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UNIT 4

Population & the environment


SPEAKING  Describing cause 8

and effect    page 38  ANSWER


an /r/ sound
Topic focus
Exam skills
1 10
ANSWERS ANSWERS
B, D, A, C 1 Shops use too much plastic packaging, so there is a lot of
household waste.
2 2 There is a lot of household waste because shops use too
ANSWERS much plastic packaging.
1 obesity EXAM TIP  
2 exhaust emissions
3 illegal rubbish dumps ANSWER
4 uncontrolled migration You’ll probably be asked to say what you have done to
5 lack of sanitation resolve it (the problem).
6 overcrowding

Vocabulary LISTENING Completing
4 sentences    page 40 
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Topic focus
Conservation projects: projects designed to preserve the
natural environment 1
Safe disposal sites: places created by local authorities for
ANSWER
throwing away waste
Rural development: creation of job opportunities and Deforestation – the loss of trees not only means that
infrastructure in the countryside the world is a less beautiful place but we also lose the
Public transport: buses, trains, etc. made available to the oxygen that trees make from carbon dioxide (through
public according to a timetable photosynthesis). This has negative effects on air quality
Cycle lanes: strips of road marked for use by cyclists and on the climate. Furthermore, trees provide homes and
Sewage systems: network of pipes and channels for food for many other species of flora and fauna, so when
transporting waste water we destroy their habitat we also destroy these plants and
Planning regulations: system of laws to control the creation animals, with wide-reaching effects on ecosystems as a
of new buildings whole.

5 Vocabulary
2
ANSWERS
1 the number of illegal rubbish dumps ANSWERS
2 uncontrolled migration / overcrowding 1  D  2  C  3  A  4  B  5  E
3 exhaust emissions
4 lack of sanitation
Exam skills
5 overcrowding / the unplanned development of housing 4
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Grammar 1 Forests, chopped down, financial, reasons
6 2 farmers, clear, space, produce, crops
ANSWERS 3 Companies, create, roads, reach
Too many tourists visit the city, so there is a lot of litter in 4 deforestation, accident, fires, burn
the streets. EXAM TIP  
Too many green spaces are destroyed, so there is a lot of
obesity and poor public health. ANSWER
Too much waste enters rivers, so there is a lot of water You can also quickly try to think of similar words or
pollution. synonyms that might be used to describe the same thing.
Too many workers migrate to cities, so there are a lot of
illegal settlements.
Too many people use cars, so there are a lot of traffic jams.

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5 Grammar
ANSWERS 4
destroy – burn ANSWER
cut down – chop down A is answering essay question b.
money – financial B is answering essay question a.
small – little Paragraph B is more effective because the writer correctly
area – space identifies that the essay requires conditional tenses, which
access – reach are associated with proposed solutions.
chance – accident In paragraph A the student’s use of the present simple
purposes – reasons tense is confusing because the student is not writing about
plants – crops real or existing solutions but rather a proposed solution.
construct – create For proposed solutions any tense that describes things as
current is not really appropriate.
6
ANSWERS 5
1 grow food ANSWERS
2 feed their animals could, would, could
3 remote forests
4 vegetation 6
POSSIBLE ANSWER
Exam practice
There are many reasons why a tax on household waste
7
could help the environment. First, it would encourage
ANSWERS people to recycle more because they would save money. It
1 9 million would also provide income for the government which they
2 organic waste could spend on conservation. Finally, people would see
3 190,000 packaging as a cost and they would change their buying
4 plants and animals habits.
5 more suitable temperatures
6 become extinct Vocabulary
7
8
ANSWERS
ANSWERS Make less: reduce, limit
1  A  2  C Make different: alter, modify, adapt
Make better: develop, improve
Study skills
Create: construct, introduce
ANSWERS
A: share ideas, learn from people’s methods of working, 8
learn from people’s experiences, clarify your own ANSWERS
thoughts 1 Improving / Developing, decrease / reduce
D: one or two people dominate, easily distracted, progress 2 altering / modifying / adapting
not obvious, no clear focus 3 introduce, reduce / decrease
4 improve / develop
WRITING  Brainstorming ideas    page 42  5 limit
EXAM TIP  
Exam skills
ANSWER
3
five or six
ANSWERS
1  b  2  a  3  c Exam skills
10
ANSWERS
Industry leaders: B Artists: E
Doctors: D Social workers: A
Environmentalists: C

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11 8
ANSWERS ANSWER
1 Industry leaders … has done little to solve congestion in urban areas
2 Artists (paragraph C)
3 Environmentalists
4 Social workers Exam practice
5 Doctors 9
ANSWERS
Exam practice
1 F (it surely makes sense to postpone the time that young
12 drivers get their licenses until a little later in life… lines
POSSIBLE ANSWERS 44–45)
We would cut emissions. 2 D (Many older citizens and families also rely on cars…
We would reduce the spread of disease (plant, animal, lines 24–25)
and human). 3 E (Young people make up over 25% of road deaths… line
There would be less overcrowding in the summer. 33)
BUT 4 E (and therefore cut pollution… line 40)
Tourism has far less impact than other activities 5 A (Car ownership … double each year… lines 2–3)
(e.g. deforestation). 6 B (living costs are growing in many countries… line 13)
We would earn less income and have fewer public
resources to conserve nature. Key phrases
Tourism encourages conservation (e.g. national parks 10
and safaris). ANSWERS
Positive (+): successfully, makes sense
READING  Matching information    page 44  Negative (–): no longer possible, ineffective, simply
transferred the problem, has done little to solve, might not
Topic focus be able

1 11
ANSWER ANSWERS
It has doubled. 1 successfully
2 might not be able
Exam skills 3 no longer possible
3 4 has done little to solve
5 ineffective, simply transferred the problem
ANSWERS
6 makes sense
a 1  description of problem 2  poor solutions
3  good solution
b 1  original or past situation 2  current situation
3  future situation
c 1 advantages 2 disadvantages
3  your personal opinion
EXAM TIP  

ANSWER
You should be able to predict the text’s organization.

4
ANSWER
1 solving the problem of traffic congestion

5
ANSWERS
1  C, D   2  E, F   3  A, B

7
ANSWER
solution, not, worked, cities

Foundation IELTS Masterclass: Student’s Book Unit 4 Answer Key Photocopiable  © Oxford University Press 3