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Edition

Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 4.2

SOLUTION:
• Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.
Y =
∑ yA
∑A
(
I x′ = ∑ I + A d 2 )
• Apply the elastic flexural formula to
find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
Mc
σm =
I
A cast-iron machine part is acted upon
by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165 • Calculate the curvature
GPa and neglecting the effects of 1 M
=
fillets, determine (a) the maximum ρ EI
tensile and compressive stresses, (b)
the radius of curvature.
Edition
Fourth

Sample Problem 4.2

SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry, calculate
the location of the section centroid and
moment of inertia.
Area, mm 2 y , mm yA, mm3
1 20 × 90 = 1800 50 90 × 103
2 40 × 30 = 1200 20 24 × 103
3
∑ A = 3000 ∑ yA = 114 × 10

3
∑ yA 114 × 10
Y = = = 38 mm
∑A 3000

( ) (121 bh3 + A d 2 )
I x′ = ∑ I + A d 2 = ∑
= (12
1 90 × 203 + 1800 × 12 2 ) + ( 1 30 × 403 + 1200 × 182 )
12
I = 868 × 103 mm 4 = 868 × 10-9 m 4

1
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 4.2

• Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the
maximum tensile and compressive stresses.
Mc
σm =
I
M c A 3 kN ⋅ m × 0.022 m σ A = +76.0 MPa
σA = =
I 868 × 10−9 m 4
M cB 3 kN ⋅ m × 0.038 m σ = −131.3 MPa
σB = − =− B
I 868 × 10−9 m 4

• Calculate the curvature

1 M
=
ρ EI
3 kN ⋅ m 1
= 20.95 × 10 −3 m -1
(165 GPa )(868 ×10-9 m 4 )
=
ρ
ρ = 47.7 m

Edition
Fourth

Bending of Members Made of Several Materials

• Consider a composite beam formed from
two materials with E1 and E2.
• Normal strain varies linearly.
y
εx = −
ρ
• Piecewise linear normal stress variation.
E1 y E2 y
σ 1 = E1ε x = − σ 2 = E2ε x = −
ρ ρ
Neutral axis does not pass through
section centroid of composite section.
• Elemental forces on the section are
Ey E y
dF1 = σ 1dA = − 1 dA dF2 = σ 2 dA = − 2 dA
ρ ρ
My
σx = − • Define a transformed section such that
I
σ1 = σ x σ 2 = nσ x dF2 = −
(nE1 ) y dA = − E1 y (n dA) E
n= 2
ρ ρ E1

2
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 4.03
SOLUTION:
• Transform the bar to an equivalent cross
section made entirely of brass

• Evaluate the cross sectional properties of

the transformed section

• Calculate the maximum stress in the

transformed section. This is the correct
maximum stress for the brass pieces of
the bar.
Bar is made from bonded pieces of
steel (Es = 29x106 psi) and brass • Determine the maximum stress in the
(Eb = 15x106 psi). Determine the steel portion of the bar by multiplying
maximum stress in the steel and the maximum stress for the transformed
brass when a moment of 40 kip*in section by the ratio of the moduli of
is applied. elasticity.
Edition
Fourth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 4.03
SOLUTION:
• Transform the bar to an equivalent cross section
made entirely of brass.
E 29 × 106 psi
n= s = = 1.933
Eb 15 × 106 psi
bT = 0.4 in + 1.933 × 0.75 in + 0.4 in = 2.25 in

• Evaluate the transformed cross sectional properties

1 b h3 = 1 (2.25 in.)(3 in.)3
I = 12 T 12
= 5.063 in.4
• Calculate the maximum stresses
Mc (40 kip ⋅ in.)(1.5 in.)
σm = = = 11.85 ksi
I 5.063 in.4
(σ b )max = σ m (σ b )max = 11.85 ksi
(σ s )max = nσ m = 1.933 ×11.85 ksi (σ s )max = 22.9 ksi

3
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Reinforced Concrete Beams

• Concrete beams subjected to bending moments are
reinforced by steel rods.
• The steel rods carry the entire tensile load below
the neutral surface. The upper part of the
concrete beam carries the compressive load.
• In the transformed section, the cross sectional area
of the steel, As, is replaced by the equivalent area
nAs where n = Es/Ec.
• To determine the location of the neutral axis,
(bx ) x − n As (d − x ) = 0
2
1 b x2 + n As x − n As d = 0
2

• The normal stress in the concrete and steel

My
σx = −
I
σc = σ x σ s = nσ x

Edition
Fourth

Sample Problem 4.4

SOLUTION:
• Transform to a section made entirely
of concrete.

• Evaluate geometric properties of

transformed section.

• Calculate the maximum stresses

in the concrete and steel.

A concrete floor slab is reinforced with

5/8-in-diameter steel rods. The modulus
of elasticity is 29x106psi for steel and
3.6x106psi for concrete. With an applied
bending moment of 40 kip*in for 1-ft
width of the slab, determine the maximum
stress in the concrete and steel.

4
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 4.4

SOLUTION:
• Transform to a section made entirely of concrete.
E 29 × 106 psi
n= s = = 8.06
Ec 3.6 × 106 psi

⎢⎣
( )
nAs = 8.06 × 2⎡π4 85 in ⎤ = 4.95 in 2
2
⎥⎦

• Evaluate the geometric properties of the

transformed section.
⎛ x⎞
12 x⎜ ⎟ − 4.95(4 − x ) = 0 x = 1.450 in
⎝ 2⎠
( )
I = 13 (12 in )(1.45 in )3 + 4.95 in 2 (2.55 in )2 = 44.4 in 4

• Calculate the maximum stresses.

Mc1 40 kip ⋅ in × 1.45 in
σc = = σ c = 1.306 ksi
I 44.4 in 4
Mc 40 kip ⋅ in × 2.55 in σ s = 18.52 ksi
σ s = n 2 = 8.06
I 44.4 in 4

Edition
Fourth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Stress Concentrations

Stress concentrations may occur: Mc

σm = K
I
• in the vicinity of points where the

• in the vicinity of abrupt changes

in cross section

5
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Plastic Deformations
• For any member subjected to pure bending
y
ε x = − εm strain varies linearly across the section
c
• If the member is made of a linearly elastic material,
the neutral axis passes through the section centroid
My
and σx = −
I

• For a material with a nonlinear stress-strain curve,

the neutral axis location is found by satisfying
Fx = ∫ σ x dA = 0 M = ∫ − yσ x dA

• For a member with vertical and horizontal planes of

symmetry and a material with the same tensile and
compressive stress-strain relationship, the neutral
axis is located at the section centroid and the stress-
strain relationship may be used to map the strain
distribution from the stress distribution.
Edition
Fourth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Plastic Deformations
• When the maximum stress is equal to the ultimate
strength of the material, failure occurs and the
corresponding moment MU is referred to as the
ultimate bending moment.

• The modulus of rupture in bending, RB, is found

from an experimentally determined value of MU
and a fictitious linear stress distribution.
MU c
RB =
I

• RB may be used to determine MU of any member

made of the same material and with the same
cross sectional shape but different dimensions.

6
Edition
Fourth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Members Made of an Elastoplastic Material

• Rectangular beam made of an elastoplastic material
Mc
σ x ≤ σY σm =
I
I
σ m = σY M Y = σ Y = maximum elastic moment
c
• If the moment is increased beyond the maximum
elastic moment, plastic zones develop around an
elastic core.
⎛ y2 ⎞
M = 32 M Y ⎜1 − 13 Y2 ⎟ yY = elastic core half - thickness
⎜ c ⎟⎠

• In the limit as the moment is increased further, the

elastic core thickness goes to zero, corresponding to a
fully plastic deformation.
M p = 32 M Y = plastic moment
Mp
k= = shape factor (depends only on cross section shape)
MY