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A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of

Department of Justice
Classified Subject Files on
Civil Rights, 1914–1949

A UPA Collection
from
Black Studies Research Sources
Microfilms from Major Archival and Manuscript Collections

Department of Justice
Classified Subject Files
on Civil Rights, 1914–1949

Project Coordinator
Christian James

Guide compiled by
Todd Michael Porter

A UPA Collection from

7500 Old Georgetown Road • Bethesda, MD 20814


20814-6126
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Department of Justice classified subject files on civil rights, 1914–1949 [microform] / project
coordinator, Christian James.
microfilm reels; 35 mm. (Black studies research sources)
Summary: Reproduces documents from among the records of the U.S. Department of Justice in
the custody of the National Archives. A large portion of the collection consists of letters from
individual citizens and organizations regarding lynching. Many of the letters are to President
Franklin D. Roosevelt and also to Presidents Wilson and Hoover asking them to do something
about lynching in the South. Other topics covered in the collection include discrimination in the
criminal justice system, voting rights, and employment discrimination.
Accompanied by a printed guide compiled by Todd Michael Porter, entitled: A guide to the
microfilm edition of Department of Justice classified subject files on civil rights, 1914–1949.
ISBN 978-0-88692-765-3
1. African Americans—Civil rights—History—Sources. 2. African Americans—Violence
against—History—Sources. 3. Lynching—Southern States—History—Sources. 4. Racism—
United States—History—20th century—Sources. 5. United States—Race relations—History—
20th century—Sources. I. James, Christian. II. Porter, Todd Michael, 1976– III. United States.
Dept. of Justice. IV. University Publications of America (Firm).
E185.61
323.1196'073009041—dc22
2007061490
CIP

Copyright © 2007 LexisNexis,


a division of Reed Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.
ISBN 0-88692-765-3.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Scope and Content Note ................................................................................................. v
Source Note ..................................................................................................................... xi
Editorial Note ................................................................................................................. xi
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... xiii

Reel Index

Reel 1
October 1911–December 1923 and February 1930–November 1933 .................... 1

Reel 2
January 1924–February 1934.................................................................................. 3

Reel 3
December 1933–August 1934................................................................................. 4

Reel 4
August 1934–January 5, 1935................................................................................. 5

Reel 5
January 6–13, 1935 ................................................................................................. 6

Reel 6
January 15–February 27, 1935................................................................................ 7

Reel 7
February 28, 1935–April 1937................................................................................ 8

Reel 8
April 1937–September 1940 ................................................................................. 10

Reel 9
October 1919–November 1921 and January 1940–August 1941 ......................... 11

Reel 10
November 1919–August 1941 .............................................................................. 12

Reel 11
October 1921 and November 1936–December 1937............................................ 14

iii
Reel 12
January 1–February 11, 1938................................................................................ 15

Reel 13
February 12–December 1938................................................................................ 16

Reel 14
January 1939–February 26, 1940.......................................................................... 16

Reel 15
February 26–October 1, 1940 ............................................................................... 17

Reel 16
January 1922–April 1938...................................................................................... 18

Reel 17
December 2, 1933–July 4, 1934 ........................................................................... 21

Reel 18
April 13, 1934–November 18, 1935 ..................................................................... 22

Reel 19
March 1932–March 1938...................................................................................... 23

Principal Correspondents Index .................................................................................. 25


Subject Index ................................................................................................................. 35

iv
SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE
In October 1943, Ileane Warde of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, composed a four-page
letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (Reel 7, Frames 0230–0233). Despite the war
raging throughout the world, she had more pressing issues to discuss. “Please,” she
asked, “won’t you do something about the niggers?” Explaining that she was a member
of the “poorer class,” she revealed the source of her concern: “the coons are getting
unbearable,” she explained, and “it isn’t safe fore [sic] a white person to go out any more.
Coons go after white girls, molest [and] try to flirt with them; others grab white women,
take [them] up dark alleys beat them unmercifully, criminally attack them, tear their
clothes off their back and leave them half dead.” Expressing a fear shared by many white
citizens, she foretold the overthrow of the white population, warning that before long the
“neggers will far outnumber us, and therefor take advantage of us. After [a] while they’ll
rule this country then good bye us; for they’re in the same class as Jap; the lower class are
just as uncivilized as Japs [sic].”
Ileane Ward was not the only concerned citizen to petition the president. Five years
earlier, in February 1938, Mrs. Viola West of White Plains, New York, had protested
eloquently on behalf of colored folk against racial discrimination (Reel 13, Frames 0687–
0690). “This thing,” she wrote, referring to the practice of lynching, “is as a black cloud
hanging over our race where ever we go we see it, we hear it, we feel it deep down into
the very depths of our souls.” She too confessed that when she peered into the future, she
“shuddered with the fear of uncertainty,” though for very different reasons than Ileane
Ward. She asked the president beseechingly: “Can you realize yourself what these things
are doing to the colored race of America? If we cannot look to the government of which
we are subjected for protection where or to whom can we turn?”
This collection of Department of Justice files on civil rights offers a glimpse into the
minds of ordinary men and women, both black and white, in the first half of the twentieth
century. Ranging from 1911 until 1943, the documents center broadly on the practice of
lynching and specifically upon the thousands of letters written to protest this form of
extralegal “punishment.” The core of the collection consists of two bundles of letters to
the president, covering 1911–1941 (Reels 1–10) and 1921–1940 (Reels 10–15).
Interspersed with the letters are clusters of documents on a variety of related topics: race
riots, lynching investigations, press reports and meeting records from the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), personal letters of
complaint and requests for assistance, and newspaper clippings and memorandums
concerning antilynching bills.
Because the numerical designations used by the Department of Justice are fairly
obscure, a few comments are in order. This collection contains all files from the archives
marked with the heading 158260. Subheadings were used to gather together related
documents, but generally do not convey useful information about the subjects within each
designation. In this collection, the designations 158260 (no subheading) and 158260-10

v
(subheading 10) correspond to the two lengthy series of letters to the president mentioned
above; 158260-46 deals with the case of the Scottsboro Boys (see below), 158260-58
concerns the lynching of Claude Neal, and other subheadings from 158260-1 through
158260-61 pertain to documents on miscellaneous subjects such as race riots, lynchings,
or civil rights violations. Certain subheadings were apparently used by the Department of
Justice for defined topics (1, 2, and 8 for race riots, for example), though with no
discernible rhyme or reason.
The primary focus of this collection is the mountain of letters written to the president
to complain about lynchings or to seek support for federal antilynching legislation. Most
of these letters were written during the 1930s and early 1940s, but some date from as far
back as 1911 (see Reels 1, 2, and 10). Roosevelt, who served from 1933 to 1945, is thus a
central figure in this collection, though he is primarily a silent actor, a distant symbol to
whom ordinary citizens could address their complaints and pleas. Roosevelt was
bombarded during his presidency with thousands of letters written by a wide variety of
individuals and organizations, both black, white, and mixed: Elks, Masons, fraternities,
college societies, labor groups, agricultural societies, local branches of the Young
Women’s and Young Men’s Christian Association (YWCA and YMCA), state
legislatures, city assemblies, lawyers, church congregations, the NAACP, and even the
Communist Party of America fired off letters to the architect of the New Deal. These
letters take up virtually the entire collection, although some reels contain additional
documents pertaining to the various antilynching bills that wound slowly through
Congress in the 1920s and 1930s.
More than half the collection deals with letters concerning attempts to pass federal
antilynching legislation. The first bill to appear was the Dyer Bill, which was submitted
to Congress in 1918; it passed the House of Representatives in 1922, only to die soon
thereafter in a Senate filibuster. This pattern was repeated in the 1930s, when the
Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill (1934–1935) and offshoots were passed by the
House and then suffocated in the Senate. These failures were not for lack of vocal public
support: a major campaign was mounted in support of the Costigan-Wagner Bill, led by
such organizations as the YWCA and NAACP but also backed by hundreds of other
organizations and individuals. The campaign picked up steam in the second half of 1934,
after Congress adjourned without voting on the bill, and was driven forward by
particularly heinous lynchings, such as that of 23-year-old Claude Neal in Marianna,
Florida. In addition to personalized letters, the collection contains form letters (see
below), both typed and handwritten, as well as mass petitions with hundreds or even
thousands of names affixed.
Despite the correspondence sent his way, Roosevelt refused to support the Costigan-
Wagner Bill publicly, fearing that it would cost him Democratic votes in the South and
lead to defeat in the 1936 presidential election. This was a valid fear: white southern
voters abandoned the Democratic Party in the 1960s after passage of the civil rights laws,
leading to the Republican Party’s rise in the South. Roosevelt’s reticence—apart from a
few isolated pronouncements against lynching—allowed southern senators impunity to
filibuster the Costigan-Wagner Bill and its offshoots. Since lawmakers were reluctant to
express their opposition in overtly racist terms, criticism came to center on the issue of
whether antilynching legislation was an intrusive “northern” attack on southern states.
Even senators who sympathized with the victims of lynching refused to support the bills,

vi
fearing that federal legislation would do more harm than good by stirring up southern
hatred of the North as well as by potentially reinvigorating a practice that was, by many
indications, already in decline. Roosevelt, for his part, was reproached by a number of
correspondents for his “silence,” with some pointing out the inconsistency in his
willingness to speak against the Nazi persecution of Jews while refusing to lend his
authority to the fight against lynching.
Antilynching sentiments addressed to the president came in two basic varieties:
personal letters and form letters. Personal letters abound from correspondents of all races,
beseeching the president to use his influence to intercede on behalf of the stalled
antilynching legislation. Taken together, these letters provide a good cross-section of
sentiment about race in the 1920s and 1930s, suggesting just how difficult it was to make
positive inroads in eradicating racism. Black correspondents often pleaded with the
president for assistance in particular matters, including unjust convictions, racial
harassment, housing evictions, employment discrimination, and even murder. Lizzie
Montgomery, for example, reported that after she had been raped by a white man, she
was warned that she would be killed if she reported the crime. Although she was well
aware that she would never benefit from “equal rights like a white lady could,” she was
hopeful that the president would intercede and help her “hold up my princepel [sic]”
(Reel 3, Frames 0219–0223).
Other letters were written in response to particular lynchings. Two cases that aroused
unusual indignation were the lynchings of George Armwood in Maryland and Claude
Neal in Florida. Armwood was implausibly accused of raping an 81-year-old white
woman, while Neal was brutally tortured over a period of several hours prior to his
hanging. But it was the conviction of nine black teenagers in Scottsboro, Alabama, that
aroused the most outrage, judging by the flood of letters sent to Roosevelt in 1933–1936
(see Reels 16–18). The “Scottsboro Boys” were accused of assaulting two white women
on a train, despite strong evidence to the contrary. Their case was championed by the
International Labor Defense (ILD), the legal branch of the Communist Party of America,
which oversaw the mass production of letters, postcards, and resolutions calling for the
boys’ release. Although the boys spent long years in prison, death sentences against two
of the defendants were finally overturned, and all nine were eventually pardoned or
paroled. This outcome, however, was not due to any action on the part of President
Roosevelt, who at one point refused to meet with a 25-person delegation to discuss the
case (see Reel 18, Frame 0654–0655).
Other black writers complained about lynching as a general phenomenon. W. B.
Chambers, for example, castigated the government for failing to pass federal antilynching
laws (Reel 4, Frames 0090–0092), informing the president that “this matter of lynching
must be a foul stench in your nostrils as it is [in] mine.” He laid out his views in dark
terms: “Visualize a drunken mob of gloating men, women, and children, members of a
supposedly superior race torturing one lone helpless black victim. If this unholy spectacle
is not enough to cause Federal action and legislation, what in God’s name is?” Caroline
E. Nichols, a “young negro woman,” plaintively asked Roosevelt not to be “prejudised
against us, because we are humans just like you.” She begged for the president’s help in
passing the Costigan-Wagner bill, writing that a “word from you to Congress is all I ask”
(Reel 6, Frame 0253).

vii
Not all writers were opposed to lynching; some whites championed it in blunt terms,
mostly on the grounds that blacks lusted after white women and that they were lazy and
fit only to be servants. A 90-year-old white woman offered a simple solution to the
problem of lynching, stating that the “Negro can more easily stop lynching than any law
can—teach them that he must keep his hands off white ladies” (Reel 4, Frame 0111).
Another writer suggested that blacks either be settled onto reservations “as it was done
for Indians,” or better yet, sterilized “as Hitler h[as] just done in Germany.” At any rate,
he declared, “Negros are the real black menace calling for immediate attention,” for they
were “lazy, indolent, noicy, spity, arrogantly indecents and cynically criminals and will
never change [sic]” (Reel 7, Frame 0165). While less vitriolic, Agnes Doty Smith of
Charleston, South Carolina, was equally in favor of lynching, writing that “we have
always treated the negro kindly and given him what he needs, but social equality never.
The negro was made only for a servant, and he is even poor at that” (Reel 12, Frame
0321). The extent of the challenge facing antilynching campaigners was laid bare in 1935
in the aftermath of the lynching of two boys, Ernest Collins and Benny Mitchell, in
Columbus, Texas. Although H. P. Hahn, a local judge, insisted that he was “strongly
opposed to mob violence,” he sympathized with the mob’s fury over the fact that the boys
were underage, and hence ineligible for the death penalty. “The fact that the Negroes who
so brutally murdered Miss Kollman could not be adequately punished by law because of
their ages,” he remarked, “prevents me from condemning those citizens who meted
justice to the ravishing murderers last night” (Reel 7, Frame 0644). The two boys, it
should be noted, had only been charged with murder, and not yet tried or convicted.
Equally impressive are the masses of form letters that populate this collection. Local
groups often coordinated letter-writing campaigns in the hopes of convincing President
Roosevelt to support antilynching legislation. One example was the town of Greenville,
Illinois, which printed off dozens of note cards with a simple statement in favor of the
Costigan-Wagner Bill, each attesting that the writer was a “white native born citizen of
America” (Reel 6, Frames 0095+). The members of the North Side YWCA of Omaha,
Nebraska, likewise sent in more than fifty identical letters (Frame 7, Reel 0348+). But the
most bizarre example came from the followers of Father Divine, a charismatic leader in
New York who claimed to be God. Reels 14–15 contain hundreds of letters from early
1940, all marked with the word “Peace” at the top; a number include the formula
“A.D.F.D.” after the date, which presumably stands for “Anno Domini Father Divine.”
Most of these letters are signed with fake names such as “Peaceful Love,” “Faith
Victory,” “Holy Quietness,” “Happy Smile,” “John the Baptist, “H[oly] V[irgin] Mary,”
and “Sweet Determination.” The group used at least four different form letters, along
with a few longer, less formulaic offerings: one seven-page typewritten letter (Reel 15,
Frames 0450–0456) from a follower of Father Divine was signed “Rebekah Well,” an
apparent reference to the story of Rebekah at the well in Genesis 24. Atypical as these
correspondents may have been in their religious beliefs, they were scarcely alone in the
hope that Roosevelt would play a positive role in the fight against lynching. In this they
were disappointed; it was the course of time, and not presidential support, that led to the
end of lynching in the United States.
Information on these and other topics can be found by consulting the Subject Index
and Principal Correspondents Index at the back of this guide, or by browsing through the
Reel Index. Since the entire collection deals with both lynching and black Americans,

viii
these two subjects are only indexed in connection with specific secondary topics. For the
primary term “lynching,” secondary topics include specific people or locations involved
in lynchings, but not references to general letters of complaint, since these recur
throughout the collection. For “black Americans,” secondary topics include such issues
as voting rights, employment discrimination, and individual organizations, but it should
be noted that blacks appear repeatedly throughout the collection, from prominent figures
such as Thurgood Marshall and Walter White, to humble, semi-literate correspondents.
Other collections from LexisNexis that may be of interest include The Documentary
History of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidency, Vol. 11: FDR and Protection from
Lynching, 1934–1945; New Deal Agencies and Black America; The Peonage Files of the
U.S. Department of Justice, 1901–1945; Federal Surveillance of Afroamericans (1917–
1925): The First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement; and separate
volumes on Civil Rights During the Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Carter
Administrations.

ix
SOURCE NOTE
This microform publication consists of documents from Record Group 60 of the
Department of Justice General Records, Entry 112-B, Straight Numerical Files, #158260,
preserved in boxes 1276–1293 at the National Archives and Records Administration in
College Park, Maryland.

EDITORIAL NOTE
For this microform publication, LexisNexis has microfilmed all documents in boxes
1276–1293 in the order in which they are arranged at the National Archives.

xi
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used three or more times in this guide.

FDR Franklin Delano Roosevelt

ILD International Labor Defense

KKK Ku Klux Klan

NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored


People

YMCA Young Men’s Christian Association

YWCA Young Women’s Christian Association

xiii
REEL INDEX
The following is a listing of the files and items composing Department of Justice Classified
Subject Files on Civil Rights, 1914–1949. The four-digit number on the far left is the frame at
which a particular file folder begins. This is followed by the folder title or a general description
of the folder contents. Major topics are listed below the folder title, followed by a list of principal
correspondents and authors. Terms are listed in the order in which they occur, and each term is
listed only once per folder.

Reel 1
Frame No.

0001 158260, Section 1 #1, December 1917–May 1919.


Major Topics: NAACP; protests against lynchings in Mississippi, North Carolina, and
Texas; forced labor of black women; use of German in religious services;
complaints about pro-German Jews in San Francisco, Calif.; Woodrow Wilson
denunciation of mob lynchings; League of American Patriots; mob violence
perpetrated by Citizens Patriotic League of Covington, Ky.
Principal Correspondents: John R. Shillady; Henry Lincoln; John Lord O’Brien;
Thomas D. Slattery.

0127 158260, Section 1 #2, March 1912–December 1917.


Major Topics: Protests against lynchings, mob violence, and harassment of blacks;
United Civic League “Declaration of Principles”; voting rights in North Carolina;
Fourteenth Amendment; selection of blacks for jury duty in Texas; NAACP
circular concerning lynching cases.
Principal Correspondents: Douglas Tucker; Marshall Smith; W. R. Harr.

0218 158260, Section 1 #3, October 1911–March 1912 and August–September 1919.
Major Topics: Protests against lynchings and mob violence; interference with postal
service for Matt Allen; Fifteenth Amendment; NAACP resolutions against
lynching.
Principal Correspondents: James M. Smith; C. P. Covington; W. R. Harr; Hasting
Howard.

0276 158260, Section 2 #1, August 1919–June 1921.


Major Topics: Protests against lynchings and mob violence; Associated Negro Press;
requests that Warren G. Harding support passage of federal antilynching
legislation; petition against organization of KKK in Athens, Ga.; Camps Normal

1
Frame No.

Industrial Institute; Library of Congress bibliography on civil rights; Hodges v.


United States; violence against former black veterans in Omaha, Nebr.; Bolton
Smith pamphlet “A Philosophy of Race Relations” concerning benefits for blacks
of racial segregation.
Principal Correspondents: Robert P. Stewart; Guy Wilson Hackley; J. E. Boyd;
Theodore Hawkins; Arthur A. Schomburg; James A. Ray; Bolton Smith.

0422 158260, Section 2 #2, June–July 1919.


Major Topics: Requests that Warren G. Harding support passage of federal
antilynching legislation; violence against black soldiers; protests against
lynchings and mob violence; NAACP request for congressional lynching
investigation; New York Masons opposition to mob law; Will Moore lynching in
Mississippi.
Principal Correspondents: Robert P. Stewart; C. Theo Lundquiste; Arthur A.
Schomburg.

0468 158260, Section 3 #1, January 1922–December 1923.


Major Topics: Requests that Warren G. Harding support Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill;
Quakers; protests against lynchings and mob violence; lynchings in Kirvin, Tex.;
Charles Atkins burning at the stake in Davisboro, Ga.; KKK.
Principal Correspondents: W. D. Johnson; John W. H. Crim; Fannie Miller; Philip
M. Lawson.

0588 158260, Section 3 #2, July 1921–January 1922.


Major Topics: Requests that Warren G. Harding support Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill;
NAACP; Republican Party; protests against lynchings and mob violence.
Principal Correspondents: John W. H. Crim; John Taylor.

0670 158260, Section 3 #3, June–July 1921.


Major Topics: Republican Interstate League defense of federal antilynching
legislation; Guy D. Goff appearance before House of Representatives Committee
on the Judiciary concerning constitutionality of federal antilynching law.
Principal Correspondents: Charley Walker; H. A. Clarke.

0717 158260, Section 6, August–November 1933.


Major Topic: Lynching of Dan Pippen Jr., A. T. Harden, and Elmore Clarke in
Tuscaloosa, Ala., Norris F. Dendy in Clinton, S.C., J. H. Wilkins in Locust Grove,
Ga., and George Armwood in Maryland.
Principal Correspondent: William L. Patterson.

0767 158260, Section 5, February 1930–November 1933.


Major Topics: Lynching of Dan Pippen Jr., A. T. Harden, and Elmore Clarke in
Tuscaloosa, Ala.; International Juridical Association; National Scottsboro Action
Committee proposal for Negro Rights Bill; ILD pamphlet concerning Scottsboro
Boys case in Alabama; protests against lynchings and mob violence; Adeline
Carlton v. Southern Railway Company; Union of American Hebrew

2
Frame No.

Congregations resolution against lynching; Roger Crum and Wilhemena Kiser


complaints of persecution; J. J. Tullis murder in Bakersfield, Calif.
Principal Correspondents: Frank C. Lyons; Corinne Lee Banks; Charles M. Thomas;
John Taylor; J. T. Bey; John B. Isbell; Nugent Dodds; W. A. Denson; Dorothy
North; Edward B. Rembert; John H. Simpkins; C. Dearman; Roger Crum.

Reel 2

0002 158260, Section 5, August–November 1933.


Major Topics: ILD denunciation of FDR inaction on lynching; demand for Maryland
Governor Albert C. Ritchie impeachment for failure to prevent Euel Lee and
George Armwood lynchings; Baptist Ministers Conference; requests that FDR
support federal antilynching legislation; Howard University Student Council;
Scottsboro Boys case; ILD murder charges against Tuscaloosa, Ala., officials for
Dan Pippen Jr. and A. T. Harden lynchings.
Principal Correspondents: Abram B. Hell; Grace Miller; Horace R. Clayton; Walter
F. White; George H. Smith; W. I. Bland; Ceola Johnson; William L. Patterson;
Hattie G. Reavis; Elizabeth Tolliver; Thomas E. Knight Jr.

0275 158260, Section 4 [#2], January 1924–October 1929.


Major Topics: Complaints of harassment and mistreatment of blacks; request that
Herbert Hoover stop lynchings; police brutality in Washington, D.C., and
Wichita, Kans.; Association of Negro Radicals activities in Chattanooga, Tenn.;
request that Calvin Coolidge stop lynchings; Clarence S. Darrow speech; W. H.
Lindsey acquittal for choking black maid; racial discrimination complaint against
United States Shipping Board.
Principal Correspondents: E. W. Daniels; Bessie M. Johnson; Charles Johnson;
Wright E. Harris; Daniel Matthew; Nick Chiles; Lucy McDaniel; Elva Goodriel;
L. A. Calloway; Robert Massey; Harry Dean; Louise Morris.

0461 158260, [Section 4 #1] June 1929–December 1933.


Major Topics: Peonage accusations; protests against lynchings and harassment of
blacks; NAACP goals; disbarment proceedings against Bernard Ades for
involvement in Euel Lee case.
Principal Correspondents: Horace Robinson; J. Edgar Hoover.

0520 158260, Section 7, October–December 1933.


Major Topics: Praise for and criticism of FDR denunciation of lynchings in speech to
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America; United Front Auto Workers
Conference resolution against lynching; requests that FDR promote federal
antilynching legislation; protests against racial discrimination and lynchings,
including George Armwood lynching in Maryland; Women’s International
League for Peace and Freedom; ILD; federal kidnapping law; school segregation;

3
Frame No.

Sheriff R. L. Shamblin prosecution for role in Dan Pippen Jr. and A. T. Harden
lynchings in Tuscaloosa, Ala.; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: John G. Wade; C. L. Slater; Benny Moore; J. E. Branham;
William J. Tussey; Parthenia Hills; Jean Nagourney; J. M. Mack; Stephen Mark;
Clifton P. Gould; John H. Crouch; Charles H. Houston; Jean Elinor Robinson
Suthern; John Bryan.

0859 158260, Section 8, December 1933–February 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; ILD
protest against executions of blacks in Alabama; protests against lynchings and
mob violence; NAACP resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation;
Norman Thibodeaux attempted lynching in Louisiana; protests against George
Armwood lynching in Maryland and Scottsboro Boys case; A. H. Williams essay
on causes of lynching; plea for National Recovery Administration help for
unemployed printers; Blue Ribbon Benefit Society; Negro Ministerial Alliance.
Principal Correspondents: P. H. Hughes; Seymour C. Jordan; Sherwood Green;
William R. Churchill; Theodore Sepras; A. Rankins; Joseph B. Keenan; Florence
B. Spaulding; H. D. Campbell; May Borleske.

Reel 3

0001 158260, Section 9, December 1933–February 1934.


Major Topics: Cord Cheek lynching in Nashville, Tenn.; protests against lynchings
and racial discrimination; Western Anti-Lynch Conference resolutions on
violence against farm workers; requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner
Anti-Lynching Bill; NAACP; YWCA; capital punishment; list of lynchings in
1933; KKK; Robert M. Zarucha manslaughter accusation against New Haven
Hospital in Connecticut; rape; New History Society resolution in favor of federal
antilynching legislation; Pictorial History of the American Negro by Thomas O.
Fuller; support for lynchings.
Principal Correspondents: J. T. Richards; Joseph B. Keenan; H. N. Holloway; Robert
M. Zarucha; Lewell Person; George F. Murphy; Lizzie Montgomery; Helen
Waterman; Harry F. Thornton; Mrs. George Giles; Mary Rose Burton; W. A.
Allen; Sherman S. Furr; Anne Barr; R. W. Azora.

0280 158260, Section 10, February–April 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Elks of New Orleans, La., resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation;
complaint of unlawful land seizure; protests against lynchings and racial
discrimination; attack on black congressman Oscar De Priest; Dan Pippen Jr. and
A. T. Harden lynching in Tuscaloosa, Ala.; capital punishment; Bennett College
for Women; YWCA.

4
Frame No.

Principal Correspondents: Joseph B. Keenan; Ida M. Rosengren; P. Colfax Rameau;


Mary V. Pugh; Robert H. LaPorte; Ella Mae Key; Charles H. Houston; Margaret
L. Hansen; Ollie Belle Boulware; Martha Gallantar.

0518 158260, Section 11, April–June 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Elks of Providence, R.I., resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation;
NAACP; Conference on the Problems of Minorities; YWCA; freedom of speech;
Eleanor Roosevelt; H. A. Clarke argument on constitutionality of federal
antilynching legislation; illegal Western Union response to ore miners strike in
Alabama; Peace Heroes Memorial Society; Illinois House of Representatives
resolution in favor of Costigan-Wagner bill; lynching statistics, 1918–1934;
Costigan-Wagner Bill hearings; harassment of workers in Imperial Valley, Calif.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; Ira C. Brown; Joseph B. Keenan; Mrs. E.
Thomas.

0771 158260, Section 12, June–August 1934.


Major Topics: Angelo Herndon; National Encampment of the United Spanish War
Veterans resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation; John Griggs
lynching in Kirbyville, Tex.; Scottsboro Boys case; requests that FDR promote
Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; illegal Western Union response to ore
miners strike in Alabama; death threats; reports of lynchings, including that of
Norris Dendy in Clinton, S.C.; Denver, Colo., police brutality against Hispanic
Americans; Elks of Cleveland, Ohio, resolution in favor of federal antilynching
legislation; torture of black inmates.
Principal Correspondents: Joseph B. Keenan; Harry F. Thornton; Florence A. J.
Berry; S. S. Johnson.

Reel 4

0001 158260, Section 13, August–December 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; Claude Neal lynching in Florida; Women’s International League for
Peace and Freedom; NAACP weekly press releases; Universal Negro
Improvement Association; Marcus Garvey; ILD; racial discrimination in
Cartersville, Ga.
Principal Correspondents: Mary R. Johnson; William Miller; W. B. Chambers; E. J.
Ellis; E. H. Watson; John Allen Sanders; Mary Ella Hart; Louis Foster.

0202 158260, Section 14, December 3–11, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; protests against Claude Neal lynching in Florida; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: Joseph B. Keenan; Capp Jefferson; Joseph J. Verchota;
Clarence A. Bolin; Mabel Pelham Moore.

5
Frame No.

0314 158260, Section 15, December 12–19, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; Hampton Institute of Hampton, Va.
Principal Correspondents: Charles B. Sornberger; Helen O. Jones.

0483 158260, Section 16, December 20, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; Hampton Institute of Hampton, Va.

0580 158260, Section 17, December 21–25, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
racial discrimination; legal defense of federal antilynching legislation; proposal to
create separate homeland for black Americans; YWCA; Hampton Institute of
Hampton, Va.
Principal Correspondents: Richard Eare; Fred Bopp; S. J. Jones.

0717 158260, Section 18, December 26–30, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; protests against Scottsboro Boys case and Claude Neal lynching in
Florida; NAACP petition against lynching.
Principal Correspondents: Esther Thomas Archer; Frank Kingsley Evans; Clifus Lee
Johnson.

0818 158260, Section 19, December 31, 1934–January 3, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA.
Principal Correspondents: Sam M. Goode; Harold A. Anderson.

0929 158260, Section 20, January 4–5, 1935.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill.

Reel 5

0001 158260, Section 21, January 6–7, 1935.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill.

0104 158260, Section 22, January 8, 1935.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill.

0314 158260, Section 23, January 9, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; NAACP.

6
Frame No.

0479 158260, Section 24, January 10, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; dissatisfaction with FDR administration; Hampton Institute of Hampton,
Va.
Principal Correspondent: William S. Butler.

0686 158260, Section 25, January 11, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA.
Principal Correspondent: Charles E. Banks.

0813 158260, Section 26, January 12, 1935.


Major Topics: NAACP; Jerome Wilson lynching in Franklinton, La.; requests that
FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; Charles Dodson alleged
murder of white policeman; protest against lynchings; YWCA.
Principal Correspondents: Marie Barrought; Allen Thompson.

0914 158260, Section 27, January 13, 1935.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill.

Reel 6

0001 158260, Section 28, January 15–17, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; YMCA; Harlem Labor Committee resolution in favor of federal
antilynching legislation.

0095 158260, Section 29, January 18–22, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; YMCA.
Principal Correspondent: A. J. Griswold.

0219 158260, Section 30, January 23–29, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YMCA; YWCA; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity resolution in favor of federal
antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Caroline E. Nichols; James H. Wolf; Albert E. Barnett.

0312 158260, Section 31, January 30, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Virginia State College in Ettrick, Va.

0371 158260, Section 32, February 1, 1935.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill.

7
Frame No.

0513 158260, Section 33, February 2–5, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Illinois Senate resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation; Women’s
International League for Peace and Freedom.

0607 158260, Section 34, February 6–9, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
NAACP; W. Forrest Cozart comments on lynching in The Chosen People (book).

0680 158260, Section 35, February 10–12, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; Cleveland Baptist Ministers’ Conference and NAACP resolutions in
favor of federal antilynching legislation; racial harassment.
Principal Correspondents: P. Colfax Rameau; Jacob Cannon.

0785 158260, Section 36, February 13–27, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Colorado Senate and NAACP resolutions in favor of federal antilynching
legislation; Scottsboro Boys case; police mistreatment of and mob violence
against blacks in Tennessee; Massachusetts legislature resolution in favor of
federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Ida Moore; Carrie Auerbach; Booker T. Fossett; Nancy S.
Johnson.

Reel 7

0001 158260, Section 37, February 28–March 7, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Colored Men’s Progressive Association of Sweetwater County, Wyo., and Indiana
House of Representatives resolutions in favor of federal antilynching legislation.

0129 158260, Section 38, March 8–15, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; proposal that blacks either be settled on a reservation or sterilized;
Nebraska House of Representatives resolution in favor of federal antilynching
legislation; equal rights for blacks.
Principal Correspondent: John Maclin.

0228 158260, Section 39, June–October 1943 and March 16–27, 1935.
Major Topics: Plea for government action to put black Americans “in their place”;
rape accusation against black youths in Detroit, Mich.; proposal to found United
States Legion of Honor; race riots in Detroit, Mich., and Beaumont, Tex.; requests
that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; mob violence in

8
Frame No.

Stockdale, Tex.; demands for arrest of men involved in Ab Young lynching in


Slayden, Miss.
Principal Correspondents: Ileane Warde; Willie Davis; G. D. Borden; Hattie
Edwards; Pheobe J. Anderson; Jerry R. Edmunds; Genevieve Beatryce Mulnix.

0348 158260, Section 40, March 28–April 2, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; Minnesota legislature resolution in favor of federal antilynching
legislation.

0441 158260, Section 41, April 3–May 1, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
League for Civil Rights and Justice resolution in favor of black voting rights and
against lynching; Norris Dendy lynching in Clinton, S.C.; racial harassment in
Hastings, Fla.; NAACP periodical The Crisis and petition in favor of Costigan-
Wagner Bill; racial harassment in Atlanta, Ga.; Universal Negro Improvement
Association, Gardena Valley Democratic Club of Gardena, Calif., and Federation
of Democratic Clubs resolutions in favor of federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Lawrence A. Trimmer; Willie C. Brown Sr.; Hezekiah
Sebron; Dazalia Kelly; Thomas McGhee; John Mills.

0622 158260, Section 42, May–November 1935.


Major Topics: Plea that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; Ernest Collins and
Benny Mitchell lynching in Columbus, Tex.; police mistreatment of blacks in
Georgia and Texas; ILD resolution on Scottsboro Boys; lynchings of Elwood
Higginbotham in Oxford, Miss., Joe Spinner Johnson in Greensboro, Ala., and
Govan Ward in Louisburg, N.C.; State Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs of
Denver, Colo., resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation; requests that
FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; Ruben Stacy lynching in
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.; Georgia Teachers and Educational Association efforts to
promote black education; R. D. McGee lynching in Wiggins, Miss.; NAACP
petitions in support of Costigan-Wagner Bill.
Principal Correspondents: Printer Dantzler; Joseph B. Keenan; Isaiah Hairris;
Ednamae Ellison; Walter F. White; F. S. Horne; Alfred H. Oliver; Lila Williams;
Sue O. A. Wallace.

0800 158260, Section 43, December 1935–April 1937.


Major Topics: YMCA of Oakland, Calif., petition against lynching; protests against
lynching and mob violence; Interracial Conference of Church Women resolution
in favor of federal antilynching legislation; Lint Shaw lynching in Royston, Ga.;
capital punishment; requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching
Bill; murder accusation against Robert Rowans; Frederick Van Nuys U.S. Senate
resolution demanding lynching investigation; NAACP resolution in favor of
federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Joseph B. Keenan; Jack Braxton; C. D. Austin; Clarence
Mitchell; L. J. Anderson; Beatrice Rowans; George P. Kemp.

9
Frame No.

Reel 8

0001 158260, Section 44, April 1937–December 1938.


Major Topics: NAACP weekly press release; defenses of lynching; false
imprisonment of Joseph Harris in Bainbridge, Ga.; protests against lynching and
mob violence; requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Wilder McGowan lynching in Wiggins, Miss.; The People’s Committee of
Detroit, Mich., resolution in favor of lynching investigation; Robert F. Wagner
denunciation of lynching; John Dukes lynching in Arabi, Ga.; Tuskegee Institute
lynching report; International Workers Order resolution against police
mistreatment of blacks in District of Columbia; KKK activities in Clearwater,
Fla.; protests against capital punishment; Henry Lowry lynching in Arkansas;
Roosevelt Townes and Bootjack McDaniels lynching in Winona, Miss.; East Bay
Rod and Gun Club of Oakland, Calif., resolution in favor of federal antilynching
legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Betty L. Johnson; L. E. Scarbrough; Leonidas C. Dyer;
Homer S. Cummings; Sam J. Fleming; Herman Johnston; Isaiah Hairris; Solomon
Froud; Brien McMahon; Harold C. Bailey; Eleanor Cuthbertson Gonzalez; John
Maclin; Benjamin N. Murrell.

0283 158260, Section 45, December 1938–May 1939.


Major Topics: Lee Snell lynching in Daytona Beach, Fla.; NAACP meeting record;
ILD; support for antilynching legislation; Wilder McGowan lynching in Wiggins,
Miss.; employment discrimination; Kirby Baldwin and Floyd Edwards lynching
in Goldsboro, N.C.; list of lynchings in 1938–1939; voting rights discrimination;
National Conference of Problems of Negro and Negro Youth report on civil
liberties; criticism of FDR for appointing blacks to high offices.
Principal Correspondents: Edward G. Kemp; J. Edgar Hoover; Thurgood Marshall;
Brien McMahon; John Hawkins; M. R. Baker.

0507 158260, Section 46, May–September 1939.


Major Topics: NAACP meeting records, weekly press releases, and civil rights
resolutions; university education discrimination; voting rights; KKK;
mistreatment of black employees; Joe Rodgers lynching in Canton, Miss.; Lee
Snell lynching in Daytona Beach, Fla.; federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; William Pickens; Henry H. Cooper Jr.;
Frank Murphy; Vito Marcantonio.

0679 158260, Section 47, September 1939–January 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; NAACP
meeting records and weekly press releases; Arthur B. Spingarn; Congress of
Industrial Organizations resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation;
Walter Mills v. Board of Education of Anne Arundel County (Md.) case on
employment discrimination; NAACP Youth Council and College Chapter
financial report for 1939; Willie Jack Heggard lynching in Pickens, Miss.; Father
Divine; employment discrimination in Tampa Shipbuilding Yards; KKK.

10
Frame No.

Principal Correspondents: Louise W. Scott; William Pickens; Walter F. White; Jane


Heggard.

0887 158260, Section 48, January–September 1940.


Major Topics: Complaints about black youth attitudes toward sex; racial
discrimination in U.S. armed forces; NAACP; Jesse Thornton lynching in
Luverne, Ala.; housing discrimination in Los Angeles, Calif.; National Bar
Association; racial discrimination in legal profession; Elbert Williams lynching in
Brownsville, Tenn.; public transportation segregation; Frank Manning shooting
by police officer Pete Kellihan in Chadbourn, N.C.; voting rights; criticism of
Native Son by Richard Wright.
Principal Correspondents: Bertram C. Bland; Handsel G. Bell; Thurgood Marshall;
Lee Lofton; Bertha Blake; David Sinclair; James E. Jackson Jr.; Eugene
Nicholson.

Reel 9

0002 158260, Section 48 cont., January–September 1940.


Major Topics: Civil rights violations in Camden, N.J.; Jamaica Gleaner newspaper;
mob violence in Fulton, Ga.; voting rights; requests that FDR promote federal
antilynching legislation; George Selby attempted lynching in Pocomoke City,
Md.; NAACP meeting records and weekly press releases.
Principal Correspondent: Hans V. Hentig.

0150 158260-1, October 1919–November 1921.


Major Topics: Death sentences against blacks allegedly involved in race riots in
Elaine, Ark.; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: James Rudolph Little; William Pickens; William T.
Ferguson; Walter F. White.

0228 158260-4, May 1921.


Major Topic: Lynching in Picayune, Miss.

0232 158260, Section 49, September–December 1940.


Major Topics: Poll tax; Edward H. Crump; employment discrimination in Ohio
Highway Patrol; death sentence against Odell Waller in Chatham, Va.; complaints
of unjust convictions; opposition to placing blacks in positions of influence;
sexual assault; peonage; Women’s Political Study Club of California resolutions
against racial discrimination; NAACP; police brutality in Miami, Fla.; racial
discrimination in Works Progress Administration; housing discrimination in
Dallas, Tex.
Principal Correspondents: Howard Lee; Sanford E. Roan; Charles C. J. Williams;
Lille Belle McMillan; William Henry Huff; S. M. White; Isaac S. Peebles Jr.;
Thurgood Marshall.

11
Frame No.

0427 158260, Section 50, December 1940–April 1941.


Major Topics: Employment discrimination; racial segregation in U.S. armed forces;
complaints about violations of civil rights and unjust imprisonment; Negro
American Alliance; Isaac Gibson rape conviction; NAACP; Jim Crow laws;
Moorish American Religious League; Willmer Smith shooting by policeman
William Grosch; public transportation discrimination; Samuel Upton rape
conviction.
Principal Correspondents: J. Alexander Byrd; Wendell Berge; Paul Moore Jackson;
Daniel A. White; John E. Byrd; Mrs. Claude English; Oscar A. Lucas; Walter F.
White; L. K. Jackson; E. E. Hopson; Frances Collinwood; Melissa A. Williams.

0651 158260, Section 51, April–August 1941.


Major Topics: Employment discrimination; complaints about unjust imprisonment;
police brutality in St. Louis, Mo.; complaints about civil rights violations; Robert
White shooting by W. S. Cochran in Texas; Jim Crow laws; United Civic League
resolution against racial discrimination in New York State; lynching in Quincy,
Fla.; mistreatment of black female prisoners in Wetumpka, Ala., State Prison;
voting rights; bombings in Dallas, Tex.
Principal Correspondents: Wendell Berge; Frank W. Reed; Carl Holmes; A. Wendell
Ross; Wilfred A. Betikofer; Wilbert Fredericks; M. Moran Weston.

0904 158260-8, June 1921.


Major Topic: Race riots in Tulsa, Okla.

Reel 10

0001 158260, Section 52, August–October 1941.


Major Topics: KKK threat against black Muslims; employment discrimination;
Quincy Hill shooting by C. W. Davis in Tucson, Ariz.; police brutality in District
of Columbia; violence against black soldiers in Arkansas; Jehovah’s Witnesses;
opposition to interracial marriage; school segregation and violence against blacks
in Dallas, Tex.; police brutality in New Orleans, La.; rape accusation against
Roland Lindsay.
Principal Correspondents: J. B. Stoner; Adam Vincent; Wendell Berge; Walter F.
White; Archibald LeCesne; Mrs. E. E. Brown; John Lee Anderson; Evelyn
Ownbey; Lewis B. Hershey.

0235 158260, Section 50, February–March 1941.


Major Topic: Civil rights violation.

0239 158260, Section 51, July 1941.


Major Topic: Jehovah’s Witnesses.
Principal Correspondent: Wendell Berge.

12
Frame No.

0255 158260-6, June 1921.


Major Topic: Roy Hammonds lynching in Bowling Green, Mo.

0257 158260-1, November 7, 1919.


Major Topic: Race riots in Arkansas.
Principal Correspondent: J. Edgar Hoover.

0259 158260-5, April 1921.


Major Topic: Mob violence in Arkansas.

0263 158260-2, July 1920.


Major Topic: Race riots in Chicago, Ill.

0275 158260-7, May–June 1921.


Major Topic: Violence against train workers in Tennessee and Mississippi.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; Robert P. Stewart.

0290 158260-6, May 1921.


Major Topic: Roy Hammonds lynching in Bowling Green, Mo.

0296 158260, Section 49, November 1940.


Major Topic: The Chicago Defender newspaper.

0299 158260-1, June 1921.


Major Topic: Race riots in Elaine, Ark.

0310 158260-8, June–July 1921.


Major Topics: Race riots in Tulsa, Okla.; Communist Party of America.
Principal Correspondents: Madame Lozanto; J. Luther Martin; C. Dearman; Horace
Porter; G. A. Gregg; John E. Arnold; Robert P. Stewart.

0377 158260-10, Section 1, July 1921–June 1934.


Major Topics: NAACP pamphlet “Can the States Stop Lynching?”; support for
federal antilynching legislation; NAACP weekly press releases; Wisconsin
legislature resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation; Dyer Anti-
Lynching Bill; International Uplift League of Baltimore, Md.; constitutionality of
federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Daniel L. H. West; John W. H. Crim; Guy D. Goff; H. M.
Daugherty; A. J. Volstead.

0659 158260-10, Section 2, June 1934–June 1935.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
YWCA; lynching statistics; California Legislature resolution in favor of federal
antilynching legislation; NAACP weekly press release.
Principal Correspondents: A. J. Angman; Walter F. White; Alexander Holtzoff;
Herbert K. Stockton.

13
Frame No.

0777 158260-10, Section 3, June 1935–November 1936.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill;
Father Divine Peace Mission Movement proposal for antilynching bill; Lint Shaw
lynching in Royston, Ga.; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: D. Talmadge Webster; Lillie Burns; Orol Freedom; Walter
F. White; Lydia Bowling Webb; Leon Hannah.

0913 158260-10, Section 4, November 1936–April 1937.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; YWCA;
Roosevelt Townes and Bootjack McDaniels lynching in Winona, Miss.; Illinois
Senate, California State Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs, and Minnesota
Legislature resolutions in favor of federal antilynching legislation;
constitutionality of Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill.
Principal Correspondents: L. E. Scarbrough; Brien McMahon; Alexander Holtzoff.

Reel 11

0002 158260-10, Section 4 cont., November 1936–April 1937.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; constitutionality of proposed NAACP antilynching bill; lynching
statistics; U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary lynching report.
Principal Correspondents: Homer S. Cummings; Brien McMahon; Charles H. Tuttle;
William P. McBee; W. J. B. Schimfessel.

0145 158260-10, Section 5, April 15–28, 1937.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill; newspaper
articles and editorials on Gavagan Bill; William E. Borah; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: L. E. Scarbrough; Joseph B. Keenan.

0326 158260-9, October 1921.


Major Topic: Lynching in Lee County, Ga.

0329 158260-10, Section 6, April–June 1937.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation;
constitutionality of federal antilynching bills; interracial marriage; Gavagan Anti-
Lynching Bill; National Negro Square Deal Association of America; Women’s
International League for Peace and Freedom; Iowa House of Representatives
resolution in favor of federal antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Homer S. Cummings; Samuel W. Samples; Brien
McMahon; L. E. Scarbrough.

0442 158260-10, Section 7, April–November 1937.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; NAACP;
YWCA; Walter F. George; public opinion polls on antilynching legislation;

14
Frame No.

Congress of Industrial Organizations; George H. Earle; constitutionality of federal


antilynching bill.
Principal Correspondents: Joseph B. Keenan; Robert Gray Taylor.

0688 158260-10, Section 8, November–December 1937.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; YMCA; Tuskegee Institute lynching report; voting rights.

Reel 12

0001 158260-10, Section 9, January 1–12, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; U.S. Senate filibuster; William E. Borah opposition to antilynching
legislation; Scottsboro Boys case; NAACP; Tuskegee Institute lynching report.
Principal Correspondents: Horace Braxton; S. D. Moore; Calvin Sanders.

0178 158260-10, Section 10, January 13–23, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; opposition to federal antilynching legislation; NAACP weekly press
release; William E. Borah.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; Harry Stillwell Edwards; Thomas Maxwell;
Agnes Doty Smith; W. R. Stratton Sr.; Harold Gilbert; H. D. Kissenger.

0382 158260-10, Section 11, January 24–27, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; KKK; opposition to antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: P. Boniface; John W. Bryan; T. D. Quinn; J. A. Bordeaux;
Henrietta Martin; Eugene W. Leggett.

0527 158260-10, Section 12, January 28–February 2, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; syphilis; opposition to antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; Martin Luther Reid; Edmond R. Wiles.

0673 158260-10, Section 13, February 3–10, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; U.S. Senate filibuster; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; J. Edward Replogle; L. E. Scarbrough; Rufus
L. Weaver; C. E. Finkenbinder.

0858 158260-10, Section 14, February 11, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; U.S. Senate filibuster; NAACP; opposition to antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondent: W. W. Thompson.

15
Frame No.

Reel 13

0001 158260-10, Section 15, February 12–13, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; J. H. Lee.

0212 158260-10, Section 16, February 14, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; E. M. Martin.

0405 158260-10, Section 17, February 15–18, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; H. P. Parris.

0578 158260-10, Section 18, February 19–25, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; U.S. Senate filibuster; Veterans Administration.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; W. R. Todd; James M. Graham; Irene
Norton; Viola West.

0698 158260-10, Section 19, March 1–29, 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; protests against racial discrimination.
Principal Correspondents: T. D. Quinn; George Washington Sanders; Barbara
Atkinson; William C. Colly.

0790 158260-10, Section 20, April–December 1938.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; R. C. Williams lynching in Ruston, La.; Tuskegee Institute lynching
report; KKK; support for lynching.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; T. D. Quinn; John Griffiths; Joseph B.
Keenan; Louis Ludlow; Marian C. Reid; Nathaniel A. Davis.

Reel 14

0001 158260-10, Section 21, January 1939–January 1940.


Major Topics: NAACP weekly press releases and meeting reports; Connecticut
Conference on Social and Labor Legislation; Joe Rodgers and Claude Banks
lynchings in Canton, Miss.; requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal
antilynching legislation.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; W. H. Wyatt; O. John Rogge; Frank
Murphy; Louis T. Albert; John H. Clinton; G. Washington Danley.

16
Frame No.

0226 158260-10, Section 22, January 29–February 20, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; Father
Divine movement.

0418 158260-10, Section 23, Feb. 20–21, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; Father
Divine movement.

0595 158260-10, Section 24, Feb. 21–23, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; Father
Divine movement.

0768 158260-10, Section 25, Feb. 23–26, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; Father Divine movement.

Reel 15

0001 158260-10, Post Card Section, June–July 1940.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation.

0074 158260-10, Section 26, February 26–March 1, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; Father
Divine movement.

0246 158260-10, Section 27, March 1–12, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR promote federal antilynching legislation; Father
Divine “Righteous Government Platform.”

0443 158260-10, Section 28, March 13–April 14, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; Father Divine movement.
Principal Correspondent: Janice E. Jones.

0647 158260-10, Section 29, April 15–May 25, 1940.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR promote federal antilynching
legislation; Father Divine movement; NAACP.
Principal Correspondents: Archibald F. Glover; Samuel Brown; Alben W. Barkley;
Walter F. White.

0835 158260-10, Section 30, May 26–October 1, 1940.


Major Topics: Federal antilynching bill; Father Divine; requests and resolutions that
FDR promote antilynching legislation; Jesse Thornton lynching in Luverne, Ala.;
opposition to compulsory military service; Lawrence Dennis support for lynching.

17
Frame No.

Principal Correspondents: Grace Darling; Father Divine; J. Gordon Baugh III; Louis
E. Burnham; G. B. Kindig; Robert E. Lee Grant.

Reel 16

0001 158260-30, July 1926.


Major Topic: Unlawful eviction in Mississippi.
Principal Correspondent: J. C. Harris.

0009 15826-29, October 1934 and June 1926.


Major Topic: Claude Neal lynching and Will Johnson attempted lynching in Florida.
Principal Correspondent: C. J. Lawson.

0014 15826-28, June 1926.


Major Topic: Lynchings in Alabama.
Principal Correspondent: Charlie Pollard.

0018 15826-27, June 1926.


Major Topic: Albert Blaydes lynching in Wilson, Ark.
Principal Correspondent: Mary E. Blaydes.

0026 158260-26, December 1925.


Major Topic: Lindsey Coleman lynching in Jackson, Miss.
Principal Correspondent: Daniel C. Brewer.

0031 158260-22, July 1925.


Major Topic: School segregation.

0034 158260-21, June 1925.


Major Topics: Lynching in Mississippi; Colored Women’s National Evangelistic
Missionary Conference.

0038 158260-20, March 1925.


Major Topic: James Gordon lynching in Waverly, Va.
Principal Correspondent: S. D. Mitchell.

0045 158260-19, March 1925.


Major Topic: Lynching in Rockyford, Ga.
Principal Correspondent: James M. Frazier.

0050 158260-18, February 1925.


Major Topic: Request of protection for black prisoners in Orange County, Calif.
Principal Correspondent: Ola Anderson.

18
Frame No.

0055 158260-25, November 1925.


Major Topic: Trial of blacks in Detroit, Mich., for defending themselves against mob
violence.
Principal Correspondent: Cleveland G. Allen.

0058 158260-24, May–September 1925.


Major Topic: Universal Negro Improvement Association of Fort Smith, Ark.

0075 158260-23, August 1925.


Major Topic: Miller Mitchell lynching in Excelsior Springs, Mo.
Principal Correspondent: F. A. McCoo.

0079 158260-17, December 1924.


Major Topic: Lynching in Nashville, Tenn.

0082 158260-16, December 1924.


Major Topic: Pink Whaley forced exile from St. Matthews, S.C.
Principal Correspondent: Thomas E. Miller.

0086 158260-15, September–October 1923.


Major Topic: Illegal evictions in Johnston, Pa.
Principal Correspondents: J. S. Wannamaker; Cassius A. Ward.

0097 158260-14, August 1923.


Major Topic: Voting rights in Lantana, Fla.

0108 158260-13, January 1923.


Major Topic: Harassment of black farm workers in Missouri.
Principal Correspondent: James E. Carroll.

0112 158260-12, January 1922.


Major Topic: Race riots in Rosewood, Fla.

0115 158260-11, June 1922 and July 1930–August 1931


Major Topics: Lynchings in Kirvin, Tex.; arson accusation against Lee Stone in
Bradley, Ark.; John Newt Robinson murder and Esau Robinson lynching in
Emelle, Ala.; lynching threat in Erick, Okla.
Principal Correspondents: James Weldon Johnson; M. W. Meekins; James O.
Peyronnin; F. S. Smith.

0174 158260-44, October 1930.

0176 158260-45, April 1931.


Major Topics: Lynching in Alabama; ILD.

19
Frame No.

0181 158260-43, July 1930–February 1934.


Major Topic: Mob violence in Beckham County, Okla.
Principal Correspondents: William C. Lewis; Joseph B. Keenan; Nugent Dodds; Roy
Wilkins.

0199 158260-42, June–August 1930.


Major Topic: Alleged attack by U.S. Navy and Coast Guard personnel on blacks in
New London, Conn.
Principal Correspondents: William G. Fewel; L. T. Chalker.

0217 158260-41, May 1930.


Major Topics: George Hughes lynching in Sherman, Tex.; John J. Parker rejection as
Supreme Court nominee; Herbert Hoover policy toward blacks.
Principal Correspondents: William M. Markoe; Edward B. Rembert.

0267 158260-40, February 1929–September 1937.


Major Topics: Scottsboro Boys case; segregation in Richmond, Va.

0276 158260-38, January 1929.


Major Topic: Charles Shepherd lynching in Rome, Miss.

0301 158260-37, December 1928.


Major Topic: Race relations in Okaloosa County, Fla.
Principal Correspondents: L. L. Fabisinski; S. M. Baggett.

0318 158260-36, December 1927 and November 1937–April 1938.


Major Topics: Racial harassment in Madisonville, Tex.; school segregation in Enid,
Okla.
Principal Correspondents: C. W. McPhail; J. Edgar Hoover; F. B. Young.

0329 158260-35, December 1927–February 1928.


Major Topics: Federal antilynching jurisdiction; Calvin Coolidge; mob violence
against Major Pinkinson and George Lewis in Mississippi.
Principal Correspondents: O. R. Luhring; N. Jones.

0348 158260-34, December 1927.


Major Topic: Lynching along Virginia-Kentucky border.
Principal Correspondent: James Weldon Johnson.

0352 158260-33, February 1927.


Major Topics: Lynchings in South Carolina and Georgia; peonage.

0362 158260-32, August 1926.


Major Topic: Mob violence in Dozier, Ala.

20
Frame No.

0365 158260-31, June 1926.


Major Topics: Lynchings and mob violence in Waynesboro, Miss., and Aiken, S.C.;
Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill.
Principal Correspondents: Dave Gaines; James Weldon Johnson; Julia West
Hamilton.

0381 158260-46, Section 1, May 1931–April 1933.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in and international Communist response
to Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; Canadian Labor Defense League; International Red
Aid; Ada Wright trip to Europe to gather support for Scottsboro defendants.
Principal Correspondents: Victoria Ricard; H. W. Springer; Esther Thomas Archer;
Rosella LaRue Sands; Hopson Owen Murfee.

0606 158260-46, Section 2, April 21–November 30, 1933.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; James
Rolph Jr. support for lynching.

0919 158260-46, Section 3, December 2–11, 1933.


Major Topic: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case.

Reel 17

0002 158260-46, Section 3 cont., December 2–11, 1933.


Major Topics: James Rolph Jr. support for lynching; requests that FDR intervene in
Scottsboro Boys case; protests against lynching; ILD.
Principal Correspondent: Patrick Hughes.

0236 158260-46, Section 4, December 12–19, 1933.


Major Topics: Mob violence near Bartow, Ga.; requests that FDR intervene in
Scottsboro Boys case; James Rolph Jr. support for lynching; Young Pioneers of
America; ILD.
Principal Correspondents: Georges Cardieu; Calvin Madden; Raeford Brown.

0474 158260-46, Section 5, December 20, 1933–January 10, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; Tom
Mooney.
Principal Correspondent: William L. Patterson.

0648 158260-46, Section 6, January 16–April 12, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; execution
of Isaac Howard, Ernest McGhee, and Johnny Jones in Hernando, Miss.; Tom
Mooney; Judge William W. Callahan denial of new trial for Scottsboro
defendants.

21
Frame No.

Principal Correspondents: W. M. Chapman; Fred P. Searles; Ruth Brooks; Casimir


“Sonny” Gaines.

0918 158260-46, Section 7, April 13–July 4, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; Department of
Justice review of and Alabama Supreme Court ruling on Scottsboro case.
Principal Correspondents: Randolph Preston; Daisy Reed Scarboro.

Reel 18

0002 158260-46, Section 7 cont., April 13–July 4, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; Judge
James Horton Jr. ruling in Scottsboro case.
Principal Correspondents: Alice McCormick; William L. Patterson.

0114 158260-46, Section 8, July 9–October 3, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in and international response to
Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; alleged bribery of Victoria Price; requests that FDR
intervene in Angelo Herndon case; harassment of union organizers in Imperial
Valley, Calif.
Principal Correspondents: E. Razafindrakoto; Hopson Owen Murfee; Romain
Rolland; Hattie Pryor.

0330 158260-46, Section 9, October 8–November 14, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; death
sentences against Haywood Patterson and Clarence Norris.
Principal Correspondent: Meta Luth.

0591 158260-46, Section 10, November 15–December 31, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys and Angelo Herndon
cases; ILD; YWCA; NAACP; death sentences against Haywood Patterson and
Clarence Norris; requests that Claude Neal abductors be prosecuted under federal
kidnapping law.
Principal Correspondent: Samuel C. Patterson.

0827 158260-46, Section 11, January 1–November 18, 1935.


Major Topics: Requests and resolutions that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys and
Angelo Herndon cases; ILD; Warren J. Duffey; U.S. Supreme Court ruling in
Scottsboro case; requests that Claude Neal abductors be prosecuted under federal
kidnapping law; YWCA; Baptists.

22
Frame No.

Reel 19

0001 158260-46, Section 12, January 3–28, 1936.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; shooting
of Scottsboro defendant Ozie Powell by Sheriff J. S. Sandlin; mob violence
against suspected Communists in Brandon, Fla.; National Unemployment
Council.

0146 158260-46, Section 13, January 29–February 5, 1936.


Major Topics: Requests that FDR intervene in Scottsboro Boys case; ILD; shooting
of Scottsboro defendant Ozie Powell by Sheriff J. S. Sandlin; demands for
impeachment of Judge William W. Callahan.
Principal Correspondent: Ernest Pierce.

0260 158260-58, Section 1, October 27–November 3, 1934.


Major Topics: Claude Neal lynching in Florida; requests that Neal abductors be
prosecuted under federal kidnapping law; ILD; NAACP; shooting of Scottsboro
defendant Ozie Powell by Sheriff J. S. Sandlin; Republican Party treatment of
blacks.
Principal Correspondents: Obie McCollum; Walter F. White; William Pickens.

0446 158260-58, Section 2, November 3–December 15, 1934.


Major Topics: Claude Neal lynching in Florida; requests to FDR and Attorney
General Homer S. Cummings that Neal abductors be prosecuted under federal
kidnapping law; YWCA; FDR failure to support Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching
bill; YMCA; NAACP weekly press releases.
Principal Correspondent: E. Washington Rhodes.

0623 158260-58, Section 3, November 17, 1934.


Major Topics: Requests to Attorney General Homer S. Cummings that Claude Neal
abductors be prosecuted under federal kidnapping law; YWCA; NAACP
publication of Neal lynching investigation.
Principal Correspondents: Walter F. White; Joseph B. Keenan; Oswald Garrison
Villard.

0680 158260-47, March 1932–March 1933.


Major Topic: Attacks on black Illinois Central Railway System firemen in
Mississippi.
Principal Correspondents: Nugent Dodds; Ben F. Cameron; Walter F. White.

0730 158260-48, April 1933–December 1934.


Major Topic: Mob violence against blacks in Greenville County, S.C.

0748 158260-50, December 1933.


Major Topic: Cord Cheek lynching in Nashville, Tenn.

23
Frame No.

0752 158260-51, March 1934.


Major Topic: NAACP.

0755 158260-59, March–July 1935.


Major Topics: Ab Young lynching in Slayden, Miss.; federal kidnapping law.
Principal Correspondent: Homer S. Cummings.

0768 158260-59 cont., March 1935.


Major Topic: Ab Young lynching in Slayden, Miss.
Principal Correspondent: Walter F. White.

0771 158260-60, May 1935.


Major Topic: Opposition to black jurors in North Carolina.

0775 158260-61, March 1938.


Major Topic: Jim Crow laws.

0780 158260-46, November 1934.


Major Topics: Claude Neal lynching in Florida; Scottsboro Boys case.
Principal Correspondent: J. Edgar Hoover.

24
PRINCIPAL CORRESPONDENTS INDEX
The following index is an alphabetical listing of the principal authors and correspondents in
this microform publication. The first number after each entry refers to the reel, while the four-
digit number following the colon refers to the frame number at which a particular file folder
containing the document from the source begins. Hence, 14: 0001 directs the researcher to the
folder that begins at Frame 0001 of Reel 14. By referring to the Reel Index, which constitutes the
initial section of this guide, researchers will find a document list including folder titles and major
topics in the order in which they appear in the film.

Albert, Louis T. Baggett, S. M.


14: 0001 16: 0301
Allen, Cleveland G. Bailey, Harold C.
16: 0055 8: 0001
Allen, W. A. Baker, M. R.
3: 0001 8: 0283
Anderson, Harold A. Banks, Charles E.
4: 0818 5: 0686
Anderson, John Lee Banks, Corinne Lee
10: 0001 1: 0767
Anderson, L. J. Barkley, Alben W.
7: 0800 15: 0647
Anderson, Ola Barnett, Albert E.
16: 0050 6: 0219
Anderson, Pheobe J. Barr, Anne
7: 0228 3: 0001
Angman, A. J. Barrought, Marie
10: 0659 5: 0813
Archer, Esther Thomas Baugh, J. Gordon, III
4: 0717; 16: 0381 15: 0835
Arnold, John E. Bell, Handsel G.
10: 0310 8: 0887
Atkinson, Barbara Berge, Wendell
13: 0698 9: 0427, 0651; 10: 0001, 0239
Auerbach, Carrie Berry, Florence A. J.
6: 0785 3: 0771
Austin, C. D. Betikofer, Wilfred A.
7: 0800 9: 0651
Azora, R. W. Bey, J. T.
3: 0001 1: 0767

25
Blake, Bertha Bryan, John W.
8: 0887 12: 0382
Bland, Bertram C. Burnham, Louis E.
8: 0887 15: 0835
Bland, W. I. Burns, Lillie
2: 0002 10: 0777
Blaydes, Mary E. Burton, Mary Rose
16: 0018 3: 0001
Bolin, Clarence A. Butler, William S.
4: 0202 5: 0479
Boniface, P. Byrd, J. Alexander
12: 0382 9: 0427
Bopp, Fred Byrd, John E.
4: 0580 9: 0427
Bordeaux, J. A. Calloway, L. A.
12: 0382 2: 0275
Borden, G. D. Cameron, Ben F.
7: 0228 19: 0680
Borleske, May Campbell, H. D.
2: 0859 2: 0859
Boulware, Ollie Belle Cannon, Jacob
3: 0280 6: 0680
Boyd, J. E. Cardieu, Georges
1: 0276 17: 0236
Branham, J. E. Carroll, James E.
2: 0520 16: 0108
Braxton, Horace Chalker, L. T.
12: 0001 16: 0199
Braxton, Jack Chambers, W. B.
7: 0800 4: 0001
Brewer, Daniel C. Chapman, W. M.
16: 0026 17: 0648
Brooks, Ruth Chiles, Nick
17: 0648 2: 0275
Brown, Ira C. Churchill, William R.
3: 0518 2: 0859
Brown, Mrs. E. E. Clarke, H. A.
10: 0001 1: 0670
Brown, Raeford Clayton, Horace R.
17: 0236 2: 0002
Brown, Samuel Clinton, John H.
15: 0647 14: 0001
Brown, Willie C., Sr. Collinwood, Frances
7: 0441 9: 0427
Bryan, John Colly, William C.
2: 0520 13: 0698

26
Cooper, Henry H., Jr. Ellison, Ednamae
8: 0507 7: 0622
Covington, C. P. English, Mrs. Claude
1: 0218 9: 0427
Crim, John W. H. Evans, Frank Kingsley
1: 0468, 0588; 10: 0377 4: 0717
Crouch, John H. Fabisinski, L. L.
2: 0520 16: 0301
Crum, Roger Father Divine
1: 0767 15: 0835
Cummings, Homer S. Ferguson, William T.
8: 0001; 11: 0002, 0329; 19: 0755 9: 0150
Daniels, E. W. Fewel, William G.
2: 0275 16: 0199
Danley, G. Washington Finkenbinder, C. E.
14: 0001 12: 0673
Dantzler, Printer Fleming, Sam J.
7: 0622 8: 0001
Darling, Grace Fossett, Booker T.
15: 0835 6: 0785
Daugherty, H. M. Foster, Louis
10: 0377 4: 0001
Davis, Nathaniel A. Frazier, James M.
13: 0790 16: 0045
Davis, Willie Fredericks, Wilbert
7: 0228 9: 0651
Dean, Harry Freedom, Orol
2: 0275 10: 0777
Dearman, C. Froud, Solomon
1: 0767; 10: 0310 8: 0001
Denson, W. A. Furr, Sherman S.
1: 0767 3: 0001
Dodds, Nugent Gaines, Casimir “Sonny”
1: 0767; 16: 0181; 19: 0680 17: 0648
Dyer, Leonidas C. Gaines, Dave
8: 0001 16: 0365
Eare, Richard Gallantar, Martha
4: 0580 3: 0280
Edmunds, Jerry R. Gilbert, Harold
7: 0228 12: 0178
Edwards, Harry Stillwell Giles, Mrs. George
12: 0178 3: 0001
Edwards, Hattie Glover, Archibald F.
7: 0228 15: 0647
Ellis, E. J. Goff, Guy D.
4: 0001 10: 0377

27
Gonzalez, Eleanor Cuthbertson Hentig, Hans V.
8: 0001 9: 0002
Goode, Sam M. Hershey, Lewis B.
4: 0818 10: 0001
Goodriel, Elva Hills, Parthenia
2: 0275 2: 0520
Gould, Clifton P. Holloway, H. N.
2: 0520 3: 0001
Graham, James M. Holmes, Carl
13: 0578 9: 0651
Grant, Robert E. Lee Holtzoff, Alexander
15: 0835 10: 0659, 0913
Green, Sherwood Hoover, J. Edgar
2: 0859 2: 0461; 8: 0283; 10: 0257; 16: 0318;
Gregg, G. A. 19: 0780
10: 0310 Hopson, E. E.
Griffiths, John 9: 0427
13: 0790 Horne, F. S.
Griswold, A. J. 7: 0622
6: 0095 Houston, Charles H.
Hackley, Guy Wilson 2: 0520; 3: 0280
1: 0276 Howard, Hasting
Hairris, Isaiah 1: 0218
7: 0622; 8: 0001 Huff, William Henry
Hamilton, Julia West 9: 0232
16: 0365 Hughes, P. H.
Hannah, Leon 2: 0859
10: 0777 Hughes, Patrick
Hansen, Margaret L. 17: 0002
3: 0280 Isbell, John B.
Harr, W. R. 1: 0767
1: 0127, 0218 Jackson, James E., Jr.
Harris, J. C. 8: 0887
16: 0001 Jackson, L. K.
Harris, Wright E. 9: 0427
2: 0275 Jackson, Paul Moore
Hart, Mary Ella 9: 0427
4: 0001 Jefferson, Capp
Hawkins, John 4: 0202
8: 0283 Johnson, Bessie M.
Hawkins, Theodore 2: 0275
1: 0276 Johnson, Betty L.
Heggard, Jane 8: 0001
8: 0679 Johnson, Ceola
Hell, Abram B. 2: 0002
2: 0002

28
Johnson, Charles Lawson, C. J.
2: 0275 16: 0009
Johnson, Clifus Lee Lawson, Philip M.
4: 0717 1: 0468
Johnson, James Weldon LeCesne, Archibald
16: 0115, 0348, 0365 10: 0001
Johnson, Mary R. Lee, Howard
4: 0001 9: 0232
Johnson, Nancy S. Lee, J. H.
6: 0785 13: 0001
Johnson, S. S. Leggett, Eugene W.
3: 0771 12: 0382
Johnson, W. D. Lewis, William C.
1: 0468 16: 0181
Johnston, Herman Lincoln, Henry
8: 0001 1: 0001
Jones, Helen O. Little, James Rudolph
4: 0314 9: 0150
Jones, Janice E. Lofton, Lee
15: 0443 8: 0887
Jones, N. Lozanto, Madame
16: 0329 10: 0310
Jones, S. J. Lucas, Oscar A.
4: 0580 9: 0427
Jordan, Seymour C. Ludlow, Louis
2: 0859 13: 0790
Keenan, Joseph B. Luhring, O. R.
2: 0859; 3: 0001–0771; 4: 0202; 7: 0622, 16: 0329
0800; 11: 0145, 0442; 13: 0790; Lundquiste, C. Theo
16: 0181; 19: 0623 1: 0422
Kelly, Dazalia Luth, Meta
7: 0441 18: 0330
Kemp, Edward G. Lyons, Frank C.
8: 0283 1: 0767
Kemp, George P. Mack, J. M.
7: 0800 2: 0520
Key, Ella Mae Maclin, John
3: 0280 7: 0129; 8: 0001
Kindig, G. B. Madden, Calvin
15: 0835 17: 0236
Kissenger, H. D. Marcantonio, Vito
12: 0178 8: 0507
Knight, Thomas E., Jr. Mark, Stephen
2: 0002 2: 0520
LaPorte, Robert H. Markoe, William M.
3: 0280 16: 0217

29
Marshall, Thurgood Mitchell, S. D.
8: 0283, 0887; 9: 0232 16: 0038
Martin, E. M. Montgomery, Lizzie
13: 0212 3: 0001
Martin, Henrietta Moore, Benny
12: 0382 2: 0520
Martin, J. Luther Moore, Ida
10: 0310 6: 0785
Massey, Robert Moore, Mabel Pelham
2: 0275 4: 0202
Matthew, Daniel Moore, S. D.
2: 0275 12: 0001
Maxwell, Thomas Morris, Louise
12: 0178 2: 0275
McBee, William P. Mulnix, Genevieve Beatryce
11: 0002 7: 0228
McCollum, Obie Murfee, Hopson Owen
19: 0260 16: 0381; 18: 0114
McCoo, F. A. Murphy, Frank
16: 0075 8: 0507; 14: 0001
McCormick, Alice Murphy, George F.
18: 0002 3: 0001
McDaniel, Lucy Murrell, Benjamin N.
2: 0275 8: 0001
McGhee, Thomas Nagourney, Jean
7: 0441 2: 0520
McMahon, Brien Nichols, Caroline E.
8: 0001, 0283; 10: 0913; 11: 0002, 0329 6: 0219
McMillan, Lille Belle Nicholson, Eugene
9: 0232 8: 0887
McPhail, C. W. North, Dorothy
16: 0318 1: 0767
Meekins, M. W. Norton, Irene
16: 0115 13: 0578
Miller, Fannie O’Brien, John Lord
1: 0468 1: 0001
Miller, Grace Oliver, Alfred H.
2: 0002 7: 0622
Miller, Thomas E. Ownbey, Evelyn
16: 0082 10: 0001
Miller, William Parris, H. P.
4: 0001 13: 0405
Mills, John Patterson, Samuel C.
7: 0441 18: 0591
Mitchell, Clarence Patterson, William L.
7: 0800 1: 0717; 2: 0002; 17: 0474; 18: 0002

30
Peebles, Isaac S., Jr. Richards, J. T.
9: 0232 3: 0001
Person, Lewell Roan, Sanford E.
3: 0001 9: 0232
Peyronnin, James O. Robinson, Horace
16: 0115 2: 0461
Pickens, William Rogge, O. John
8: 0507, 0679; 9: 0150; 19: 0260 14: 0001
Pierce, Ernest Rolland, Romain
19: 0146 18: 0114
Pollard, Charlie Rosengren, Ida M.
16: 0014 3: 0280
Porter, Horace Ross, A. Wendell
10: 0310 9: 0651
Preston, Randolph Rowans, Beatrice
17: 0918 7: 0800
Pryor, Hattie Samples, Samuel W.
18: 0114 11: 0329
Pugh, Mary V. Sanders, Calvin
3: 0280 12: 0001
Quinn, T. D. Sanders, George Washington
12: 0178–0673; 13: 0001–0790 13: 0698
Rameau, P. Colfax Sanders, John Allen
3: 0280; 6: 0680 4: 0001
Rankins, A. Sands, Rosella LaRue
2: 0859 16: 0381
Ray, James A. Scarboro, Daisy Reed
1: 0276 17: 0918
Razafindrakoto, E. Scarbrough, L. E.
18: 0114 8: 0001; 10: 0913; 11: 0145, 0329;
Reavis, Hattie G. 12: 0673
2: 0002 Schimfessel, W. J. B.
Reed, Frank W. 11: 0002
9: 0651 Schomburg, Arthur A.
Reid, Marian C. 1: 0276, 0422
13: 0790 Scott, Louise W.
Reid, Martin Luther 8: 0679
12: 0527 Searles, Fred P.
Rembert, Edward B. 17: 0648
1: 0767; 16: 0217 Sebron, Hezekiah
Replogle, J. Edward 7: 0441
12: 0673 Sepras, Theodore
Rhodes, E. Washington 2: 0859
19: 0446 Shillady, John R.
Ricard, Victoria 1: 0001
16: 0381

31
Simpkins, John H. Thompson, W. W.
1: 0767 12: 0858
Sinclair, David Thornton, Harry F.
8: 0887 3: 0001, 0771
Slater, C. L. Todd, W. R.
2: 0520 13: 0578
Slattery, Thomas D. Tolliver, Elizabeth
1: 0001 2: 0002
Smith, Agnes Doty Trimmer, Lawrence A.
12: 0178 7: 0441
Smith, Bolton Tucker, Douglas
1: 0276 1: 0127
Smith, F. S. Tussey, William J.
16: 0115 2: 0520
Smith, George H. Tuttle, Charles H.
2: 0002 11: 0002
Smith, James M. Verchota, Joseph J.
1: 0218 4: 0202
Smith, Marshall Villard, Oswald Garrison
1: 0127 19: 0623
Sornberger, Charles B. Vincent, Adam
4: 0314 10: 0001
Spaulding, Florence B. Volstead, A. J.
2: 0859 10: 0377
Springer, H. W. Wade, John G.
16: 0381 2: 0520
Stewart, Robert P. Walker, Charley
1: 0276, 0422; 10: 0275, 0310 1: 0670
Stockton, Herbert K. Wallace, Sue O. A.
10: 0659 7: 0622
Stoner, J. B. Wannamaker, J. S.
10: 0001 16: 0086
Stratton, W. R., Sr. Ward, Cassius A.
12: 0178 16: 0086
Suthern, Jean Elinor Robinson Warde, Ileane
2: 0520 7: 0228
Taylor, John Waterman, Helen
1: 0588, 0767 3: 0001
Taylor, Robert Gray Watson, E. H.
11: 0442 4: 0001
Thomas, Charles M. Weaver, Rufus L.
1: 0767 12: 0673
Thomas, Mrs. E. Webb, Lydia Bowling
3: 0518 10: 0777
Thompson, Allen Webster, D. Talmadge
5: 0813 10: 0777

32
West, Daniel L. H. Wilkins, Roy
10: 0377 16: 0181
West, Viola Williams, Charles C. J.
13: 0578 9: 0232
Weston, M. Moran Williams, Lila
9: 0651 7: 0622
White, Daniel A. Williams, Melissa A.
9: 0427 9: 0427
White, S. M. Wolf, James H.
9: 0232 6: 0219
White, Walter F. Wyatt, W. H.
2: 0002; 3: 0518; 7: 0622; 8: 0507, 0679; 14: 0001
9: 0150, 0427; 10: 0001, 0275, 0659, Young, F. B.
0777; 13: 0790; 14: 0001; 15: 0647; 16: 0318
19: 0260, 0623, 0680, 0768 Zarucha, Robert M.
Wiles, Edmond R. 3: 0001
12: 0527

33
SUBJECT INDEX
The following index is a guide to the major topics, personalities, and activities in this
microform publication. The first number after each entry or subentry refers to the reel, while the
four-digit number following the colon refers to the frame number at which a particular file folder
containing information on the subject begins. Hence, 1: 0767 directs the researcher to the folder
that begins at Frame 0767 of Reel 1. By referring to the Reel Index, which constitutes the initial
section of this guide, researchers will find a document list including folder titles and major topics
in the order in which they appear in the film.

Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill 1: 0468, 0588;


Company 10: 0377; 16: 0365
1: 0767 Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill 10: 0913;
Ades, Bernard 11: 0145, 0329
2: 0461 general 1: 0670; 3: 0001, 0771; 8: 0283,
Agricultural labor 0507; 16: 0329
3: 0001; 16: 0108 opposition to 12: 0382, 0527, 0858
Aiken, South Carolina requests for presidential support 1: 0276,
lynchings 16: 0365 0422; 2: 0002, 0520, 0859; 8: 0679;
Alabama 9: 0002; 10: 0913; 11: 0002, 0329–
capital punishment 2: 0859 0688; 12: 0001–15: 0835
Dozier 16: 0362 see also Costigan-Wagner Anti-
lynchings 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002, 0520; Lynching Bill
3: 0280; 7: 0622; 8: 0887; 15: 0835; Arabi, Georgia
16: 0014, 0115, 0176 lynchings 8: 0001
mining strike 3: 0518, 0771 Arizona
Supreme Court 17: 0918 Tucson 10: 0001
Tuskegee Institute 8: 0001; 11: 0688; Arkansas
12: 0001; 13: 0790 Bradley 16: 0115
Wetumpka State Prison 9: 0651 Elaine 9: 0150; 10: 0299
see also Scottsboro Boys Fort Smith 16: 0058
Allen, Matt lynchings 8: 0001; 16: 0018
1: 0218 mob violence 10: 0259
Anne Arundel County, Maryland race riots 10: 0257
Walter Mills v. Board of Education of violence against black soldiers 10: 0001
Anne Arundel County 8: 0679 Armed forces
Antilynching legislation black soldiers 10: 0001
constitutionality 3: 0518; 4: 0580; Coast Guard 16: 0199
10: 0377, 0913; 11: 0002, 0329, compulsory service 15: 0835
0442 general 16: 0199

35
Armed forces cont. Black Americans
Navy 16: 0199 agricultural labor 16: 0108
racial discrimination 8: 0887 Association of Negro Radicals 2: 0275
segregation 9: 0427 Colored Men’s Progressive Association
veterans 1: 0276; 3: 0771; 13: 0578 7: 0001
Armwood, George Colored Women’s National Evangelistic
lynching 1: 0717; 2: 0002, 0520, 0859 Missionary Conference 16: 0034
Arson education discrimination 2: 0520;
16: 0115 8: 0507; 10: 0001; 16: 0031, 0318
Associated Negro Press employment discrimination 3: 0518;
1: 0276 8: 0283, 0679; 9: 0232, 0651;
Association of Negro Radicals 10: 0001
2: 0275 Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs
Atkins, Charles 7: 0622; 10: 0913
lynching 1: 0468 forced labor 1: 0001; 2: 0461; 9: 0232;
Atlanta, Georgia 16: 0352
racial harassment 7: 0441 general 7: 0129; 16: 0199, 0217
Automobiles and automobile industry homeland proposal 4: 0580
United Front Auto Workers Conference housing discrimination 3: 0280; 8: 0887;
2: 0520 9: 0232; 16: 0001, 0082, 0086
Bainbridge, Georgia Illinois Central Railway System
Harris, Joseph, imprisonment 8: 0001 19: 0680
Baker, George Interracial Conference of Church
see Father Divine Women 7: 0800
Bakersfield, California jury duty 1: 0127; 19: 0771
Tullis, J. J., murder 1: 0767 military personnel 10: 0001
Baldwin, Kirby Muslims 10: 0001
lynching 8: 0283 National Conference of Problems of
Baltimore, Maryland Negro and Negro Youth 8: 0283
International Uplift League 10: 0377 National Negro Square Deal Association
Banks, Claude of America 11: 0329
lynching 14: 0001 Negro American Alliance 9: 0427
Baptist Ministers Conference Negro Ministerial Alliance 2: 0859
2: 0002; 6: 0680 Pictorial History of the American Negro
Baptists (book) 3: 0001
18: 0827 police brutality 2: 0275; 3: 0771;
Bartow, Georgia 6: 0785; 7: 0622; 8: 0001; 9: 0232,
mob violence 17: 0236 0651; 10: 0001
Beaumont, Texas prisoners 3: 0771; 9: 0651; 16: 0050
race riots 7: 0228 public transportation discrimination
Beckham County, Oklahoma 8: 0887; 9: 0427
mob violence 16: 0181 rape 7: 0228
Bennett College for Women, Greensboro, Republican Party treatment of 19: 0260
North Carolina Universal Negro Improvement
3: 0280 Association 4: 0001; 7: 0441;
16: 0058

36
voting rights 1: 0127; 7: 0441; 8: 0283, Camps Normal Industrial Institute
0507, 0887; 9: 0002, 0651; 11: 0688; 1: 0276
16: 0097 Canadian Labor Defense League
see also Lynching 16: 0381
see also National Association for the Canton, Mississippi
Advancement of Colored People lynchings 8: 0507; 14: 0001
(NAACP) Capital punishment
Blaydes, Albert 2: 0859; 3: 0001, 0280; 7: 0800; 8: 0001;
lynching 16: 0018 9: 0150, 0232; 17: 0648; 18: 0330,
Blue Ribbon Benefit Society 0591
2: 0859 Carlton, Adeline
Bombs Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway
9: 0651 Company 1: 0767
Books and bookselling Cartersville, Georgia
The Chosen People 6: 0607 racial discrimination 4: 0001
Native Son 8: 0887 Chadbourn, North Carolina
Pictorial History of the American Negro Manning, Frank, shooting 8: 0887
3: 0001 Chatham, Virginia
Borah, William E. Waller, Odell, death sentence 9: 0232
11: 0145; 12: 0001, 0178 Chattanooga, Tennessee
Bowling Green, Missouri Association of Negro Radicals 2: 0275
lynchings 10: 0255, 0290 Cheek, Cord
Bradley, Arkansas lynching 3: 0001; 19: 0748
Stone, Lee, arson accusation 16: 0115 Chicago Defender (newspaper)
Brandon, Florida 10: 0296
mob violence 19: 0001 Chicago, Illinois
Brownsville, Tennessee Chicago Defender (newspaper) 10: 0296
lynchings 8: 0887 race riots 10: 0263
Burning at the stake The Chosen People (book)
1: 0468 6: 0607
California Christianity
Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs Baptist Ministers Conference 2: 0002;
10: 0913 6: 0680
Gardena 7: 0441 Federal Council of Churches of Christ in
homicide 1: 0767 America 2: 0520
Imperial Valley 3: 0518; 18: 0114 Interracial Conference of Church
legislature 10: 0659 Women 7: 0800
Los Angeles 8: 0887 see also Father Divine
Oakland 7: 0800; 8: 0001 see also Young Men’s Christian
Orange County 16: 0050 Association (YMCA)
San Francisco 1: 0001 see also Young Women’s Christian
Women’s Political Study Club 9: 0232 Association (YWCA)
Callahan, William W. Citizens Patriotic League
17: 0648; 19: 0146 1: 0001
Camden, New Jersey Civil liberties
civil rights violations 9: 0002 8: 0283

37
Civil rights Colored Women’s National Evangelistic
equality 7: 0129 Missionary Conference
general 9: 0002, 0427, 0651; 10: 0235 16: 0034
Negro Rights Bill proposal 1: 0767 Columbus, Texas
Clarke, Elmore lynchings 7: 0622
lynching 1: 0717, 0767 Communism and communist parties
Clarke, H. A. Communist Party of America 10: 0310
3: 0518 general 19: 0001
Clearwater, Florida International Red Aid 16: 0381
KKK 8: 0001 see also International Labor Defense
Cleveland, Ohio (ILD)
Baptist Ministers’ Conference 6: 0680 Communist Party of America
Elks, The Benevolent and Protective 10: 0310
Order of 3: 0771 Compulsory military service
Clinton, South Carolina 15: 0835
lynchings 1: 0717; 3: 0771; 7: 0441 Conferences
Coast Guard Colored Women’s National Evangelistic
16: 0199 Missionary Conference 16: 0034
Cochran, W. S. Conference on the Problems of
9: 0651 Minorities 3: 0518
Coleman, Lindsey Connecticut Conference on Social and
lynching 16: 0026 Labor Legislation 14: 0001
Colleges and universities Interracial Conference of Church
Bennett College for Women 3: 0280 Women 7: 0800
Camps Normal Industrial Institute National Conference of Problems of
1: 0276 Negro and Negro Youth 8: 0283
discrimination 8: 0507 Western Anti-Lynch Conference 3: 0001
Hampton Institute 4: 0314, 0483, 0580; see also Organizations and associations
5: 0479 Congress, U.S.
Howard University 2: 0002 House of Representatives 1: 0670
NAACP Youth Council and College lynching investigation 1: 0422
Chapter 8: 0679 Senate 7: 0800; 11: 0002; 12: 0001,
Tuskegee Institute 8: 0001; 11: 0688; 0673, 0858; 13: 0578
12: 0001; 13: 0790 Congress of Industrial Organizations
Virginia State College 6: 0312 8: 0679; 11: 0442
Collins, Ernest Connecticut
lynching 7: 0622 Connecticut Conference on Social and
Colorado Labor Legislation 14: 0001
Denver 3: 0771 New Haven Hospital 3: 0001
Federation of Colored Womens Clubs New London 16: 0199
7: 0622 Constitution of U.S.
Senate 6: 0785 Fifteenth Amendment 1: 0218
Colored Men’s Progressive Association Fourteenth Amendment 1: 0127
7: 0001

38
Coolidge, Calvin Discrimination
2: 0275; 16: 0329 education 2: 0520; 8: 0507; 10: 0001;
Corruption and bribery 16: 0031, 0318
18: 0114 employment 3: 0518; 8: 0283, 0679;
Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill 9: 0232–0651; 10: 0001
3: 0001–8: 0001; 10: 0659, 0777; housing 3: 0280; 8: 0887; 9: 0232;
19: 0446 16: 0001, 0082, 0086
Covington, Kentucky public transportation 8: 0887; 9: 0427
mob violence 1: 0001 see also Racial discrimination
Cozart, W. Forrest Diseases and disorders
The Chosen People (book) 6: 0607 syphilis 12: 0527
The Crisis (periodical) District of Columbia
7: 0441 police brutality 2: 0275; 8: 0001;
Crum, Roger 10: 0001
1: 0767 Dodson, Charles
Crump, Edward H. 5: 0813
9: 0232 Dozier, Alabama
Cummings, Homer S. mob violence 16: 0362
19: 0446, 0623 Duffey, Warren J.
Dallas, Texas 18: 0827
bombs 9: 0651 Dukes, John
discrimination 9: 0232; 10: 0001 lynching 8: 0001
Darrow, Clarence S. Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill
2: 0275 1: 0468, 0588; 10: 0377; 16: 0365
Davis, C. W. Earle, George H.
10: 0001 11: 0442
Davisboro, Georgia East Bay Rod and Gun Club
lynchings 1: 0468 8: 0001
Daytona Beach, Florida Education
lynchings 8: 0283, 0507 discrimination 2: 0520; 8: 0507;
De Priest, Oscar 10: 0001; 16: 0031, 0318
3: 0280 Georgia Teachers and Educational
Dendy, Norris F. Association 7: 0622
lynching 1: 0717; 3: 0771; 7: 0441 Walter Mills v. Board of Education of
Dennis, Lawrence Anne Arundel County 8: 0679
15: 0835 Edwards, Floyd
Denver, Colorado lynching 8: 0283
police brutality 3: 0771 Elaine, Arkansas
State Federation of Colored Womens race riots 9: 0150; 10: 0299
Clubs 7: 0622 Elks, The Benevolent and Protective
Detroit, Michigan Order of
general 8: 0001; 16: 0055 3: 0280–0771
race riots 7: 0228 Emelle, Alabama
rape 7: 0228 lynchings 16: 0115

39
Employment lynchings 4: 0001, 0202, 0717; 7: 0622;
discrimination 3: 0518; 8: 0283, 0679; 8: 0283, 0507; 9: 0651; 16: 0009;
9: 0232–0651; 10: 0001 18: 0591, 0827; 19: 0260–0623,
National Unemployment Council 19: 0780
0001 Miami 9: 0232
see also Labor unions Okaloosa County 16: 0301
Enid, Oklahoma Rosewood 16: 0112
school segregation 16: 0318 Tampa 8: 0679
Equal rights Forced labor
see Civil rights 1: 0001; 2: 0461; 9: 0232; 16: 0352
Erick, Oklahoma Foreign languages
lynchings 16: 0115 German 1: 0001
Ettrick, Virginia Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Virginia State College 6: 0312 lynchings 7: 0622
Europe Fort Smith, Arkansas
16: 0381 Universal Negro Improvement
Excelsior Springs, Missouri Association 16: 0058
lynchings 16: 0075 Fourteenth Amendment
Farm workers 1: 0127
see Agricultural labor Franklinton, Louisiana
Father Divine lynchings 5: 0813
movement 8: 0679; 10: 0777; 14: 0226– Freedom of speech
0768; 15: 0074–0835 3: 0518
Righteous Government Platform Freemasonry
15: 0246 1: 0422
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in Fuller, Thomas O.
America Pictorial History of the American Negro
2: 0520 (book) 3: 0001
Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs Fulton, Georgia
7: 0622; 10: 0913 mob violence 9: 0002
Federation of Democratic Clubs Gardena, California
7: 0441 Gardena Valley Democratic Club
Fifteenth Amendment 7: 0441
1: 0218 Garvey, Marcus
Filibusters 4: 0001
12: 0001, 0673, 0858; 13: 0578 Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill
Firearms 10: 0913; 11: 0145, 0329
East Bay Rod and Gun Club 8: 0001 George, Walter F.
Firefighters 11: 0442
19: 0680 Georgia
Florida Atlanta 7: 0441
Brandon 19: 0001 Bainbridge 8: 0001
Clearwater 8: 0001 Bartow 17: 0236
Hastings 7: 0441 Cartersville 4: 0001
Lantana 16: 0097 Fulton 9: 0002

40
Georgia Teachers and Educational Harlem Labor Committee
Association 7: 0622 6: 0001
lynchings 1: 0468, 0717; 7: 0800; Harris, Joseph
8: 0001; 10: 0777; 11: 0326; 8: 0001
16: 0045, 0352 Hastings, Florida
police brutality 7: 0622 racial harassment 7: 0441
German language Heggard, Willie Jack
1: 0001 lynching 8: 0679
Gibson, Isaac Hernando, Mississippi
9: 0427 executions 17: 0648
Goff, Guy D. Herndon, Angelo
1: 0670 3: 0771; 18: 0114, 0591, 0827
Goldsboro, North Carolina Higginbotham, Elwood
lynchings 8: 0283 lynching 7: 0622
Gordon, James Hill, Quincy
lynching 16: 0038 10: 0001
Government Hispanic Americans
investigations 1: 0422; 7: 0800; 8: 0001; police brutality 3: 0771
19: 0623 Hodges v. United States
National Recovery Administration 1: 0276
2: 0859 Homicide
Supreme Court 16: 0217; 18: 0827 1: 0767; 5: 0813; 7: 0800; 16: 0115;
U.S. Shipping Board 2: 0275 19: 0748
Veterans Administration 13: 0578 see also Lynching
Works Progress Administration 9: 0232 Hoover, Herbert
see also Congress, U.S. 2: 0275; 16: 0217
Greensboro, Alabama Horton, James, Jr.
lynchings 7: 0622 18: 0002
Greensboro, North Carolina Hospitals and nursing homes
Bennett College for Women 3: 0280 New Haven Hospital 3: 0001
Greenville County, South Carolina House of Representatives
mob violence 19: 0730 Committee on the Judiciary 1: 0670
Griggs, John Household workers
lynching 3: 0771 violence 2: 0275
Grosch, William Howard, Isaac
9: 0427 17: 0648
Hammonds, Roy Howard University
lynching 10: 0255, 0290 student council 2: 0002
Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia Hughes, George
4: 0314, 0483, 0580; 5: 0479 lynching 16: 0217
Harden, A. T. Illinois
lynching 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002, 0520; Chicago 10: 0263, 0296
3: 0280 House of Representatives 3: 0518
Harding, Warren G. Senate 6: 0513; 10: 0913
1: 0276–0588

41
Impeachment Johnson, Will
2: 0002; 19: 0146 lynching 16: 0009
Imperial Valley, California Johnston, Pennsylvania
harassment 3: 0518; 18: 0114 evictions 16: 0086
Indiana Jones, Johnny
House of Representatives 7: 0001 17: 0648
International Juridical Association Judgments, civil procedure
1: 0767 Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway
International Labor Defense (ILD) Company 1: 0767
1: 0767; 2: 0002, 0520, 0859; 4: 0001; Hodges v. United States 1: 0276
7: 0622; 8: 0283; 16: 0176, 0381, Scottsboro Boys case 17: 0648;
0606; 17: 0002–0648; 18: 0002– 18: 0002, 0827
19: 0260 Walter Mills v. Board of Education of
International Red Aid Anne Arundel County 8: 0679
16: 0381 Jury duty
International Uplift League 1: 0127; 19: 0771
10: 0377 Kansas
International Workers Order police brutality 2: 0275
8: 0001 Kellihan, Pete
Interracial Conference of Church Women 8: 0887
7: 0800 Kentucky
Interracial marriage Covington 1: 0001
10: 0001; 11: 0329 lynchings 16: 0348
Investigations Kidnapping
see under Government federal legislation 2: 0520; 18: 0591,
Iowa 0827; 19: 0260–0623, 0755
House of Representatives 11: 0329 Kirbyville, Texas
Islam lynchings 3: 0771
general 10: 0001 Kirvin, Texas
Moorish American Religious League lynchings 1: 0468; 16: 0115
9: 0427 Kiser, Wilhemena
Jackson, Mississippi 1: 0767
lynchings 16: 0026 Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Jamaica Gleaner (periodical) 1: 0468; 3: 0001; 8: 0001, 0507, 0679;
9: 0002 10: 0001; 12: 0382; 13: 0790
Jehovah’s Witnesses Labor unions
10: 0001, 0239 Canadian Labor Defense League 16:
Jews 0381
pro-German 1: 0001 Congress of Industrial Organizations
Union of American Hebrew 8: 0679; 11: 0442
Congregations 1: 0767 general 18: 0114
Jim Crow laws Harlem Labor Committee 6: 0001
9: 0427, 0651; 19: 0775 International Workers Order 8: 0001
Johnson, Joe Spinner United Front Auto Workers Conference
lynching 7: 0622 2: 0520

42
see also International Labor Defense Armwood, George 1: 0717; 2: 0002,
(ILD) 0520
Lantana, Florida Atkins, Charles 1: 0468
voting rights 16: 0097 Baldwin, Kirby 8: 0283
Lawyers Banks, Claude 14: 0001
Ades, Bernard 2: 0461 Blaydes, Albert 16: 0018
International Juridical Association Cheek, Cord 3: 0001; 19: 0748
1: 0767 The Chosen People (book) 6: 0607
National Bar Association 8: 0887 Coleman, Lindsey 16: 0026
see also International Labor Defense Collins, Ernest 7: 0622
(ILD) Dendy, Norris F. 1: 0717; 3: 0771;
League for Civil Rights and Justice 7: 0441
7: 0441 Dukes, John 8: 0001
League of American Patriots Edwards, Floyd 8: 0283
1: 0001 Erick, Okla. 16: 0115
Lee County, Georgia Georgia 16: 0352
lynchings 11: 0326 Gordon, James 16: 0038
Lee, Euel Griggs, John 3: 0771
lynching 2: 0002, 0461 Hammonds, Roy 10: 0255, 0290
Legion of Honor Harden, A. T. 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002,
7: 0228 0520; 3: 0280
Lewis, George Heggard, Willie Jack 8: 0679
16: 0329 Higginbotham, Elwood 7: 0622
Library of Congress Hughes, George 16: 0217
bibliography on civil rights 1: 0276 Johnson, Joe Spinner 7: 0622
Lindsay, Roland Johnson, Will 16: 0009
10: 0001 Kentucky border 16: 0348
Lindsey, W. H. Kirvin, Tex. 16: 0115
2: 0275 Lee County, Ga. 11: 0326
Locust Grove, Georgia Lee, Euel 2: 0002, 0461
lynchings 1: 0717 Lowry, Henry 8: 0001
Los Angeles, California McDaniels, Bootjack 8: 0001; 10: 0913
housing discrimination 8: 0887 McGhee, R. D. 7: 0622
Louisburg, North Carolina McGowan, Wilder 8: 0001, 0283
lynchings 7: 0622 Mississippi 16: 0034
Louisiana Mitchell, Benny 7: 0622
lynchings 2: 0859; 5: 0813; 13: 0790 Mitchell, Miller 16: 0075
New Orleans 3: 0280; 10: 0001 Moore, Will 1: 0422
Lowry, Henry Nashville, Tenn. 16: 0079
lynching 8: 0001 Neal, Claude 4: 0001, 0202, 0717;
Luverne, Alabama 16: 0009; 18: 0591, 0827; 19: 0260–
lynchings 8: 0887; 15: 0835 0623, 0780
Lynching Picayune, Miss. 9: 0228
Aiken, S.C. 16: 0365 Pippen, Dan, Jr. 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002,
Alabama 16: 0014, 0176 0520; 3: 0280

43
Lynching cont. McGhee, Ernest
Quincy, Fla. 9: 0651 17: 0648
Robinson, Esau 16: 0115 McGhee, R. D.
Rockyford, Ga. 16: 0045 lynching 7: 0622
Rodgers, Joe 8: 0507; 14: 0001 McGowan, Wilder
Selby, George 9: 0002 lynching 8: 0001, 0283
Shaw, Lint 7: 0800; 10: 0777 Miami, Florida
Shepherd, Charles 16: 0276 police brutality 9: 0232
Snell, Lee 8: 0283, 0507 Michigan
South Carolina 16: 0352 Detroit 7: 0228; 8: 0001; 16: 0055
Stacy, Ruben 7: 0622 Military personnel
statistics 3: 0518; 10: 0659; 11: 0002 black Americans 1: 0422
support for 3: 0001; 8: 0001; 13: 0790; general 1: 0276
15: 0835; 16: 0606; 17: 0002, 0236 Mills, Walter
Texas 1: 0468 Walter Mills v. Board of Education of
Thibodeaux, Norman 2: 0859 Anne Arundel County 8: 0679
Thornton, Jesse 8: 0887; 15: 0835 Mines and mining
Townes, Roosevelt 8: 0001; 10: 0913 strike 3: 0518, 0771
Virginia border 16: 0348 Minnesota
Ward, Govan 7: 0622 legislature 7: 0348; 10: 0913
Waynesboro, Miss. 16: 0365 Minority groups
Western Anti-Lynch Conference 3: 0001 Conference on the Problems of
Wilkins, J. H. 1: 0717 Minorities 3: 0518
Williams, Elbert 8: 0887 Hispanic Americans 3: 0771
Williams, R. C. 13: 0790 see also Black Americans
Wilson, Jerome 5: 0813 Mississippi
Young, Ab 7: 0228; 19: 0755, 0768 Hernando 17: 0648
see also Antilynching legislation Illinois Central Railway System
Madisonville, Texas 19: 0680
racial harassment 16: 0318 lynchings 1: 0001, 0422; 7: 0228, 0622;
Manning, Frank 8: 0001–0679; 9: 0228; 10: 0913;
8: 0887 14: 0001; 16: 0026, 0034, 0276,
Manslaughter 0365; 19: 0755, 0768
New Haven Hospital 3: 0001 mob violence 16: 0329
Marriage railroad workers 10: 0275
interracial 10: 0001; 11: 0329 Missouri
Maryland agricultural labor 16: 0108
Anne Arundel County 8: 0679 lynchings 10: 0255, 0290; 16: 0075
Baltimore 10: 0377 police brutality 9: 0651
lynchings 1: 0717; 2: 0002, 0520, 0859; Mitchell, Benny
9: 0002 lynching 7: 0622
Massachusetts Mitchell, Miller
legislature 6: 0785 lynching 16: 0075
McDaniels, Bootjack Mobs
lynching 8: 0001; 10: 0913 1: 0001–0588, 0767; 2: 0859; 6: 0785;
7: 0228, 0800; 8: 0001; 9: 0002;

44
10: 0259; 16: 0055, 0181, 0329, National Recovery Administration
0362, 0365; 17: 0236; 19: 0001, 2: 0859
0730 National Scottsboro Action Committee
see also Lynching Negro Rights Bill proposal 1: 0767
Mooney, Tom National Unemployment Council
17: 0474, 0648 19: 0001
Moore, Will Native Son (book)
lynching 1: 0422 8: 0887
Moorish American Religious League Navy
9: 0427 16: 0199
Murder Neal, Claude
see Homicide lynching 4: 0001, 0202, 0717; 16: 0009;
Nashville, Tennessee 18: 0591, 0827; 19: 0260–0623,
lynchings 3: 0001; 16: 0079; 19: 0748 0780
National Association for the Nebraska
Advancement of Colored People House of Representatives 7: 0129
(NAACP) Omaha 1: 0276
antilynching legislation 1: 0218; Negro American Alliance
2: 0859; 7: 0622, 0800; 11: 0002 9: 0427
The Crisis (periodical) 7: 0441 Negro Ministerial Alliance
general 1: 0001, 0127, 0422, 0588; 2: 0859
2: 0461, 0520; 3: 0001; 4: 0202, Negro Rights Bill
0717; 5: 0314, 0813; 6: 0607–0785; 1: 0767
8: 0887; 9: 0150, 0232, 0427; 10: New Haven, Connecticut
0777; 11: 0145, 0442; 12: 0001, New Haven Hospital 3: 0001
0673, 0858–13: 0405; 15: 0647; New History Society
18: 0591; 19: 0260, 0752 3: 0001
meeting records 8: 0283–0679; 9: 0002; New Jersey
14: 0001 Camden 9: 0002
Neal, Claude, lynching 19: 0623 New London, Connecticut
weekly press releases 4: 0001; 8: 0001, violence 16: 0199
0507, 0679; 9: 0002; 10: 0377, 0659; New Orleans, Louisiana
12: 0178; 14: 0001; 19: 0446 Elks, The Benevolent and Protective
Youth Council and College Chapter Order of 3: 0280
8: 0679 police brutality 10: 0001
National Bar Association New York
8: 0887 Masons 1: 0422
National Conference of Problems of racial discrimination 9: 0651
Negro and Negro Youth New York City, New York
8: 0283 Harlem Labor Committee 6: 0001
National Encampment of the United Newspapers
Spanish War Veterans Chicago Defender 10: 0296
3: 0771 coverage of Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill
National Negro Square Deal Association 11: 0145
of America Norris, Clarence
11: 0329 18: 0330, 0591

45
North Carolina KKK 1: 0468; 3: 0001; 8: 0001, 0507,
Bennett College for Women 3: 0280 0679; 10: 0001; 12: 0382; 13: 0790
Chadbourn 8: 0887 League for Civil Rights and Justice
jury duty 19: 0771 7: 0441
lynchings 1: 0001; 7: 0622; 8: 0283 League of American Patriots 1: 0001
voting rights 1: 0127 Legion of Honor 7: 0228
Oakland, California National Bar Association 8: 0887
East Bay Rod and Gun Club 8: 0001 National Encampment of the United
YMCA 7: 0800 Spanish War Veterans 3: 0771
Ohio National Negro Square Deal Association
Cleveland 3: 0771 of America 11: 0329
Highway Patrol 9: 0232 National Scottsboro Action Committee
Okaloosa County, Florida 1: 0767
race relations 16: 0301 Negro American Alliance 9: 0427
Oklahoma Negro Ministerial Alliance 2: 0859
Beckham County 16: 0181 New History Society 3: 0001
Enid 16: 0318 Omega Psi Phi Fraternity 6: 0219
lynchings 16: 0115 Peace Heroes Memorial Society 3: 0518
Tulsa 9: 0904; 10: 0310 The People’s Committee of Detroit,
Omaha, Nebraska Mich. 8: 0001
violence against veterans 1: 0276 Republican Interstate League 1: 0670
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity United Civic League 1: 0127; 9: 0651
6: 0219 Universal Negro Improvement
Orange County, California Association 4: 0001; 7: 0441;
black prisoners 16: 0050 16: 0058
Organizations and associations Women’s International League for Peace
Association of Negro Radicals 2: 0275 and Freedom 2: 0520; 4: 0001;
Blue Ribbon Benefit Society 2: 0859 6: 0513; 11: 0329
Citizens Patriotic League 1: 0001 Women’s Political Study Club of
Colored Men’s Progressive Association California 9: 0232
7: 0001 Young Pioneers of America 17: 0236
East Bay Rod and Gun Club 8: 0001 see also Labor unions
Elks, The Benevolent and Protective see also National Association for the
Order of 3: 0280–0771 Advancement of Colored People
Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs (NAACP)
7: 0622; 10: 0913 see also Religious organizations
Federation of Democratic Clubs 7: 0441 see also Young Men’s Christian
Freemasonry 1: 0422 Association (YMCA)
Gardena Valley Democratic Club see also Young Women’s Christian
7: 0441 Association (YWCA)
Georgia Teachers and Educational Oxford, Mississippi
Association 7: 0622 lynchings 7: 0622
International Juridical Association Parker, John J.
1: 0767 16: 0217
International Red Aid 16: 0381 Patterson, Haywood
International Uplift League 10: 0377 18: 0330, 0591

46
Peace Heroes Memorial Society Powell, Ozie
3: 0518 19: 0001, 0146, 0260
Peace movements Presidential appointments
Father Divine Peace Mission Movement FDR 8: 0283
10: 0777 Press
Peace Heroes Memorial Society 3: 0518 Associated Negro Press 1: 0276
Women’s International League for Peace Price, Victoria
and Freedom 2: 0520; 4: 0001; 18: 0114
6: 0513; 11: 0329 Printing
Pennsylvania 2: 0859
Johnston 16: 0086 Prisoners
Peonage general 8: 0001; 9: 0427, 0651; 16: 0050
see Forced labor torture 3: 0771
The People’s Committee (Detroit, Prisons
Michigan) Wetumpka State Prison 9: 0651
8: 0001 Providence, Rhode Island
Periodicals Elks, The Benevolent and Protective
The Crisis 7: 0441 Order of 3: 0518
Jamaica Gleaner 9: 0002 Public opinion polls
Picayune, Mississippi 11: 0442
lynchings 9: 0228 Quakers
Pickens, Mississippi see Society of Friends
lynchings 8: 0679 Quincy, Florida
Pictorial History of the American Negro lynchings 9: 0651
(book) Race riots
3: 0001 see Riots and disorders
Pinkinson, Major Racial discrimination
16: 0329 general 2: 0520; 3: 0001, 0280; 4: 0001,
Pippen, Dan, Jr. 0580; 7: 0228; 9: 0232, 0651;
lynching 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002, 0520; 13: 0698
3: 0280 lawyers 8: 0887
Pocomoke City, Maryland military personnel 8: 0887
lynchings 9: 0002 U.S. Shipping Board 2: 0275
Police Railroads
brutality 2: 0275; 3: 0771; 6: 0785; Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway
7: 0622; 8: 0001; 9: 0232, 0651; Company 1: 0767
10: 0001 general 10: 0275
general 5: 0813; 8: 0887; 9: 0427 Illinois Central Railway System
Ohio Highway Patrol 9: 0232 19: 0680
Political parties Rape
Communist Party of America 10: 0310 3: 0001; 7: 0228; 9: 0427; 10: 0001
Republican Party 1: 0588; 19: 0260 Religions
Poll tax Baptists 2: 0002; 6: 0680; 18: 0827
9: 0232 Church of Christ 2: 0520
Postal service Father Divine 8: 0679; 10: 0777; 14:
1: 0218 0226–0768; 15: 0074–0835

47
Religions cont. Rodgers, Joe
Islam 9: 0427; 10: 0001 lynching 8: 0507; 14: 0001
Jehovah’s Witnesses 10: 0001, 0239 Rolph, James, Jr.
Judaism 1: 0001, 0767 16: 0606; 17: 0002, 0236
religious services 1: 0001 Rome, Mississippi
Society of Friends 1: 0468 lynchings 16: 0276
Religious organizations Roosevelt, Eleanor
Baptist Ministers Conference 2: 0002; 3: 0518
6: 0680 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR)
Colored Women’s National Evangelistic antilynching legislation support 2: 0002,
Missionary Conference 16: 0034 0520, 0859–8: 0001, 0679; 9: 0002;
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in 10: 0659–11: 0002, 0145, 0329–
America 2: 0520 15: 0835; 19: 0446
Interracial Conference of Church lynching denunciations 2: 0520
Women 7: 0800 Scottsboro Boys, appeals for help
Moorish American Religious League 16: 0381–19: 0001, 0146
9: 0427 Rosewood, Florida
Union of American Hebrew race riots 16: 0112
Congregations 1: 0767 Rowans, Robert
Republican Interstate League 7: 0800
1: 0670 Royston, Georgia
Republican Party lynchings 7: 0800; 10: 0777
1: 0588; 19: 0260 Ruston, Louisiana
Reverend Major Jealous Divine lynchings 13: 0790
see Father Divine San Francisco, California
Rhode Island Jews 1: 0001
Providence 3: 0518 Sandlin, J. S.
Richmond, Virginia 19: 0001, 0146, 0260
segregation 16: 0267 Scottsboro, Alabama
Riots and disorders see Scottsboro Boys
Arkansas 10: 0257 Scottsboro Boys
Chicago, Ill. 10: 0263 1: 0767; 2: 0002, 0859; 3: 0771; 4: 0717;
Detroit, Mich. 7: 0228 6: 0785; 7: 0622; 12: 0001; 16: 0267,
Elaine, Ark. 9: 0150; 10: 0299 0381–19: 0001, 0146, 0780
Rosewood, Fla. 16: 0112 Segregation
Tulsa, Okla. 9: 0904; 10: 0310 armed forces 9: 0427
see also Mobs black homeland proposal 4: 0580
Ritchie, Albert C. Jim Crow laws 9: 0427, 0651; 19: 0771
impeachment 2: 0002 Richmond, Va. 16: 0267
Robinson, Esau Smith, Bolton, pamphlet 1: 0276
lynching 16: 0115 Selby, George
Robinson, John Newt lynching 9: 0002
16: 0115 Senate
Rockyford, Georgia Committee on the Judiciary 11: 0002
lynchings 16: 0045 filibuster 12: 0001, 0673, 0858; 13: 0578
general 7: 0800

48
Sentences, criminal procedure Stone, Lee
9: 0232 16: 0115
Shamblin, R. L. Supreme Court
2: 0520 Parker, John J., nomination 16: 0217
Shaw, Lint Scottsboro Boys case 18: 0827
lynching 7: 0800; 10: 0777 Sweetwater County, Wyoming
Shepherd, Charles Colored Men’s Progressive Association
lynching 16: 0276 7: 0001
Sherman, Texas Syphilis
lynchings 16: 0217 12: 0527
Ships and shipbuilding Tampa, Florida
Tampa Shipbuilding Yards 8: 0679 shipbuilding yards 8: 0679
U.S. Shipping Board 2: 0275 Taxation
Slavery poll tax 9: 0232
see Forced labor Teachers
Slayden, Mississippi Georgia Teachers and Educational
lynchings 7: 0228; 19: 0755, 0768 Association 7: 0622
Smith, Bolton Tennessee
1: 0276 Chattanooga 2: 0275
Smith, Willmer lynchings 3: 0001; 8: 0887; 16: 0079;
9: 0427 19: 0748
Snell, Lee police brutality 6: 0785
lynching 8: 0283, 0507 railroad workers 10: 0275
Society of Friends Texas
1: 0468 Beaumont 7: 0228
South Carolina Dallas 9: 0232, 0651; 10: 0001
Greenville County 19: 0730 general 9: 0651
lynchings 1: 0717; 3: 0771; 7: 0441; jury duty 1: 0127
16: 0352, 0365 lynchings 1: 0001, 0468; 3: 0771;
St. Matthews 16: 0082 7: 0622; 16: 0115, 0217
Southern Railway Company Madisonville 16: 0318
Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway police brutality 7: 0622
Company 1: 0767 Stockdale 7: 0228
Spingarn, Arthur B. Thibodeaux, Norman
8: 0679 lynching 2: 0859
Stacy, Ruben Thornton, Jesse
lynching 7: 0622 lynching 8: 0887; 15: 0835
Statistics Torture
lynching 3: 0518; 10: 0659; 11: 0002 3: 0771
St. Louis, Missouri Townes, Roosevelt
police brutality 9: 0651 lynching 8: 0001; 10: 0913
St. Matthews, South Carolina Transportation
Whaley, Pink, forced exile 16: 0082 Adeline Carlton v. Southern Railway
Stockdale, Texas Company 2: 0275
mob violence 7: 0228

49
Transportation cont. kidnapping legislation 2: 0520; 18: 0591,
Illinois Central Railway System 0827; 19: 0260–0623, 0755
19: 0680 Negro Rights Bill proposal 1: 0767
public transportation 8: 0887; 9: 0427 see also Antilynching legislation
railroads 10: 0275 Van Nuys, Frederick
U.S. Shipping Board 2: 0275 7: 0800
Trials Veterans
16: 0055 National Encampment of the United
see also Scottsboro Boys Spanish War Veterans 3: 0771
Tucson, Arizona Veterans Administration
10: 0001 13: 0578
Tullis, J. J. Violence
1: 0767 bombs 9: 0651
Tulsa, Oklahoma burning at the stake 1: 0468
race riots 9: 0904; 10: 0310 death threats 3: 0771
Tuscaloosa, Alabama general 2: 0275; 3: 0001, 0280; 8: 0887;
lynchings 1: 0717, 0767; 2: 0002, 0520; 9: 0427, 0651; 19: 0001, 0146, 0680
3: 0280 homicide 1: 0767; 5: 0813; 7: 0800;
Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama 16: 0115; 19: 0748
8: 0001; 11: 0688; 12: 0001; 13: 0790 kidnapping 2: 0520; 18: 0591, 0827;
Unemployment 19: 0260–0623, 0755
National Recovery Administration manslaughter 3: 0001
2: 0859 military personnel 1: 0276, 0422;
National Unemployment Council 19: 16: 0199
0001 police brutality 2: 0275; 3: 0771;
Union of American Hebrew 6: 0785; 7: 0622; 8: 0001; 9: 0232,
Congregations 0651; 10: 0001
1: 0767 railroad workers 10: 0275
United Civic League rape 3: 0001; 7: 0228; 9: 0427; 10: 0001
Declaration of Principles 1: 0127 sexual assault 9: 0232
resolution 9: 0651 torture 3: 0771
United Front Auto Workers Conference see also Capital punishment
2: 0520 see also Lynching
Universal Negro Improvement see also Mobs
Association Virginia
4: 0001; 7: 0441; 16: 0058 Chatham 9: 0232
Upton, Samuel Hampton Institute 4: 0314, 0483, 0580;
9: 0427 5: 0479
Urban transportation lynchings 16: 0038, 0348
discrimination 8: 0887; 9: 0427 Richmond 16: 0267
U.S. Shipping Board Virginia State College 6: 0312
2: 0275 Virginia State College, Ettrick, Virginia
U.S. statutes 6: 0312
Connecticut Conference on Social and Voting rights
Labor Legislation 14: 0001 1: 0127; 7: 0441; 8: 0283–9: 0002,
Jim Crow laws 9: 0427, 0651; 19: 0775 0651; 11: 0688; 16: 0097

50
Wagner, Robert F. Winona, Mississippi
8: 0001 lynchings 8: 0001; 10: 0913
see also Costigan-Wagner Anti- Wisconsin
Lynching Bill legislature 10: 0377
Waller, Odell Women
9: 0232 Bennett College for Women 3: 0280
Walter Mills v. Board of Education of Colored Women’s National Evangelistic
Anne Arundel County Missionary Conference 16: 0034
8: 0679 Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs
Ward, Govan 7: 0622; 10: 0913
lynching 7: 0622 forced labor 1: 0001
Washington, D.C. Interracial Conference of Church
see District of Columbia Women 7: 0800
Waverly, Virginia Political Study Club of California
lynchings 16: 0038 9: 0232
Waynesboro, Mississippi prisoners 9: 0651
lynchings 16: 0365 see also Young Women’s Christian
Western Anti-Lynch Conference Association (YWCA)
3: 0001 Women’s International League for Peace
Western Union and Freedom
3: 0518, 0771 2: 0520; 4: 0001; 6: 0513; 11: 0329
Wetumpka State Prison (Alabama) Women’s Political Study Club of
9: 0651 California
Whaley, Pink 9: 0232
16: 0082 Works Progress Administration
White, Robert 9: 0232
9: 0651 Wright, Ada
Wichita, Kansas 16: 0381
police brutality 2: 0275 Wright, Richard
Wiggins, Mississippi Native Son (book) 8: 0887
lynchings 7: 0622; 8: 0001, 0283 Wyoming
Wilkins, J. H. Sweetwater County 7: 0001
lynching 1: 0717 Young, Ab
Williams, A. H. lynching 7: 0228; 19: 0755, 0768
2: 0859 Young Men’s Christian Association
Williams, Elbert (YMCA)
lynching 8: 0887 6: 0001, 0095, 0219; 7: 0800; 19: 0446
Williams, R. C. Young Pioneers of America
lynching 13: 0790 17: 0236
Wilson, Jerome Young Women’s Christian Association
lynching 5: 0813 (YWCA)
Wilson, Woodrow 3: 0001, 0280, 0518; 4: 0001–0818;
1: 0001 5: 0314–0813; 6: 0001–0219, 0680;
Wilson, Arkansas 7: 0129, 0348; 10: 0659, 0913;
lynchings 16: 0018 11: 0442, 0688; 18: 0591, 0827;
19: 0446, 0623

51
Youth Zarucha, Robert M.
general 8: 0887 3: 0001
Howard University Student Council
2: 0002
NAACP Youth Council and College
Chapter 8: 0679
National Conference of Problems of
Negro and Negro Youth 8: 0283
Young Pioneers of America 17: 0236
see also Young Men’s Christian
Association (YMCA)
see also Young Women’s Christian
Association (YWCA)

52
Related UPA Collections

Black Studies Research Sources


Federal Surveillance of Afro Americans (1917–1925): The First
World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement
New Deal Agencies and Black America
The Peonage Files of the U.S. Department of Justice,
1901–1945
Papers of the NAACP
Civil Rights During the Eisenhower Administration
Civil Rights During the Kennedy Administration
Civil Rights During the Johnson Administration, 1963–1969
Civil Rights During the Nixon Administration, 1969–1974

Other Titles in African American Studies


The Documentary History of the Franklin D. Roosevelt
Presidency, Vol. 11: FDR and Protection from Lynching,
1934–1945

UPA Collections from LexisNexis®


www.lexisnexis.com/academic
I n February 1938, Mrs. Viola West of White Plains, New York, posted an eloquent
plea against racial discrimination to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. “This thing,”
she wrote, referring to the practice of lynching, “is as a black cloud hanging over our
race: where ever we go we see it, we hear it, we feel it deep down into the very
depths of our souls.” She confessed that when she peered into the future, she “shuddered
with the fear of uncertainty,” and beseeched the president: “Can you realize yourself what
these things are doing to the colored race of America? If we cannot look to the
government of which we are subjected for protection, where or to whom can we turn?”

Ranging from 1911 until 1943, the documents in this collection of Department of Justice
files on civil rights center broadly on the practice of lynching and specifically upon the
thousands of letters written to protest this form of extralegal “punishment.” The core of
the collection consists of two bundles of letters to the president. Interspersed with the
letters are clusters of documents on a variety of related topics: race riots, lynching
investigations, press reports and meeting records from the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), personal letters of complaint and requests for
assistance, and newspaper clippings and memorandums concerning antilynching bills.

More than half the collection deals with letters concerning attempts to pass federal
antilynching legislation. A series of bills were passed by the House of Representatives
only to die in the Senate; these failures were not for lack of vocal public support: a major
campaign was mounted in support of the Costigan-Wagner Bill, led by such
organizations as the YWCA and NAACP but also backed by hundreds of other
organizations and individuals. Despite the correspondence sent his way, Roosevelt
refused to support the legislation publicly, fearing that it would cost him Democratic
votes in the South and lead to defeat in the 1936 presidential election. His reticence, apart
from a few isolated pronouncements against lynching, allowed southern senators
impunity to filibuster a succession of antilynching bills to death.

This collection offers a valuable glimpse into the minds of ordinary men and women,
both black and white, in the first half of the twentieth century. It provides a powerful look
at public sentiments toward lynching in the crucial interwar years, while documenting the
campaign to change federal antilynching laws. This collection will appeal to students of a
wide variety of topics, including civil rights, race relations, lynching, public opinion, and
grassroots democracy.

UPA Collections from LexisNexis®


www.lexisnexis.com/academic