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University of Santo Tomas

Faculty of Engineering
nd
2 Semester AY 2017-2018

MATERIAL BALANCE

5B2-TheGreenCORNPany-MaterialBalance-Ver.01

Submitted by:

CABRIGA, Chasin Krishna


ESPINOSA, Richelle Charlene
ESPIRITU, Anne Marie
JOSE, Bessie Mae
MARASIGAN, Desmond Keannu
MARQUEZ, Merryl Jean
SANTOS, Darrel

5 ChE B

1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

MATERIAL BALANCE 5B2-TheGreenCORNPany-MaterialBalance-Ver.01 .................................................... 1


I. Steep Tanks in Series............................................................................................................................. 3
II. Degerminating Mill and Liquid Cyclone ................................................................................................ 6
III. Hammer Mill.......................................................................................................................................... 9
IV. Screening ............................................................................................................................................. 10
V. Two-Stage Centrifuge .......................................................................................................................... 12
VI. Hi-Bar Filter ............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
VII. Jacketed Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor in Series ........................................................................... 16
VIII. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger ........................................................................................................... 18
IX. Bioreactor (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) .......................................................... 19
X. Ultra-filtration ..................................................................................................................................... 21
XI. Pervaporator ....................................................................................................................................... 23
XII. Molecular Sieve Adsorption/Desporption Bed ................................................................................... 24
XIII. Condenser ........................................................................................................................................... 26

2
I. Steep Tanks in Series

H2O 256,113 MT
SO2 400 MT

256,513 MT 0.2% H2SO3 Solution


H2O 256,113 MT
(T = 52oC)
SO2 400 MT
Corn 200,000 MT corn / year
Corn 200,000 MT corn / year

456,513 MT

Light Steepwater (LS) 120,000 MT


Water 108,000 MT
Some SO2
6% of dry corn 12,000 MT
Some SO2

Steeped Corn (SC) 336,145 MT


Corn 188,000 MT
Water 148,145 MT

The corn kernels will be introduced to the steep tank in series with dilute aqueous sulfur dioxide
solution having a temperature of 52°C (125°F) and will be stored for 35 hours. In the reaction
below, 0.002 MT of SO2 per 1 MT of corn was converted to 513 MT of H2SO3.

SO2 + H2O H2SO3


0.002 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑂2 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 = 𝑥 200,000 𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑛 = 400 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2
1 𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑛

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 0.08207 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3


400 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 = 513 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3
0.064066 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆𝑂2 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3

3
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑆𝑂2 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑂 0.018 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑂
= 400 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
0.064066 𝑀𝑇 𝑆𝑂2 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆𝑂2 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
= 113 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑂

To solve for the amount of water to dilute H2SO3:


*Density of H2SO3 = 1030 MT/Million L
𝑘𝑔
513 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 1 𝐿
0.2% = 𝑥
𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿 𝑀𝑇
513 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 𝑥 1030 𝑀𝑇 𝐻 𝑆𝑂 + 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1000 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿
2 3

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 256 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿

*Assume density of water = 1000 MT/Million L


1000 𝑀𝑇
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = [256 𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿] 𝑥
𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿
= 256,000 𝑀𝑇 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑑𝑖𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑑 𝑡𝑜 0.2%
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 256,00 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑂 + 513 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 = 256,513 𝑀𝑇 0𝑓 0.2% 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3

𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑


= 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐻2 𝑂 𝑡𝑜 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3 + 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐻2 𝑂 𝑡𝑜 𝑑𝑖𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂3
= 113 𝑀𝑇 + 256,000 𝑀𝑇 = 256,113 𝑀𝑇 𝐻2 𝑂

𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑬𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑴𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒆𝒑𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑻𝒂𝒏𝒌 = 𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒏 + 𝒅𝒊𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝑯𝟐 𝑺𝑶𝟑


= 200,000 𝑀𝑇 + 256,513 𝑀𝑇 = 𝟒𝟓𝟔, 𝟓𝟏𝟑 𝑴𝑻
OMB: 240,000 + 3093– 480 = 242,958 = LS + SC
Based from the above calculations the total mass of solution is 256,513 MT of 0.2% H2SO3. The
solution is then wet-scrubbed with alkaline solution, resulting to some SO2 will be vented out.
The presence of SO2 will be completely removed in the evaporator.
Light Steepwater (LS) Calculation:
Solids = 0.06 x 200,000 MT = 12,000 MT
0.1 LS = 12,000 MT solids
LS = 120,000 MT

4
Water = 120,000- 12,000 =108,000
Steeped Corn (SC) Calculation:
Water =256,113 𝑀𝑇 - 108,000 MT
Water = 148,113 MT
Corn = 0.94 x 200,000 MT = 188,000 MT
SC = 148,145 MT + 188,000 MT
SC = 336,113 MT

5
II. Degerminating Mill and Liquid Cyclone

From Steeping Tanks


Steeped Corn 336,113MT
Corn 188,000MT
Water 148,113MT

Degerminating
Mill To Washing Tank
+
Liquid Cyclone Germ Slurry 70,062MT
Corn Germ 20,680MT
Water 49,382MT
Starch Gluten Slurry 266,083MT
To Rod Mill
Starch 114,680MT
Gluten 39,217MT
Fiber 13,160MT
Water 98,763MT
Soluble Matter 263MT

The overall mass balance for the system is:


𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑛 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 + 𝐺𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
336,113 = 188,000 + 148,113
The Starch Gluten Slurry balance is:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ + 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝐹𝑖𝑏𝑒𝑟 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟
132,933 = 57,340 + 19,608 + 6,580 + 49,273 + 132
The Germ Slurry balance is:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐺𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝐺𝑒𝑟𝑚 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
132,933 = 10,340 + 24,637
After steeping, the steeped corn, which contains most of the solids, will be fed into a
degerminating mill. This equipment grinds to separate the germ from the endosperm. Then, the
wet germ will be separated from the other components using the liquid cyclone. In summary, the
stream will be divided into two: (1) the Germ Slurry, and (2) the Starch Gluten Slurry.
The composition of corn kernel by weight are presented in the following diagram on the
left. On the right side will be the actual balance of the components with a basis of 132,933.15MT

6
of wet steeped corn. The dry weight of the corn is 94,000MT. The data was used to breakdown
the mass balance for the mill and the cyclone.
FEED: 188,000MT
CORN KERNEL COMPOSITION (W/W) STREAM
DRY WT CORN
ENDOSPERM 0.82 154,160 Starch-
STARCH 0.61 114,680 Gluten
GLUTEN 0.2086 39,217
SOLUBLE MATTER 2% Fiber or 0.0014 263
GERM 0.11 20,680 Germ
FIBER 0.07 13,160 Starch-
PERICARP 0.06 11,280 Gluten
TIP CAP 0.01 1,880
Table 1: Composition of Corn Kernel
An example calculation of from this table is as follows:
To determine amount of endosperm in the corn:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚 = (𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑑 )(0.82) = (94,000)(0.82) = 77,080 𝑀𝑇
To determine amount of starch in the corn:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ = (𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑑 )(0.61) = (94,000)(0.61) = 57,340 𝑀𝑇
It is to be noted that the summation of the indented values should equal the major
constituents of corn. For example, for endosperm:
To check the amount of endosperm in the corn:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ + 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 57,340 + 19,608 + 132
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 77,080
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 77,080 = 57,340 + 19,608 + 132 = (94,000)(0.82)
Therefore, the computation is valid.

For the water, one-third of the total water adhered to the germ slurry, while the remaining
is in the starch gluten slurry.
To determine amount of water in germ slurry (GS) stream:
1
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐺𝑆 = (148,145) ( ) = 24,637 𝑀𝑇
3
To determine amount of water in starch gluten slurry (SGS) stream:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝐺𝑆 = 73,910 𝑀𝑇 − 24,637 𝑀𝑇 = 49,273 𝑀𝑇

7
Then, the starch gluten stream will be sent to the rod mill to further separate the starch
and gluten. The germ slurry will be fed to the washing tank to extract the oil from the germ.

8
III. Hammer Mill

 Hammer mill with vibrating screen for corn cob

HAMMER MILL WITH


Corn Cob (CC) 30,000 MT Size reduced Corn Cob
VIBRATING SCREEN
(SCC) = 30,000 MT

Corn cobs will be introduced to hammer mill with vibrating screen. It comes with a vibrating
screen to ensure all corn cobs will be reduced to required particle size. 30,000 MT of corn cob
will undergo the process of milling as shown in the computation below.

0.15 MT corn cob/MT dry corn x 200,000 MT dry corn = 30,000 MT corn cob
CC = SCC = 30,000 MT

The size-reduced corn cobs will enter directly to the jacketed continuous stirred tank reactors in
series

 Hammer mill for Slurry (starch, gluten and fibrous materials)

Slurry 266,083 MT Milled Slurry 266,083 MT

Starch 114,680MT Starch 114,680MT


Gluten 39,217MT HAMMER MILL Gluten 39,217MT
Fiber 13,160MT Fiber 13,160MT
Water 98,763MT Water 98,763MT
Soluble Matter 263MT Soluble Matter 263MT

Slurry from liquid cyclone separator will enter the hammer mill to reduce some particles and to
further enable to separate the fibers from the mixture.

9
Milled Slurry 266,083 MT

Starch 114,680MT
Gluten 39,217MT
Fiber 13,160MT
Water 98,763MT
Soluble Matter 263MT

Coarse Particles (CP) 53,956 MT

Fiber = 13,160 MT
VIBRATING SCREEN
Water = 40,796 MT

Underflow (U) 212,127MT

Starch 114,680MT
Gluten 39,217MT
Water 57,967MT
Soluble Matter 253MT

IV. Screening

The hammer milled slurry will pass through the screen in able to separate the hulls from slurry.
Corn hulls have 310% water absorptivity, using the equation below the wet weight of the coarse
particles can be computed (53,96 MT)

WetWeight  DryWeight
%absorptivity  x100
DryWeight

WetWeight  13,160
310%  x100
13,160

10
Wet weight = 53,956 MT = CP

Moisture = 53,956 – 13,160 = 40,796 MT


The underflow (U) in the vibrating screen can be obtained by subtracting the total feed by the
amount of the coarse particles. The underflow computed is 212,127 MT. The water content in the
underflow is 57,967 MT.

11
V. Two-Stage Centrifuge

The overall mass balance for the system is:


𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝐷𝑒𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
126,353 = 93,994 + 7,684 + 24,675
The overall mass balance for the first centrifuge is:
𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 + 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
126,353 = 93,994 + 32,359
The overall mass balance for the second centrifuge and dewatering equipment is:
𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝐷𝑒𝑤. 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
32,359 = 7,684 + 24,675

The Starch Slurry balance is:


𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
93,994 = 36,654 + 24,637
The Gluten Slurry balance (exiting first centrifuge) is:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟

12
32,359 = 19,608 + 12,619 + 132
The Dewatered Slurry balance (exiting second centrifuge) is:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐷𝑒𝑤. 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟
24,675 = 19,608 + 4,935 + 132

The fiber-free starch gluten feed will then enter a two-stage centrifuge to separate the
starch and gluten, and to dewater the gluten. The downstream, is composed of water and
starch. The upstream is composed of gluten, water, and soluble matter.
Again, following the original composition of the kernel, the amount of starch in the slurry
was obtained. Now, the amount of water adhered by one kg of the dry weight entering starch
gluten slurry was computed using the following formula:
𝑘𝑔 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 57,967𝑀𝑇
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 1𝑘𝑔 𝑑𝑤 𝑆𝐺𝑆 = = = 0.376
𝑘𝑔 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑆𝐺𝑆 212,117 − 57,967 𝑘𝑔
To determine the amount of water in the starch slurry:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
= 0.376 =
𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 57,340
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 0.376 ∗ 57,340 = 21,562 𝑀𝑇
To determine the amount of water in the gluten slurry:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 57,967 − 21,562 = 36,405 𝑀𝑇

To determine the amount of starch slurry stream, the starch and water values were added.
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
93,994 = 36,654 + 24,637
Likewise, the gluten slurry stream amount exiting the first centrifuge was also calculated
using the same approach.

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟


32,359 = 19,608 + 12,619 + 132

For the dewatering, it was assumed that the water in the exiting stream amounts to 20%
of the total dewatered gluten slurry (DGS) stream (wet basis).

13
To determine the amount of water to exit the dewatering equipment:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝐺𝑆 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝐺𝑆
= 0.2 = 19,608 + 132+ 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝐺𝑆
𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛+ 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑀𝑎𝑡+ 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝐺𝑆

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝐺𝑆 = 4,935𝑘𝑔


Therefore, the amount of water removed in dewatering is:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝑒𝑤. = 12,619 − 4,935 = 7,684𝑘𝑔

To solve for the total amount of dewatered gluten slurry exiting the second centrifuge/
dewatering equipment:
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝐷𝑒𝑤. 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 𝑆𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦 = 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑛 + 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟
24,675 = 19,608 + 4,935 + 132

After the two-stage centrifuge, the starch slurry will be refined again to make ethanol.
The dewatered gluten slurry will be dried to create corn gluten meal.

14
VI. Hi-Bar Filtration

Starch Slurry = 136243 MT


F E
 Starch = 114680 MT (84.17%)
HiBar Filtration 8820.78 MT Water
 Water 21562 MT (15.83%)

127422.22 MT Dry Starch Slurry


R  Water = 12742.222 MT (10% wt)
 Starch = 114680 MT (90% wt)

One of the most modern filtration technique is the HiBar filtration or hyperbaric filtration. It has
a low moisture content, high specific solids performance and efficient filter cake wash. The lowest
moisture contents which reach up to below 10% is obtained using HiBar filtration. And has a 99-100%
recovery of solids after filtration.

Since there is a 10% by wt moisture content on stream R and there is almost 100% recovery of
solids, 90% of it is the starch. Therefore:
114680
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑅 = = 127422.22 𝑀𝑇 𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑦
0.90
𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑅 = 127422.22 − 114680 = 12742.22 𝑀𝑇 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

OMB:
𝐹 =𝑅+𝐸
136243 = 127422.22 + 𝐸
𝐸 = 8820.78 𝑀𝑇 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐸𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑

15
VII. Jacketed Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor in Series

Gelatinization is the swelling of the starch granules in the presence of heat and water and
absorbs up to 30% water w/w. The starch loses its crystallinity and becomes an amorphous gel that can
be attacked by enzymes. At this point, the starch slurry thickens considerably due to the leaching of
granules and would be difficult to process. Alpha-amylase is added to reduce the viscosity of the
solution in a process called liquefaction. This process also lowers the molecular size substrate and
prepares the slurry for the next step, which is saccharification.

To determine the amount of water needed to produce a 35% solid by weight solution, the
following equation was used:

Let x = water to be added

The amount of α-amylase to be added is 0.06% of the total solids entering, so:

Table 1 shows the composition of the feed and products in the gelatinization tank. On the other
hand, Table 2 shows the breakdown of the products produced from liquefaction which has a
composition of 0.3% D-glucose, 2% Maltose, and 97.7% Oligoasaccharides. The composition of the
products was based on literature, since it is hard to compute for the conversion of starch to dextrins
because they have the same structure. The amount of enzyme added to the slurry mash is equal to
0.06% of the total solids entering.

Table 1. Mass Balance in the Gelatinization Tank

16
Feed Product
Starch = 114,680 MT Starch = 144,680 MT
Water in Starch = 21,562 MT Water = 212,977.14MT
Process Water = 191,415.14 MT
Total = 327,657.14 MT Total =327,657.14 MT

Table 2. Mass Balance in the Liquefaction Tank

Feed Product
Starch = 144,680 MT D-glucose = 983.18 MT
Water = 212,977.14 MT Maltose = 6554.52MT
Alpha-Amylase = 68.81 MT Oligosaccharides = 320,188.25 MT

17
VIII. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

The Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger cools down the liquefied mash before entering the
fermenter to optimize the yeast reaction. The material balance for a heat exchanger is given by
Equation (1).

(1)

18
IX. Bioreactor (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation)

Yeast = 268.722 MT CO2 = 38256.507 MT


Water = 2418.498 MT
water

Slurry = 312582.5649 MT
Starch = 144680 MT SSF  215395.638 MT H2O
H2O = 212977.14MT 73-76 % EtOH  62382.45787 MT EtOH
Enzyme = 68.81 MT Conversion efficiency  34804.469 MT Mash

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is a promising process for


bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. It has an overall efficiency of converting the glucose
into ethanol of up to 76%. The reaction of this conversion is given as:
C6H12O6→2C2H5OH + 2CO2
180g/mol 2*46 g/mol

Solving for the kg of yeast needed: (density of the starch is 0.673 kg/L, every 100g yeast/5 gal of Mash)

To solve for the water for inoculum: (there is 1.11 g yeast/99mL H2O)

Using gravimetric analysis: (1.11 kg glucose/1 kg starch)

19
With an efficiency of 76% conversion to ethanol:

Unused Ethanol:

Therefore,

Total water in the product;

Unused Yeast;

CO2 Produced;
𝑔
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 ∗ 44 𝐶𝑂2
𝐶𝑂2 = 160594.8 𝑀𝑇 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 ∗ ( 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ) = 78513.014 𝑀𝑇
𝑔
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 ∗ 180 𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒
𝑚𝑜𝑙

20
X. Ultra-filtration

From Bioreactor
Fermented Mash 312,582.5649 MT
Water 215,395.638 MT
Ethanol 62,382.45787 MT
Mash 34,804.469 MT

Ultra-filter
Membrane Residue 36,188.65328 MT
98% efficiency Water 4,307.91276 MT
Ethanol 1,247.649157 MT
Mash 30,633.09136 MT

Filtrate 276,393.9116 MT
Water 211,087.7252 MT
Ethanol 61,134.80871 MT
Mash 4,171.37764 MT

The fermented mash goes through the process of ultra-filtration to filter out the mash before
subjecting it to the pervaporator to attain pure ethanol efficiently.
In filtration, the amount of feed or fermented mash introduced in the filter membrane is equal to
the amount of the residue obtained and filtrate retained. The overall mass balance can be
expressed by the equation below:

Fermented mash = Filtrate + Residue

During filtration process, 10% of the solids is removed in in the fermented mash from the
fermenter. Thus, 31,258.25649 MT of mash is to be removed from the solution. However, the
ultra-filter membrane is working at 98% efficiency only, getting a 30,633.09136 MT of mash to
be filtered. The 2% inefficiency results in the removal of 2% ethanol and water. 1,247.649 MT of
ethanol and 4,307.913 MT of H2O are removed alongside the solids filtered.
The total mass of residue (H2O removed, EtOH removed & mash) resulted to 36,188.65 MT. The
total filtrate retained is 276,393.9116 MT.
The breakdown of the composition of the feed and product (filtrate and residue) are presented in
the table below:

21
Input Product
Water 215395.638 MT Filtrate 276393.9116 MT
Ethanol 62382.45787 MT - Water 211087.7252 MT
Mash 34804.469 MT - Ethanol 61134.80871 MT
- Mash 4171.37764 MT
Residue 36188.65328 MT
- Water 4307.91276 MT
- Ethanol 1247.649157 MT
- Mash 30633.09136 MT
TOTAL FEED 312582.5649 MT TOTAL PRODUCT 312582.5649 MT

After the filtration process, two products are produced (filtrate and residue). The filtrate is then
sent to the pervaporator to attain pure ethanol.

22
XI. Pervaporator

From Ultra-filtration
Filtrate 276,393.9116 MT
Water 211,087.7252 MT
Ethanol 61,134.80871 MT
Mash 4,171.37764 MT

Pervaporator
Impure EtOH sol’n 67,417.0637 MT
99% efficiency Water 2,110.877252 MT
Ethanol 61,134.80871 MT
Mash 4,171.37764 MT
H2O removed 208,976.8479 MT

The filtrate from the ultra-filtration membrane goes through the pervaporator to remove all the
water content in the solution. However, the pervaporator works at 99% efficiency only thus, not
totally removing all the water content in the filtrate solution resulting to impure ethanol solution
as the product.
The filtrate solution introduced in the pervaporation system is equal to the amount of water
removed and the impure ethanol solution produced. The overall mass balance can be expressed
by the equation below:
Filtrate solution = H2O removed + Impure Ethanol solution
Since the pervaporator efficiency is 99%, the amount of water removed from the solution is
208,976.8479 MT thus having an amount of water remained in the system at 2,110.877 MT.
Using the equation below to get the amount of solution produced in the system:
Total solution produced = Input – Permeate
The resulting product in the process is 67,417.0637 MT. The composition of the impure ethanol
solution has 90.68% ethanol, 3.13% H2O and 6.19% mash. This is fed to the next system to
increase the ethanol percentage to 98-99%.
The breakdown of the composition of the feed and product (impure ethanol and H2O removed)
are presented in the table below:

Input Product
Impure Ethanol
Filtrate 276393.9116 MT 67417.0637 MT
sol’n
- Water 211087.7252 MT - Water 2110.87725 MT
- Ethanol 61134.80871 MT - Ethanol 61134.8087 MT
- Mash 4176.37764 MT - Mash 4176.37764 MT
Water removed 208976.8479 MT
TOTAL FEED 276393.9116 MT TOTAL PRODUCT 276393.9116 MT

23
XII. Molecular Sieve Adsorption/Desorption Bed

Ethanol can be purified using molecular sieves in pressure swing adsorbers (PSA). The
H2O molecules will be trapped in the pores of the sieves, allowing a purified ethanol solution to
leave the absorber. Figure 1 presents the material balance of the pressure swing adsorber in the
purification of the 94.1% ethanol solution from the pervaporation process. The impure ethanol
solution fed into the system is equal to the ethanol solution to be condensed for storage plus the
ethanol solution to be recycled back to the pervaporator.

Fig. 1. Pressure Swing Adsorber System Mass Balance


The water from the entering ethanol feed is adsorbed into the sieve pores which will be
desorbed after the adsorption time has passed. This water will then be added to the purged
purified ethanol leaving the second adsorption tower. The leaving solution composed of the
desorbed water and the purified ethanol solution will be recycled for further purification. The
overall mass balance of the PSA is presented below:
Impure Ethanol Solution = Purified Ethanol Solution + Adsorbed H2O
The effluent over influent ratio used for the entering 95.24% EtOH solution is 0.02764.
This ratio gave an effluent of 15.75 kg water. This amount is the amount of water which will be
left with the purified ethanol solution. Since the chosen purge to feed ratio is 24%, 2,871.65 kg
of the 99.86% EtOH solution will be used to purge the desorbed water out of the sieves. Table 1
below presents the values obtained from the calculations.

24
Appendix of Calculations

Purge = 0.24 (Feed)


Purge = 0.24 (11965.212)
Purge = 2,871.65kg

Effluent in Purified Ethanol Stream = 0.02764 (Water in Entering Stream)


Effluent = 0.02764 (569.772)
Effluent = 15.75kg H2O

Purified Ethanol = Entering Ethanol + Effluent


Purified Ethanol = 11395.44 + 15.75
Purified Ethanol = 11,411.19kg

Adsorbed Water = Initial Water – Effluent


Adsorbed Water = 569.772 – 15.75
Adsorbed Water = 554.022kg

Recycle Stream = Purge + Adsorbed Water


Recycle Stream = 2871.65 + 554.022
Recycle Stream = 3,425.672kg

25
XIII. Condenser

The ethanol from the PSA will be condensed in order to properly store the
mixture which will then be ready for distribution. Cooling water will be used to cool the
ethanol solution. Figure 1 presents the material balance for the condensation process of
the purified ethanol. The amounts of the entering and leaving streams are constant for
there will be no contact between the two streams, only heat transfer will take place.

Figure 1. Condenser Balance

The ethanol solution having a temperature of 140oC will be condensed and cooled to a
temperature of 25oC which will make it appropriate for storage. The overall material balance is
presented below:
Entering Ethanol + Entering Water = Leaving Ethanol + Leaving Water
The amount of ethanol and the amount of water used in the condensing process are
conserved and did not change throughout the condensation process. Table 1 presents the values
of the entering and leaving streams.

26