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Introduction to Electrical Systems

Course Code: EE 111


Course Code: EE 111

Department: Electrical Engineering


Department: Electrical Engineering

Instructor Name: B G Fernandes


Instructor Name: B.G. Fernandes

E‐mail id: bgf @ee iitb ac in


E‐mail id: bgf @ee.iitb.ac.in

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
1/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Sub‐Topics:   
• Current transformer(contd..)
• Auto transformer

• Rotating machines
Rotating machines

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
2/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Review
If Δ/Y or Y/Δ connections are used in 3‐φ
• If Δ/Y or Y/Δ connections are used in 3‐φ transformer, 
transformer
VL(Δ ) 1
& ∠ = 30
VL ( Y ) 0
= for  turns ratio = 1 VL ( Δ )
VL(Y) 3

• In
In 3‐Ф, 4 wire system feeding 
3 Ф 4 wire system feeding
balanced 3 single phase non‐linear  
loads in→ current in the neutral  
loads,  i current in the neutral
wire will  be finite 

• Potential transformer (step down transformer) is used  
to measure high voltage AC
hi h l AC
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
3/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
how to measure high AC ‘I’ :
MVA in 400kV line could be ≅ 600
600 × 103
∴I = ≅ 850A
3 × 400
ammeter should be connected in series and this meter is 
ammeter should be connected in series and this meter is
placed in control room
⇒ this current should be independent of status of  
thi t h ld b i d d t f t t f
ammeter (faulty/working)
⇒ can we use a transformer to measure current?
⇒ current transformer

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
4/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
⇒ no. of turns in primary = 1
⇒ primary AT = ‘I’
(Independent of  secondary AT)
⇒ In conventional transformer, primary AT is   determined   
by secondary  AT  
N1I1 = N2I2
⇒ current in the secondary should be low
current in the secondary should be low
∴ N2 should be high 
⎛ I ⎞
N2 = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ Desirable current in secondary ⎠

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
5/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
⇒ ammeter is used to measure the current in secondary 
⇒ equivalent to shorted secondary 

⇒ In conventional transformer, short circuit in  
In conventional transformer short circuit in
secondary side is avoided   
(transformer is protected against S.C)
(transformer is protected against S.C)

⇒ because I1 is determined by I2
⇒ In C.T, I1 and therefore N1I1 remains constant and  
independent of N2I2
AT used to establish ‘φ’ in core 
= N1I1 − N2I2 = I − N2I2
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
6/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
if secondary is O.C ⇒ N2I2 = 0
AT used by core = I  
db
⇒ core will be driven into saturation 
⇒ this flux links N2
⇒ high 
high ‘V’
V  will be induced in secondary 
will be induced in secondary

⇒ shock hazard/ affects insulation  
⇒ ensure low ‘R’ path in secondary
⇒ either connect ammeter or S.C while  disconnecting   
either connect ammeter or S C while disconnecting
the ammeter

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
7/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Auto transformer
In transformer,
transformer two sides are completely isolated
In I.I.T.B. incomer is 22kV. This ‘V’ is stepped down to 440V
⇒‘V’
⇒ V levels in two windings is high
⇒ If the voltage levels aren’t very high, isolation may not be
required
⇒ use auto transformer
total no. of turns = N1
no. off turns in the
h tapped d portion = N2
⇒ ‘φ’ Linked by all the turns is the same
V1 N1
∴ =
V2 N2
AT balance
b l requires
i I1 (N1 ‐ N2) = N2 (I2 ‐ I1) (neglecting
l i Io )
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
8/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
N1 I2
∴ =
N2 I1
VA delivered to the load = V2I2
= V2I1 + V2((I2 ‐ I1)
V2I1 → conductively transferred VA
V2((I2 ‐ I1) → inductivelyy transferred VA
Prob:10kVA, 2300/230 V, 2 winding transformer is
connected as an auto transformer. Current in ‘ab’ (L.T.)
winding is equal to the rated current of L.T. winding
10,000
I1 = = 43.48A
43 48A
230
∴ ‘I’ in bc = 4.35 A

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
9/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
∴ I2 = 47.8 A
∴ VA supplied by the source :
10,000
10 000
= 2530 ×
230
a
= 11 × 10kVA  =   a → turns ratio
a−1
VA supplied inductively = V2(I2 ‐ I1) = 10kVA
10,000
VA supplied conductively = V2I1 = 2300 ×
230
= 100 kVA

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
10/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Rotating Machines
Electro Mechanical Energy Conversion (EMEC)
Electro Mechanical Energy  Conversion (EMEC)
• Transformer converts electrical power from one ‘V’ level   
to another
to another
• EMEC equipment convert electrical energy into
mechanical energy & vice versa
mechanical  energy & vice versa
Motor

El t i l E
Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy
Mechanical Energy

Generator

Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
11/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
⇒ In  both systems, there is electrical system &
mechanical system
mechanical system
⇒ coupled by a magnetic field
Elementary concepts:
Elementary concepts:
conductor of length ‘l’ is moving 
with a uniform velocity of ‘ν’
with a uniform velocity of  ν
If ‘B’ is the magnetic field, 
voltage induced, e = Blν
voltage induced, e  Blν
If external ‘R’ is connected, ‘ i ’ will flow
⇒ current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field   
current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
experiences a force, F = Bil
⇒ This 
This ‘F’
F  opposes the movement of conductor 
opposes the movement of conductor
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
12/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
In order to sustain the movement, external force Fa is
applied such that Fa > F
⇒ ‘i' will continue to flow
⇒ I2R = power is available at the o/p 
R = power is available at the o/p
⇒ this power is generated from mechanical
input
→ generator action
IInstead if  V > E is applied, no external force is required 
t d if V > E i li d t lf i i d
to maintain the motion of the conductor 
⇒ Input Electrical energy 
⇒ Motoring action 
o/p mechanical energy

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
13/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Basic requirements of EMEC devices:
For motoring /generating action, there has to be a field 
produced by a set of coils → field coil
⇒ this flux induces ‘V’ or ‘I’ in another coil which is   
rotating in the magnetic field known as armature 
⇒ do we need to have conductor carrying ‘I’  to   
experience a force ?
p
In rotating machine ‘V’ induced in the conductor is
sinusoidal,, irrespective
p of nature of field flux
∴ If dc is required, some arrangement must be made to
convert ac to dc
convert ac to dc 
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
14/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
consider a coil rotating in a magnetic field,
⇒ ‘V’
V induced is sinusoidal
⇒ In one rotation ‘V’ induced in the
coil has completed one cycle (3600)
⇒ ‘V’ induced in the coil completes
two cycles in one cycle of rotation
⇒ one complete rotation = 3600 (mech)
⇒ two complete cycles = 7200 (elect)
∴ electrical
l i l degrees
d ≠ mechanical
h i l degrees
d
10 elec= (2/P)0 mech where ‘P’ is the number of poles

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
15/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
Basic structure:
stator → stationary, does not move
stator → stationary does not move
→ normally outer frame  
rotor → which rotates inside the stator
rotor → which rotates inside the stator
→ separated by small air gap (0.5 ‐ 1mm) 
⇒ generally stator and rotor are made up of high
permeability ferromagnetic material
⇒ length of the air gap is kept as small as possible so
that AT required to establish φ in the air gap is small
⇒ stator bore & rotor are perfectly round
⇒ air gap is uniform & ∴ reluctance
⇒ non‐salient
non salient pole machines
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
16/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
⇒ some machines have non uniform air gap → salient
pole structure
⇒ consider two bar magnets pivoted at their center on
the same shaft
Torque ∝ angular displacement which acts to align them
⇒ stator→ coil ⇒ both of them are carrying 
both of them are carrying ‘I’
I
rotor  → coil
⇒ two MMF sources,, Fs & Fr
⇒ create magnetic flux in the air gap between stator and
rotor
⇒ similar to magnetic poles on both stator and rotor
centered on their respective
p magnetic
g axis
Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
17/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25
⇒ torque is produced by the tendency of two magnetic
fields to align
g
T ∝ FSFr sin ∠ Fr
FS

∝ FSFr sin
i δ
FSr sin δ1 = Fr sin δ ∴ T ∝ FSFSr sin δ1
FSr sin δ2 = FS sin δ ∴ T ∝ FF
r Sr sin δ 2

⇒ for steady torque F
for steady torque FS & F
& Fr should be stationary with  
should be stationary with
respect to each other

Tue  Oct          EE 111: Introduction to Electrical Systems                          
18/18
6,  2009 Prof.  B.G.Fernandes Lecture  25