glazing and its Thickness on U-Value (w/m2K) in Different Season (Predicated and Simulated
Readings for Hot and Humid)
Season - Glazing and its thickness/ spacing Hot and humid predicated Hot and humid simulated (Software)
Single glazed 3MM 5.11 5.88
Double glazed 10MM Pane Spacing 2.8 3.15
Double glazed 13MM Pane Spacing 2.68 3.02
Double glazed 16MM Pane Spacing 2.7 2.94
Double glazed 19MM Pane Spacing 2.67 2.88
Double glazed 25MM Pane Spacing 2.5 2.82

Table 7.Effect of Glazing and its Thickness on U-Value (w/m2K) in Different Season (Predicated and Simulated
Readings for Cold and Dry)
Season - Glazing and its thickness/spacing Cold and dry predicated Cold and dry simulated (Software)
Single glazed 3MM 5.06 5.82
Double glazed 10MM Pane Spacing 2.59 2.92
Double glazed 13MM Pane Spacing 2.48 2.79
Double glazed 16MM Pane Spacing 2.53 2.75
Double glazed 19MM Pane Spacing 2.53 2.73
Double glazed 25MM Pane Spacing 2.44 2.75

Results and Discussions spacing. The possible reason for the increased U-value
in single glazed system than double glazed is that
U-Value Software & U-Value Experimental there is higher heat conduction through single pane
than double pane with air in the gap. Moreover the
A perusal data represented in the Table 5, 6 and 7 resistance offered by the air gap increases with
shows the significant variation in the U-value due to increase in pane spacing and hence the U-value
all the three factors i.e. season, type of glazing system decreases. Present finding is also supported by Wright
and pane spacing (for Double glazed windows). With JL, Sullivan HF.2 In relation to the U-value with all the
regard to the type of glazing system in the hot and dry seasons, the U-value is found lowest in cool and dry
season the highest U-value was found in single glazed season and vice - versa. This may be due the fact that
window having 3mm thickness i.e. 6.46 (w/m2K). in cold and dry climate there is less incidence of solar
Lowest U-value was noted in double glazed window radiation which allows for a lesser temperature rise
having 25mm pane spacing i.e. 3.07 (w/m2K). In of the outer pane of window and hence the lesser
another case of hot and humid season U-value with thermal transmittance.1 Similar findings have also
respect to glazing and its thickness was found highest been reported by Wright JL, Sullivan HF; Curcja D,
(5.88) in single glazed window having thickness 3mm, Goss WP; Reilly S.2-4
whereas, lowest (2.82) was found in double glazed
window having 25mm pane spacing. As in the case of Conclusion
cool and dry weather conditions, U-value ranged from
2.73 to 5.82 with respect to glazing and its thickness. From the present investigation it can be concluded
However highest value was recorded in single glazed that the U-value was highest in single glazed window
window having 3mm thickness and lowest was with lowest thickness in hot and dry weather
recorded in double glazed window having thickness condition in Una city. U-values become the deciding
19mm. In the interaction effect of both glazing and its factor in choosing windows for composite climate.
thickness/pane spacing and seasons, the maximum U- Though Double Glazed windows with 19mm Pane
value was recorded in the single glazed window spacing, gives us the lowest value of U-factor i.e. 2.73
having thickness 3mm during the hot and humid in cold and dry season, still it is not recommended for
weather condition. The minimum U-value was use in Una region. This is so because in composite
recorded in double glazed window having 19mm climate summers are comparatively longer and
thickness during the cool and dry season. As the preference needs to be given to Double glazed
pictorial representation of data recorded shown in Fig. windows with 25mm pane spacing having lowest U-
1, 2 and 3 indicated that there is gradual decrease in values of summer season i.e. 3.07 and 2.82 for Hot-
the U-value from single glazed window to double Dry and Hot-Humid season respectively. Thus the use
glazed window with the increase in thickness/pane of Double glazed windows with 25mm pane spacing is

J. Adv. Res. Glass Leath. Plast. Tech. 2017; 2(1&2) Kumar S et al.

recommended for the composite climate of Una. 23(4): 201-11.

However if there is a constraint of cost or of space 2. Wright JL, Sullivan HF. A 2-D numerical model for
occupied, Double glazed windows with 19mm pane glazing system thermal analysis. ASHRAE
spacing must be used. By using the GHP apparatus, we Transactions 1995; 101(1): 819-31.
are able to decrease the U-value and the difference 3. Curcja D, Goss WP. Two dimensional finite
between experimental and software value is 0.07%. element model of heat transfer in complete
fenestration systems. ASHRAE Transactions 1994;
References 100(1): 1207-21.
4. Reilly S. Spacer effects on the edge of glass and
1. Singh I, Bansal NK. Thermal and optical frame heat transfer. ASHRAE Transactions 1994;
parameters for different window system in India. 100(1): 1718-23.
International Journal of Ambient Energy 2002;