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Article Citation Research Participants & Independent Variable Dependent Variable Results

Question Setting

Effects of the What are the 4 male children  Matched turns  Frequency of using the All 4 caregivers
Teach-Model- effects of the with normal o Adult verbal or language support strategies increased their use of
Coach-Review teach-Model- cognitive ability nonverbal o Is the parent using EMT strategies from
Instructional Coach-Review but delays communicative turns wait time correctly baseline to intervention
Approach on instructional language that immediately to elicit a response and all 4 caregivers
Caregiver Use approach on Clinical Setting followed a child from the child showed improvement
of Language caregivers' use communicative turn o Is the parent adding from baseline to post
Support of four and were contingent an additional word intervention.
Strategies and different EMT to the child to the child’s current
Children's language communicative turn request- EX. Child
Expressive support  Expansions says ‘ball’ and
Language Skills strategies in a o Adding one or two parent responds by
Megan Roberts, clinic setting content to the child’s handing the child the
Ann Kaiser, previous utterance to ball and saying ‘blue
Cathy Wolfe, make it ball’
Julie Bryant, and grammatically correct  Child’s use of language
Alexandria  Time Delay skills
Spidalieri o Adult attempts to o Is the child labeling
2014 elicit verbal and more objects in play
nonverbal requests o Is the child
from the child and requesting more
label these requests objects
with specific target
 Milieu Prompting
o Sequences of adult
prompts in response
to a child verbal or
nonverbal request.
The effects of Can parents 4 Parent/  Environmental Arrangement  Parents use of strategies After intervention, all 4
Trainer- learn to use the Children dyads  Arranging the  Modeling child’s targets children showed
Implemented three with children environment to create a (saying “ball” “cup” or increases in use of target
EMT on the components of that have been more responsive “slide” in activities) words. 3 of the 4
Social enhanced diagnosed with functional context for  Setting up the children showed
Communication milieu teaching autism with teaching and learning environment to elicit improvements in their
of Children and will their some use of language. communication spontaneous use of
with Autism use of the spontaneous  Feedback  Giving appropriate targets
Terry Hancock components words and  Providing feedback feedback
and Ann Kaiser generalize to normal hearing. following a child’s  Using immediate
2002 the home? communication reinforcement with child
 Modeling the child’s targets use of spontaneous
 Modeling the appropriate communication.
language by including 1.  Child’s use of spontaneous
Talk at the child’s current communication
level and 2. Parent  Spontaneous utterances
expansions of child  Use of words
utterances  Adding new words to
 Incidental Teaching current words (2 word
 Recognizing a teaching utterances)
episode and then  Frequency of new word
reinforcing the use.
communication by giving
the child’s immediate
Enhanced What effects 4 male  Environmental arrangements  Teacher and peer use of the Slightly higher
Milieu will EMT with preschool  Selecting materials of strategies frequency of
Teaching: An conversational students with interest  Correct use of MT communication was
Analysis of partners have delayed  Arranging materials to strategies: using time observed with all
Applications by on preschool expressive and promote requests delay correctly children across all
Interventionists children? receptive skills.  Mediating the  Following the child’s interventions
and Classroom environment lead
Teachers  Engaging in activities  Setting up the play areas
Ann Kaiser, with the child or environment to elicit
Peggy Hester,  Responsive interaction strategies verbal communication
Amy Harris-
 Following the child’s from the child
Solomon, and  Child’s increase in verbal and
Anne Keetz
 Balancing turns non-verbal communication
2014  Use of action verbs
 Maintaining child’s topic
 Modeling language  Adding adjectives to
 Expanding child existing 1 word
utterances utterances- little car,
 Responding to child white house, more juice,
communications want dog, roll ball
 Selected us of milieu teaching
 Child-cued modeling
 Mand-modeling
 Time delay
 Incidental teaching
The Effects of What are the 6 Preschool  Environmental arrangements  Parent implemented measures All 6 parents were able
Parent- effects of boys with  To promote engagement  Number of expansions to increase their use of
Implemented parent- autism between with activities and  Number off not EMT strategies from
Enhanced implemented the ages of 2.5 communication partners following the child’s baseline to intervention
Milieu EMT on the and 5 years with  Responsive interaction lead and even higher after
Teaching on the language normal hearing techniques  Number of responsive intervention in the clinic
social performance of and at least a 6  To build social feedback setting. All 6 parents
Communication preschool month delay in conversational  Number of parent increased their use of
of Children children with expressive interaction and to model utterances at target level EMT strategies during
Who Have autism? language. new language forms  Child social-communication intervention at home but
Autism Playroom in a  Milieu teaching skills only 3 continued to use
Ann Kaiser, university based  Modeling them at home after
 Frequency of
Terry Hancock, clinical setting. intervention.
 Mands followed by spontaneous utterances
and Jennifer models  Total use of tartes
 Time delay  Frequency of targets
 Incidental teaching used spontaneously
 Child language development
 Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test-
 Expressive One Word
Picture Vocabulary
 Measures of linguistic
 Diversity of vocabulary
 Parent Satisfaction
 Questionnaire at the end
of the intervention stage
and at the end of the
follow-up period.
Parent training What changes 3 parent/child  Follow  Parents ability to implement the There was a positive
and joint in child dyads with  Follow the child’s lead EMT strategies change in 2 of the
engagement in engagement children without asking questions  Following the child’s parent/child dyads in
young children states are diagnosed with or giving instructions lead and adding on to level of engagement and
with autism observed when Autism  Remain face-to-face with what they are saying the duration of
spectrum parents use In the the child  Expanding on engagement.
disorder. techniques participants  Imitate communication in the
Susan Killmeyer such as EMT homes  Imitate the child’s activities the child is
and Louise strategies with actions and animate their already involved in
Kaczmarek fidelity? own to make them more  Being more aware of
2017 noticeable so the child is their turn taking and
more aware of them how often they are
 Model/Expand giving instruction rather
 Parents learned to than interacting
incorporate language  Having face to face time
models and to expand and setting up the
child communication (1 environment so they are
word to 2 word on the child’s level.
 Balanced Turns
 Turn taking and making
sure the parent and the
child are spending the
same amount of time
being the leader and the
 Communicative temptations
 Having parents create the
opportunities for a child
to initiate communication
Parent- Can parents 3 male  Environmental Arrangement  Parent use of environmental The length of time
implemented learn to use the child/parent and  Arranging the arrangement required for parents to
language 3 components 1 female environment to create a  Placing commonly learn the intervention
intervention of EMT and child/parent more responsive desired objects out of ranged from 17 to 24
Mary Louise will their use dyads. All functional contact for reach to elicit sessions. Parents
Hemmeter and of the children had a teaching and learning communicative requests reported to be very
Ann Kaiser components be diagnosed language  Modeling the child’s targets happy with the training
1994 generalize to disability  Feedback  Labeling all objects, and positive outcomes.
the home? (Downs,  Providing feedback such activities, and people
What effects language delay as praise or giving the  Incidental teaching
will the and behavior requested item to the  Recognizing when the
intervention problems, child following the child has attempted a
have on the pervasive child’s communication verbal or nonverbal
child's developmental  Modeling request and following
acquisition and disorder, and  Talking at the child’s that request immediately
generalization Cerebral Palsy target level and  Mean length of utterances
of and Seizure expanding on child  How often are they
communicative disorder.) utterances uttering words
skills, specific Playroom on a
 Incidental teaching  How often are they
language university
 Recognizing a teaching explain on their words
targets, and campus
episode and then  How often are they
reinforcing the saying new words or
measures of
communication by giving making new requests.
the child’s immediate
interest in the