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Start Practice Exam Test Questions Part I of the

Series A. Third
1. __________ is the progressive decrease of signal B. Fourth
strength with increasing distance. C. Fifth
D. Sixth
A. Radiation 7. What do you call an attenuation that occurs over
B. Attenuation many different wavelengths of the carrier?
C. Modulation
D. Propagation A. Rayleigh fading
2. Calculate the effective earth’s radius if the surface B. Rician fading
refractivity is 301. C. Wavelength fading
D. Slow fading
A. 8493 km 8. Which of the reception problems below that is not
B. 8493 mmi due to multipath?
C. 6370 km
D. 6370 mi A. Delayed spreading
3. If k-factor is greater than 1, the array beam is bent B. Rayleigh fading
C. Random Doppler shift
A. Away from the earth D. Slow fading
B. towards the ionosphere, 9. Which causes multipath or frequency-selective
C. towards the earth fading?
D. towards the outer space
4. the antenna separations (in meters) required for A. Small reflector
optimum operation of a space diversity system can B. Nearer reflector
be calculated from: C. Further reflector
D. Large reflector
A. S = 2λR/L 10. In microwave transmission using digital radio,
B. S = 3λR/L what causes most intersymbol interference?
C. S = λR/RL
D. S = λR/L A. Delayed spreading
where R = effective earth radius (m) and L = path B. Rayleigh fading
length (m) C. Random Doppler shift
D. Slow fading
5. Rainfall is an important factor for fading of radio 11. A shipboard equipment which measures the
waves at frequencies above distance between the ship’s bottom and the ocean
floor.
A. 10 GHz
B. 100 GHz A. Fathometer
C. 1 GHz B. Echosounder
D. 100 MHz C. LORAN
6. Theoretically electromagnetic radiation field D. SONAR
strength varies in inverse proportion to the square of 12. The cavity resonator
the distance, but when atmospheric attenuation
effects and the absorption of the terrain are taken
into account the attenuation can be as high as the A. Is equivalent to an LC resonant circuit
inverse _______ power of the distance.
B. In a reflect klystron has its output taken from the C. Klystron tube
reflector plate D. Both B and C
C. Produces a frequency which is independent of the 19. Microwave frequencies are normally regarded as
cavity size. those in the range of
D. Has a low Q factor for narrow operation.
13. At what position is the input signal inserted into A. 1 to 500 MHz
a traveling-wave tube? B. 1000 to 10,000 GHz
C. 1 to 100 GHz
A. At the cathode end of the helix D. 10 to 1000 GHz
B. At the collector 20. The highest frequency which a conventional
C. At the collector end of the helix vacuum-tube oscillator can generate is not limited
D. At the control grid of the electron gun by the
14. Coupling into and out of a traveling-wave tube
can be accompanied by a A. Electron transit time
B. Distributed lead inductance
A. Waveguide match C. Inter-electrode capacitance
B. Cavity match D. Degree of emission from the cathode
C. Direct coax-helix match 21. As the electron beam moves through a klystron’s
D. All of the above intercavity drift space
15. a high-power microwave pulse of the order of
megawatts can be generated by a A. Frequency modulation at the input cavity creates
velocity modulation at the output cavity
A. traveling-wave tube B. Velocity modulation at the input cavity creates
B. magnetron density modulation at the output cavity
C. reflex klystron C. Density modulation at the input cavity creates
D. Gunn diode velocity modulation at the output cavity
16. A traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifies by virtue D. Phase modulation at the input cavity creates
of velocity modulation at the output cavity.
22. The frequency of the oscillation generated by a
A. The absorption of energy by the signal from an magnetron, is mainly determined by
electron stream
B. The effect of an external magnetic field A. The flux density of the external magnet
C. The energy contained the cavity resonators B. The ratio of the dc cathode voltage to the
D. The energy liberated form the collector magnetic flux density
17. What is the purpose of the electromagnetic field C. The number of the cavity resonators
which surrounds a traveling-wave tube? D. The dimension of each cavity resonator
23. If the instantaneous RF potentials on the two
A. To accelerate the electron sides of a magnetron cavity are of opposite polarity,
B. To velocity modulate the electron beam the operation is in the
C. To keep the electrons from spreading out
D. To slow down the signal on the helix A. π mode
18. Which of the following is used as an oscillator B. π/2 mode
device in the SHF band? C. 2π mode
D. π/4 mode
A. Thyratron tube 24. The Gunn diode oscillator
B. Tunnel diode
A. Is capable of generating continuous microwave
power of the order of kilowatt A. By bunches of electrons passing the cavity grids
B. Generates frequencies which are below 100 MHz B. By plate-to-cathode feedback
C. Operates over a positive resistance characteristic C. By feedback between the accelerating grid and
D. Depends on the formation of charge domain the repeller
25. What ferrite device can be used instead of D. By circulating bunches of electrons within the
duplexer of isolate microwave transmitter and cavities.
receiver when both are connected to the same 31. What allow microwave to pass in only one
antenna? direction?

A. Isolator A. RF emitter
B. Magnetron B. Capacitor
C. Simplex C. Varactor-triac
D. Circulator D. Ferrite emitter
26. To achieve good bearing resolution when using a 32. In an SHF pulsed radar set, a reflex klystron can
pulsed-radar set, an important requirement is be used as a

A. A narrow, antenna-beam width in the vertical A. Single mixer stage


plane B. Local oscillator
B. A narrow, antenna-beam width in the horizontal C. Transmitter oscillator
plane D. Duplexer stage
C. A low repetition rate 33. A Class-S Emergency Position-Indicating Radio
D. A high duty cycle Beacon (E.P.I.R.B)
27. When used in conjunction with a radar set, the
purpose of an echo box is to provide an artificial A. Must be capable of floating or being secured to a
target. survival
B. Must have its battery replaced after emergency
A. Which may be used to tune the radar use
synchronizer C. May be tested during the first five minutes of any
B. Which may be used to tune the radar receiver hour
C. To the tone of the pulse repetition D. All of these
D. Tune the magnetron to the correct frequency 34. A PPI cathode-ray tube as used on a radar set
28. In a radar-set receiver, the usual mixer stage is
A. Is used to check the percentage of modulation
A. And FET B. Indicates both the range and azimuth of a target
B. A tunnel diode C. Indicates only the range of a target
C. A silicon crystal D. Is used for receiver alignment
D. A Rochelle salts crystal 35. The resonant frequency of a cavity resonator
29. Klystron oscillators are most often used in the depends upon
frequency range of
A. The mode of operation
A. 300 to 3000 MHz B. Its electrical dimensions
B. 3000 to 30000 MHz C. Its physical dimensions
C. 30 to 30000 MHz D. The capacitor which tunes it
D. 10 to 10000 MHz 36. The maximum usable range of the usual radar set
30. Oscillators of a klystron tube are maintained (on any particular range setting) is determined by
A. The width of the transmitted pulses A. To focus the beam of primary electrons
B. The interval between transmitted pulses B. To shield the electron beam from unidirectional
C. The bandwidth of the receiver IF stages magnetic
D. The duty cycle C. As a second anode and to prevent the build-up of
37. A reflex klystron is oscillating at the frequency of secondary field
its resonant cavity. If the reflector voltage is made D. All of these
slightly less negative, the 43. If the duration of the radar transmitted pulse, on
a particular range of operation, is increased, the
A. Oscillation will cease required bandwidth of the receiver’s IF amplifiers
B. Output power would increase
C. The frequency will decrease A. Must remain as before
D. Bunching would occur earlier in time B. Must be increased
38. The coarse frequency adjustment of a reflex C. May be decreased
klystron is accomplished by D. Must be doubled
44. The main frequency determining element of a
A. The AFC system klystron is
B. Adjusting the flexible wall of the resonant cavity
C. An adjustment in the synchronizer A. The repeller voltage
D. Varying the repeller voltage B. The accelerating voltage
39. In a pulsed radar set, the STC circuit is used to C. Its resonant cavity
D. Its mode of operation
A. Improve the target bearing resolution 45. A thin layer of dirt and grime coverts the
B. Increases receiver sensitivity for echoes from reflecting surface of the parabolic dish of a radar set.
targets The particular effect on the performance of the
C. Vary the pulse frequency in order to control the radar will be
maximum target
D. Reduce interference from the effects of sea return A. A decrease in range
40. In a pulsed radar set, the function of the B. A reduction in horizontal resolution
duplexer is to C. No noticeable effect
D. A decrease in gain
A. Aid in calibrating the display unit 46. Which of the following permits a microwave
B. Prevent frequency drift in the klystron signal to travel in one direction with virtually no loss,
C. Allow the transmitter and the receiver to operate but severely attenuates any signal attempting to
from a common antenna travel in the reverse direction?
D. All of these
41. A magnetron is operated at a duty cycle of 0.001. A. Isolator
It has a peak power output of 100 kilowatts. Its B. Wave trap
average power is C. Tunnel diode
D. Circulator
A. 10,000 watts 47. It is possible to increase the maximum range of a
B. 100 watts radar equipment by
C. 1,000 watts
D. 1,000,000 watts A. Lowering the pulse frequency
42. The aquadag coating on the inside of PPI tube is B. Raising the peak power of the transmitter
used
C. Narrowing the beam width and increasing the 21. Velocity modulation at the input cavity creates density
pulse duration modulation at the output cavity
D. All of these 22. The dimension of each cavity resonator
23. π mode
48. When it is desired that short-range targets be
24. Depends on the formation of charge domain
clearly seen on a pulsed-radar set, it is important
25. Circulator
that the receiver and display system have 26. A narrow, antenna-beam width in the horizontal plane
27. Which may be used to tune the radar receiver
A. A long time constant 28. A silicon crystal
B. Low-pass filters 29. 3000 to 30000 MHz
C. The shortest possible time 30. By bunches of electrons passing the cavity grids
D. The restricted high-frequency response 31. Ferrite emitter
49. Which of the following is used as a high power 32. Local oscillator
33. All of these
microwave oscillator?
34. Indicates both the range and azimuth of a target
35. Its physical dimensions
A. Thyratron 36. The interval between transmitted pulses
B. Magnetron 37. The frequency will decrease
C. Klystron 38. Adjusting the flexible wall of the resonant cavity
D. Reflex-klystron 39. Reduce interference from the effects of sea return
50. Which of the following operating frequencies is 40. Allow the transmitter and the receiver to operate from
used for the modern loran navigational system? a common antenna
41. 100 watts
42. As a second anode and to prevent the build-up of
A. Loran C: 100 kHz
secondary field
B. Loran D: 10.2 kHz
43. May be decreased
C. Loran A: 1950 kHz 44. Its resonant cavity
D. Loran B: 900 kHz 45. No noticeable effect
46. Isolator
Part 1. 47. All of these
1. Attenuation 48. The shortest possible time
2. 8493 km 49. Magnetron
3. towards the earth 50. Loran C: 100 kHz
4. S = 3λR/L
5. 10 GHz
6. Sixth
7. Slow fading
8. Slow fading
9. Large reflector
10. Delayed spreading
11. SONAR
12. Is equivalent to an LC resonant circuit
13. ± 2000 Hz
14. All of the above
15. magnetron
16. The absorption of energy by the signal from an
electron stream
17. To keep the electrons from spreading out
18. Both B and C
19. 1 to 100 GHz
20. Degree of emission from the cathode
Continue Practice Exam Test Questions Part II D. Frequencies of the duty cycle
58. The radar set, sensitivity-time control circuit
of the Series
51. Which ferrite device can be used instead of a duplexer
A. Controls the width of the magnetron pulse
to isolate a microwave transmitter and receiver when both
B. Is used to increase sea return
are connected to the same antenna?
C. Can reduce sea-return response
D. Discriminates between targets that are very close
A. Isolator
together.
B. Magnetron
59. Which of the following is the ferrite device that buffers
C. Simplex
a microwave source from the effects of a varying load, and
D. Circulator
thereby prevents the formation of standing waves?
52. The pulse frequency is equal to

A. Circulator
A. Duty cycle/pulse width
B. Duplexer
B. The reciprocal of the pulse repetition rate
C. Isolator
C. Pulse width x peak power/average power
D. Diplexer
D. All of these
60. Pulsed radar sets are primarily used to find the
53. In a radar set, a blocking oscillator can be used to

A. Target’s range and bearing


A. Act as the local oscillator converter stage
B. Size and speed of a target
B. Provide the sweep voltage for the PPI tube
C. Speed and course of a target
C. Produce a trigger pulse for the transmitter
D. Target’s range of speed
D. As a single local oscillator converter stage
61. Which of the following factors is mainly concerned in
54. The intensity of the echoes (target definition) on a PPI
the design of an antenna system for pulsed radar set?
display is determined by the

A. Duty cycle
A. Radio frequency
B. Radio frequency
B. Pulse frequency and antenna rotation rate
C. Pulse frequency
C. Duty cycle
D. Pulse length
D. Average power
62. In a radar set receivers, an ac AFC system may be used
55. A duplexer circuit allows a transmitter and a receiver
to
to operate from the same antenna with virtually no
interaction. This circuit may be replaced by a (an)
A. Automatically maintain the correct magnetron
frequency
A. loss waveguide
B. Keep the IF stages on frequency
B. circulator
C. Maintain the desired klystron frequency
C. isolator
D. Provide automatic control of receiver gain
D. gyrator
63. The input signal is introduced into the traveling-wave
56. Which of the following frequencies are used by a class-
tube at the
C Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (E.P.I.R.B)?

A. Cathode
A. 156.65 MHz
B. Anode
B. 121.5 MHz
C. Cathode end of the helix
C. 156.76 MHz and 156.8 MHz
D. Collector end of the helix
D. All of these
64. The display on the PPI scope of a radar set will have
57. The repetition rate of a pulsed radar system indicates
greater intensity under the following conditions
the

A. Higher antenna rotation speeds


A. Frequency of the range-marker oscillator
B. Lower pulse repetition rate
B. Reciprocal of the duty cycle
C. Lower antenna rotation speeds
C. Number of target echoes received on one second
D. Both lower antenna rotation speeds and higher pulse A. Radar
repetition B. Mobile radio
65. The operating frequency of loran C lies within the C. Telephone
D. Satellite communications
A. LF band 73. Coaxial cable is not widely used for long microwave
B. VLF band transmission lines because of its
C. MF band
D. HF band A. High loss
66. The PPI tubes have an aquadag coating on the inside of B. High cost
the tube. The purpose of this coating is C. Large size
D. Excessive radiation
A. To act as the second anode 74. Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are usually
B. To shield the tube magnetically made with
C. To decelerate the electron beam
D. To deflect the electron beam A. Coax
67. A traveling-wave tube Is used at frequencies in the B. Parallel wires
order of C. Twisted pair
D. PCBs
A. 30 MHz 75. The most common cross section of a waveguide is a
B. 300 MHz
C. 8000 MHz A. Square
D. 100 MHz B. Circle
68. The main benefit of using microwaves is C. Triangle
D. Rectangle
A. Lower-cost equipment 76. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1 inch and a
B. Simpler equipment height of 0.6 in. Its cutoff frequency is
C. Greater transmission distances
D. More spectrum space for signals A. 2.54 GHz
69. Radio communication are regulated in the Philippines B. 3.0 GHz
by the C. 5.9 GHz
D. 11.8 GHz
A. DOTC 77. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of 17 GHz. Which
B. KBP of the following signals will not be passed by the
C. NTC waveguide?
D. Department of Defense
70. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of A. 15 GHz
microwaves? B. 18 GHz
C. 22 GHz
A. Higher-cost equipment D. 255 GHz
B. Line-of-sight transmission 78. Signal propagation in a waveguide is by
C. Conventional components are not usable
D. Circuits are more difficult to analyze A. Electrons
71. Which of the following is a microwave frequency? B. Holes
C. Electric and magnetic fields
A. 1.7 MHz D. Air pressure
B. 750 MHz 79. When the electric field in a waveguide is perpendicular
C. 0.98 GHz to the direction of wave propagation, the mode is said to
D. 22 GHz be
72. Which of the following is not a common microwave
application? A. Vertical polarization
B. Horizontal polarization
C. Transverse electric B. IMPATT
D. Transverse magnetic C. Snap-off
80. The dominant mode in most rectangular waveguide is D. Tunnel
88. Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing
A. TE 1.0
B. TE 1.2 A. Reflex klystrons
C. TM 0.1 B. TWTs
D. TM 1.1 C. Magnetrons
81. A magnetic field is introduced into waveguide by a D. Varactor diodes
89. Which of the following is not a microwave tube?
A. Probe
B. Dipole A. Traveling-wave tube
C. Stripline B. Cathode-ray tube
D. Capacitor C. Klystron
82. A half-wavelength, close section of a waveguide that D. Magnetron
acts as a parallel resonant circuit is known as a(n) 90. In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the
electron beam is produced by the
A. Half-wave section
B. Cavity resonator A. Collector
C. LCR circuit B. Catcher cavity
D. Directional coupler C. Cathode
83. Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes its resonant D. Buncher cavity
frequency to 91. A reflex klystron is used as a(n)

A. Increase A. Amplifier
B. Decrease B. Oscillator
C. Remain the same C. Mixer
D. Drop to zero D. Frequency multiplier
84. __________ is a popular microwave mixer diode. 92. For proper operation, a magnetron must be
accompanied by a
A. Gunn
B. Varactor A. Cavity resonator
C. Hot carrier B. Strong electric field
D. IMPATT C. Permanent magnet
85. Varactor and step-recovery diodes are widely used in D. High dc voltage
what type of circuit? 93. The operating frequency of klystrons and magnetrons
is set by the
A. Amplifier
B. Oscillator A. Cavity resonators
C. Frequency multiplier B. DC supply voltage
D. Mixer C. Input signal frequency
86. Which diode is a popular microwave oscillator? D. Number of cavities
94. A magnetron is used only as a/an
A. IMPATT
B. Gunn A. Amplifier
C. Varactor B. Oscillator
D. Schottky C. Mixer
87. Which type of diodes does not ordinarily operate with D. Frequency multiplier
reverse bias? 95. A common application for magnetron is in

A. Varactor A. Radar
B. Satellites
C. Two-way radio 58. Can reduce sea-return response
D. TV sets
59. Isolator
96. In a TWT, the electron beam is density-modulated by a
60. Target’s range and bearing
A. Permanent magnet
B. Modulation transformer 61. Radio frequency
C. Helix
D. Cavity resonator 62. Maintain the desired klystron frequency
97. The main advantage of a TWT over a klystron for
63. Cathode end of the helix
microwave amplification is
64. Both lower antenna rotation speeds and higher pulse
A. Lower cost repetition
B. Smaller size
C. Higher power 65. LF band
D. Wider bandwidth
98. High-power TWTs are replacing what in microwave 66. To act as the second anode
amplifiers?
67. 8000 MHz

A. MESFETs 68. More spectrum space for signals


B. Magnetrons
C. Klystrons 69. NTC
D. IMPATT diodes
70. Higher-cost equipment
99. The most widely used microwave antenna
71. 22 GHz
A. Half-wave dipole
B. Parabolic 72. Mobile radio
C. Hyperbolic
D. Horn 73. High loss
100. ______________ is a measure of reliability expressed
74. PCBs
as the average number of hours between successive
failures. 75. Rectangle

A. MTBF 76. 5.9 GHz


B. MTTR
C. Downtime 77. 15 GHz
D. Outage time
78. Electric and magnetic fields

MCQs Part 2. 79. Transverse electric

51. Circulator 80. TE 1.0

52. Duty cycle/pulse width 81. Probe

53. Produce a trigger pulse for the transmitter 82. Cavity resonator

54. Pulse frequency and antenna rotation rate 83. Decrease

55. circulator 84. Hot carrier

56. 156.76 MHz and 156.8 MHz 85. Frequency multiplier

57. Frequencies of the duty cycle


86. Gunn A. 0.6
B. 0.5
87. Tunnel C. 0.9
D. 1.5
88. Reflex klystrons 105. The microwave beam curves the same than that of
the earth when the value of the correction factor k equals
89. Cathode-ray tube
A. 0
90. Catcher cavity B. 4/3
C. 2/3
91. Oscillator D. Infinity
106. The time from the transmission of a radar pulse to its
92. Permanent magnet reception is 0.12 ms. The distance to the target is how
many nautical miles?
93. Cavity resonators
A. 4.85 nmi
94. Oscillator B. 9.7 nmi
C. 11.2 nmi
95. Radar D. 18.4 nmi
107. The ability of a radar to determine the bearing to a
96. Helix target depends upon the

97. Wider bandwidth A. Antenna directivity


B. Speed of light
98. Klystrons C. Speed of the target
D. Frequency of the signal
99. Horn 108. The pulse duration of a radar signal is 699ns. The PRF
is 185 pulses per second. The duty cycle is
100. MTBF
A. 0.216 %
B. 0.130 %
Part III of the Series C. 0.013 %
101. The free space attenuation between two microwave D. 0.407 %
antennas 40 km apart operating at 8 GHz is 109. The Doppler effect allows which characteristics of a
target to be measured?
A. 146.7 dB
B. 142.55 dB A. Distance
C. 82.5 dB B. Azimuth
D. 86.7 dB C. Altitude
102. An active microwave radio repeater that can provide D. Speed
drops and inserts. 110. The Doppler effect is a change in what signal
characteristics produced by relative motion between the
A. Broadband repeater radar set and a target?
B. Baseband repeater
C. IF repeater A. Amplitude
D. RF repeater B. Phase
103. If the correction factor k equals 4/3 of the earth’s C. Frequency
curvature, the microwave beam would have a curvature D. Duty cycle
that is ___________ than that of the earth. 111. The most widely used radar transmitter component is
a
A. More
B. Less A. Klystron
C. Equal B. Magnetron
D. Not related C. TWT
104. The optimum clearance from an obstacle in an D. Power transistor
microwave system is accepted as __________ of the first 112. Low-power radar transmitters and receivers use
fresnel zone radius. which component?
A. GaAs FET 121. A microwave communications system space loss
B. Magnetron calculation formula.
C. Gunn diode
D. Klystron A. 94.2 + 20 log f + 20 log d
113. What component in a duplexer protects the receiver B. 92.4 + 20 log f + 20 log d
from the higher transmitter output? C. 94.2 + 10 log f + 20 log d
D. 92.3 + 10 log f + 20 log d
A. Waveguide 122. A waveguide is also a
B. Bandpass filter
C. Notch filter A. Low pass filter
D. Spark gap B. High pass filter
114. Most radar antennas use a C. Band pass filter
D. Band stop filter
A. Dipole 123. A method of diversity reception where the signal is
B. Broadside array transmitted on two difference frequencies over the same
C. Horn and parabolic reflector path
D. Collinear array
115. The most common radar display is the A. Space diversity
B. Frequency diversity
A. A scan C. Polarization diversity
B. Color CRT D. Wavelength diversity
C. LCD 124. A wire used to reduce the skin effect
D. PPI
116. A radar antenna using multiple diploes or slot A. AWG # 14
antennas in a matrix with variable phase shifters is called B. AWG # 15
a/an C. Copper wire
D. Litz wire
A. A scan 125. Space diversity transmission means transmitting and
B. Phased array receiving on two or more.
C. Broadside
D. Circulator polarized array A. Different frequencies
117. Which of the following is a typical radar operating B. Antennas operating on two different frequencies
frequency? C. Antennas operating on the same frequencies
D. Identical frequencies
A. 60 MHz 126. The best system configuration to overcome multipath
B. 450 MHz fading of microwave system over the water
C. 900 MHz
D. 10 GHz A. Space diversity
118. A microwave system requires the use of repeaters B. Frequency diversity
when C. Polarization diversity
D. Wavelength diversity
A. The intervening terrain is favorable 127. When the value of k increases, the effective result is
B. The distances involve are grater _______ of the equivalent curvature
C. The required reliability is meet
D. The radio fading is unacceptable A. Flattening
119. Are transmission lines which convey electromagnetic B. Bulging
waves in highest frequencies C. Sharp curvature
D. All of these
A. Twister pair of telephone wires 128. A traveling wave tube consists of
B. Waveguides
C. Power lines A. Electron gun, helix and repeller
D. Coaxial cables B. Electron gun, helix and collector
120. A microwave band of 10.9 to 36. GHz is considered as C. Electron gun, repeller and collector
D. Buncher cavity and catcher cavity
A. C-band 129. Advantage of periscope antenna in microwave
B. X-band
C. Q-band A. Reduce tower height
D. K-band
B. Minimize interference to and from other neighboring A. 12.78
stations B. 26.78
C. Shorten waveguide length C. 27.78
D. Easy to install D. 10.25
130. What is the cut-off frequency of a waveguide? 138. _________ is a microwave link between the down-
town terminal and another out of town terminal.
A. The highest frequency the waveguide operates
B. The lowest frequency the waveguide operates A. STL
C. The same as the operating frequency B. Uplink
D. The only frequency the waveguide operates. C. Downlink
131. When the clearance above the obstruction is equal to D. Terrestrial
the radii of even fresnel zones at the point of reflection. 139. Attenuator is used in the traveling wave tube to
The RSL is
A. Prevent oscillation
A. Increased B. Increase gain
B. Decreased C. Prevent saturation
C. Constant D. All of these
D. Above threshold 140. Is a method of diversity reception applied to
132. What is the wavelength of a wave in a waveguide? reflective path to reduce fading.

A. Greater than in free space A. Frequency diversity


B. Depends only on the waveguide dimensions and the B. Space diversity
free-space wavelength C. Polarization diversity
C. Inversely proportional to the phase velocity D. Wavelength diversity
D. Inversely proportional to the group velocity 141. What is the effective earth’s radius used in
133. The CCIR hypothetical reference circuit covering a communications design?
distance of 25000 km consists of a total of how many
hops? A. 4000 miles
B. K x 4000 miles
A. 5 C. 5000 miles
B. 10 D. K x 5280 miles
C. 24 142. IF bandwidth of a radar system is inversely
D. 54 proportional to
134. Water causes more attenuation particularly on what
frequency? A. Pulse width
B. Pulse interval
A. 20 GHz C. Peak transmit power
B. 63 GHz D. All of these
C. 183 GHz 143. EADI stands for
D. 202 GHz
135. At what frequency does oxygen cause excessive A. Electronic Air Data Indicator
attenuation? B. Electronic Altitude and Distance Indicator
C. Electronic Altitude and Director Indicator
A. 60 GHz D. Electronic Air and Distance Indicator
B. 50 GHz 144. Which aircraft navigational system determines the
C. 40 GHz time to station (TTS) or time to go (TTG)?
D. 30 GHz
136. Which of the following is an atmospheric A. ADF
attenuation? B. DME
C. Timer
A. Attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen D. ATC
B. Attenuation due to mist and fog 145. What frequency does a radio altimeter operate?
C. Attenuation due to other gases
D. Attenuation due to rain. A. 33500 kHz
137. A microwave system operating at the 6 GHz band is B. 43000 kHz
carrying 600 voice channels. What is the noise loading C. 33500 MHz
power in dBmO? D. 43500 MHz
146. What inflight system allows passengers to make 111. Magnetron
telephone calls, send faxes, and computer data shop and
play computer games, etc.? 112. Gunn diode

A. Inflight Satellite System 113. Spark gap


B. Terrestrial Flight Telephone System
C. World Airline Entertainment System 114. Horn and parabolic reflector
D. Satellite Phone
147. ADF stands for 115. PPI

A. Audio Direction Findings 116. Phased array


B. Automatic Direction Finder
C. Alternate Direction Finder 117. 10 GHz
D. Automatic Distance Finder
148. RF carrier of the middle marker is modulated at ____ 118. The distances involve are grater
Hz.
119. Waveguides
A. 1300
B. 1400 120. K-band
C. 1500
D. 1600 121. 92.4 + 20 log f + 20 log d
149. Which of the following is considered as the major
advantage of using a helix traveling wave tube? 122. High pass filter

A. Cheaper 123. Frequency diversity


B. Less noise
C. High power 124. Litz wire
D. Wide bandwidth
125. Antennas operating on the same frequencies
150. RADAR stands for
126. Frequency diversity
A. Radio Distance and Ranging
B. Radio Detection and Ranging 127. Flattening
C. Radio Direction and Ranging
D. Radio Distance and Range 128. Electron gun, helix and collector

MCQs Part 3. 129. Shorten waveguide length

101. 142.55 dB 130. The lowest frequency the waveguide operates

102. Baseband repeater 131. Decreased

103. More 132. Greater than in free space

104. 0.6 133. 54

105. Infinity 134. 183 GHz

106. 9.7 nmi 135. 60 GHz

107. Antenna directivity 136. Attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen

108. 0.013 % 137. 12.78

109. Speed 138. Terrestrial

110. Frequency 139. Prevent oscillation


140. Space diversity c. Klystron
d. Gridded tube
141. K x 4000 miles 156. What term is used to describe the variation in a
microwave oscillator frequency caused by power supply
142. Pulse width voltage or current changes?

143. Electronic Altitude and Director Indicator a. Frequency pulling


b. Frequency pushing
144. DME c. Post-tuning drift
d. Tuning sensitivity
145. 43500 MHz 157. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1.2 in and a
height of 0.7 in. the waveguide will pass all signals above
146. Terrestrial Flight Telephone System __ GHz.

147. Automatic Direction Finder a. 4 GHz


b. 8.44 GHz
148. 1300 c. 10 GHz
d. 4.92 GHz
149. 6 AND gates and one 4-bit binary adder 158. Waveguides are

150. Radio Detection and Ranging a. A hollow tube that carries HF


b. Solid conductors of RF
PART FOUR c. Coaxial cables
d. Copper wire
151. Attenuator is used in the travelling wave tube to 159. A TWT is sometimes preferred to the multi-cavity
klystron amplifier because the former
a. Help bunching
b. Prevent oscillations a. Is more efficient
c. Prevent saturation b. Has a greater bandwidth
d. Increase gain c. Has a higher number of modes
152. The multicavity klystron d. Produces a higher output power
160. Variation in oscillator frequency with changes in load
a. Is not a good low-level amplifier because of noise SWR
b. Has a high repeller voltage to ensure a rapid transmit
time a. Frequency pulling
c. Is not suitable for pulsed operation b. Frequency pushing
d. Needs a long transit time through the buncher cavity to c. Post-tuning drift
ensure current modulation d. Tuning sensitivity
153. What is the effective radiated power of a repeater 161. It is the frequency change of an electronically tuned
with 450 W transmitting power output, 4 dB feedline loss, oscillator at a specified time after it has reached its desired
6dB duplexer loss, and 7 dB circulator and feedline loss frequency
and antenna gain of 25 dB?
a. Frequency pulling
a. 2893.31 W b. Frequency pushing
b. 2523.83 W c. Post-tuning drift
c. 2839.31 W d. Tuning sensitivity
d. 2425.38 W 162. What is the power level of the smallest signal that can
154. Magnetron oscillator are used for be detected above the noise by a Schottky diode?

a. Generating SHF signals a. -20 dBm


b. Multiplexing b. 0 dBm
c. Generating rich harmonics c. -60 dBm
d. FM demodulation d. -100 dBm
155. A microwave tube which has the advantage of having 163. A line-of-sight radio link operating at a frequency of
a high efficiency 6GHz has a separation of $0 km between antennas. An
obstacle in the path is located 10 km from the transmitting
a. Cross-field amplifier antenna. By how much must the beam clear the obstacle?
b. Helix traveling wave tube
a. 11.6 m b. Normal velocity
b. 13.4 m c. Group velocity
c. 19.34 m d. Phase velocity
d. 22.33 m 172. Which of the following is a method of modulating
164. AM isolator digital signals onto a microwave carrier?

a. Acts a buffer between microwave oscillators coupled to a. FSK


a waveguide b. Biphase
b. Acts as a buffer to protect a microwave oscillator form c. Quadraphase
variations in the load changes d. All of the above
c. Shields UHF circuits from RF transmitter 173. Suppose that the transmitter and receiver towers
d. Both a and b have equal height. How high would they have to be to
165. What is the effective earth’s radius when Ns = 300? communicate over a distance of 34 km?

a. 8500 km a. 23.5 m
b. 9320 km b. 28.47 m
c. 5600 km c. 17 m
d. 4850 km d. 8.47 m
166. What is the power level of the largest signal that will 174. In microwave communications system, for a carrier
still be in the square-law range of a Schottky diode? frequency of 6 GHz and a distance of 40 km, determine the
free-space path loss in dB.
a. -20 dBm
b. 0 dBm a. 80 dB
c. -60 dBm b. 84.2 dB
d. -100 dBm c. 140 dB
167. A component that combines microwave signals from d. 144.2 dB
separate transmission lines into one common transmission 175. A microwave relay repeater that receives the
line and allows no coupling between the separate lines modulated microwave carrier and obtains the baseband
signal from it, and them modulates the baseband signal
a. Isolator onto another carries and retransmit the new carrier with
b. Circulator the baseband modulated onto it
c. Directional coupler
d. Combiner a. Heterodyne repeater
168. Telemetry is a microwave communications system b. Baseband repeater
which operates at c. RF repeater
d. Regenerative repeater
a. 600 MHz 176. Which is the frequency range of the most common
b. 3.9 GHz industrial microwave relay band?
c. 4 GHz
d. 2 GHz a. 6.575-6.875 GHz
169. What is the maximum power that can be obtained b. 3.7-4.2 GHz
from a microwave semiconductor? c. 5.925-6.425 GHz
d. 10.7-11.7 GHz
a. 1 W 177. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide,
b. 500 mW there appears an extra electric component, in the
c. 10 W direction of propagation. The resulting mode is
d. 4 W
170. The cavity magnetron uses strapping to a. Transverse-electric
b. Transverse-magnetic
a. Prevent mode-jumping c. Longitudinal
b. Prevent cathode back-heating d. Transverse-electromagnetic
c. Ensure bunching 178. Waveguide construction
d. Improve the phase-focusing effect
171. As a result of reflections from a plane conducting a. Should not use silver plating
wall, electromagnetic waves acquire an apparent velocity b. Should not use copper
greater that the velocity of light in space. This is called the c. Should not have short vertical runs
d. Should not have long horizontal runs
a. Velocity of propagation
179. In a microwave system, the antenna sees a sky 187. An antenna covering that the transmitted or receives
temperature of 120 K, and the antenna feedline has a loss microwave power can pass through, used to protect the
of 3 dB. Calculate the noise temperature of the antenna and the antenna feed from weather
antenna/feedline system, referenced to the receiver input.
a. Shroud
a. 205 K b. Sub-reflector
b. 233.33 K c. Radome
c. 182 K d. Offset antenna
d. 210 K 188. Waveguide are
180. A choke flange may be used to couple two
waveguides a. Used exclusively in high frequency power supplies
b. Ceramic couplers attached to the antenna terminals
a. To help in the alignment of the waveguides c. High-pass filters used at low radio frequencies
b. Because it is simpler than any other join d. Hollow metal conductors used to carry high-frequency
c. To compensate for discontinuities at the join current
d. To increase the bandwidth of the system 189. A microwave device which is unlikely to be used a
181. A PIN diode is pulsed device. It is based on the principle of operation of a
traveling wave tube.
a. A metal semiconductor point-contact diode
b. A microwave mixer diode a. Multicavity klyston
c. Often used a microwave detector b. Cross-field amplifier (CFA)
d. Suitable for use as a microwave switch c. Backward wave oscillator (BWO)
182. For some applications, circular waveguides may be d. Coaxial magnetron
used preferred to rectangular ones because 190. A magnetic field is used in the cavity magnetron to

a. The smaller cross section needed at any frequency a. Prevent anode current in the absence of oscillations
b. Lower attenuation b. Ensure that the oscillations are pulsed
c. Freedom from spurious modes c. Help in focusing the electron beam thus preventing
d. Rotation of polarization spreading
183. A circulator d. Ensure that the electors will orbit around the cathode
191. In a micro wave communications system, if the
a. Cools dc motors during heavy loads minimum carrier-to-noise (C/N) requirements for a
b. Allows two or more antennas to feed one transmitter receiver with a 10MHz bandwidth is 22 dB, the minimum
c. Allows one antenna to feed two separate microwave receive carrier power is…
transmitters and receivers at the same time
d. Insulates UHF frequencies on transmission lines a. -82 dB
184. What is the free-space loss in dB between two b. 76 dBm
microwave parabolic antennas 38 km apart operating at 7 c. 84 dB
GHz? d. -82 dBm
192. A rectangular waveguide used for microwave
a. 85.10 dB transmission has a width of 1.4 inches and a height of 0.8
b. 80.90 dB inches. All signals above __ GHz will be passed by the
c. 140.90 dB waveguide.
d. 145.10 dB
185. A ruby maser amplifier must be cooled a. 4.3 GHz
b. 2 GHz
a. Because the maser amplification generates a lot of heat c. 4.2 GHz
b. To increase bandwidth d. 5 GHz
c. Because it cannot operate at room temperature 193. A pyramidal horn has an aperture (opening) of 58 mm
d. To improve the noise performance in the E plane and 78 mm in the H plane. It operates at 14
186. The glass tube of a TWT may be coated with aquadag GHz. Calculate the gain in dBi.
to
a. 19.29
a. Help focusing b. 24.14
b. Provide attenuation c. 15.8
c. Improve bunching d. 19.31
d. Increase gain 194. A magnetron whose oscillating frequency is
electronically adjustable over a wide range is called a
155. Cross-field amplifier
a. Coaxial magnetron
b. Dither-tuned magnetron 156. Frequency pushing
c. Frequency agile magnetron
d. VTM 157. 4.92 GHz
195. Conductance takes place in a waveguide
158. A hollow tube that carries HF
a. By inter-electron delay
b. Through electrostatic field reluctance 159. Has a greater bandwidth
c. In the same manner as a transmission line
d. Through electromagnetic and electrostatic fields in the 160. Frequency pulling
walls of the waveguide
196. Indicate the false statement. Klystron amplifiers may 161. Post-tuning drift
use intermediate cavities to
162. -60 dBm
a. Prevent the oscillations that occurs in two-cavity
klystrons 163. 11.6 m
b. Increase the bandwidth of the device
c. Improve power gain 164. Both a and b
d. Increase the efficiency of the klystron
197. The primary purpose of the helix in a traveling wave 165. 8500 km
tube is to
166. -20 dBm
a. Prevent the electron beam from spreading in the long
tube 167. Combiner
b. Reduce the axial velocity of the RF field
c. Ensure broadband operation 168. 2 GHz
d. Reduce the noise figure
198. A microwave device which allows RF energy to pass 169. 10 W
through in one direction with very little loss, but absorbs
RF power in the opposite direction 170. Prevent mode-jumping

a. Circulator 171. Phase velocity


b. Wave trap
c. Multiplexer 172. All of the above
d. Isolator
199. A parametric amplifier must be cooled 173. 17 m

a. Because parametric amplification generates a lot of heat 174. 140 dB


b. To increase bandwidth
c. Because it cannot operate at room temperature 175. Baseband repeater
d. To improve the noise performance
200. For low attenuation, the best transmission medium is 176. 6.575 – 6.875 GHz

a. Flexible waveguide 177. Transverse-magnetic


b. Ridged waveguide
c. Rectangular waveguide 178. Should not have long horizontal runs
d. Coaxial line
179. 205 K
ANSWERS PART FOUR
151. Prevent oscillations 180. To compensate for discontinuities at the join

152. Is not a good low-level amplifier because of noise 181. Suitable for use as a microwave switch

153. 2839.31 W 182. Lower attenuation

154. Generating SHF signals 183. Allows one antenna to feed two separate microwave
transmitters and receivers at the same time
b) Hall effect
184. 140.90 dB c) Marconi effect
d) Maxwell effect
185. Because it cannot operate at room temperature 204. A ferrite is

186. Provide attenuation a) a nonconductor with magnetic properties


b) an intermetallic compound with particularly good
187. Radome conductivity
c) an insulator which heavily attenuates magnetic fields
188. Hollow metal conductors used to carry high- d) a microwave semiconductor invented by Faraday
frequency current 205. The primary purpose of the helix in a traveling-wave
tube is to
189. Backward wave oscillator (BWO)
a) prevent the electron beam from spreading in the long
190. Ensure that the electors will orbit around the cathode tube
b) reduce the axial velocity of the RF field
191. -82 dBm c) ensure the broadband operation
d) reduce the noise figure
192. 4.3 GHz 206. The attenuator is used in the travelling-wave tube to

193. 19.29 a) help bunching


b) prevent oscillations
194. VTM c) prevent saturation
d) increase the gain
195. Through electromagnetic and electrostatic fields in 207. A magnetron is used only as
the walls of the waveguide
a) amplifier
196. Prevent the oscillations that occurs in two-cavity b) oscillator
klystrons c) mixer
d) frequency multiplier
197. Reduce the axial velocity of the RF field 208. A backward-wave oscillator is based on the

198. Isolator a) rising-sun magnetron


b) crossed-field amplifier
199. To improve the noise performance c) coaxial magnetron
d) traveling-wave tube
200. Rectangular waveguide 209. Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are usually
made with
Part V of the Series
201. IF repeaters are also called a) coax
b) parallel lines
a) heterodyne receiver c) twisted pair
b) mixer/receiver d) PCBs
c) radio receiver 210. Which of the following is not a microwave tube?
d) FM receiver
202. It is the difference between the nominal output a) Traveling-wave tube
power of a transmitter and the minimum input power b) Cathode-ray tube
required by a receiver c) Klystron
d) Magnetron
a) RSL 211. Indicate which is not true. Compared with other types
b) IRL of radar, phased array radar has the following advantages
c) system gain
d) FSL a) very fast scanning
203. A phenomenon whereby the frequency of a reflected b) ability to track and scan simultaneously
of a reflected signal is shifted if there is relative motion c) circuit simplicity
between the source and reflecting object. d) ability to track many targets simultaneously

a) Doppler effect
212. Given the frequency and dimensions of 5 GHz and 7 220. The function of the quartz delay line in an MTI radar
cm by 9 cm respectively, the beam of the pyramidal horn is to
is about ______.
a) help in subtracting a complete scan from the previous
a) 27 degrees scan
b) 53 degrees b) match the phase of the coho and the stalo
c) 60 degrees c) match the phase of the coho and the output oscillator
d) 80 degrees d) delay a sweep so that the next sweep can be subtracted
213. The diameter of a parabolic reflector should be at from it
least how many wavelengths at the operating frequency? 221. Type of diversity where it modulates two different RF
carrier frequencies with the same IF intelligence, then
a) 1 transmitting both RF signals to a given destination.
b) 2
c) 5 a) polarization diversity
d) 10 b) quad diversity
214. A type of microwave repeater where the received RF c) space diversity
carrier is down-converted to an IF frequency, amplified d) frequency diversity
filtered and further demodulated to baseband. 222. The coho in MTI radar operates at the

a) RF repeater a) intermediate frequency


b) IF repeater b) transmitted frequency
c) baseband repeater c) received-frequency
d) radio repeater d) pulse operation frequency
215. In order to reduce cross-sectional dimensions, the 223. Which type of diode does not ordinarily operate with
waveguide to use is reverse bias?

a) circular a) Varactor
b) ridged b) IMPATT
c) rectangular c) Snapp-off
d) flexible d) Tunnel
216. Indicate which one of the following applications or 224. What happens when a horn antenna is made longer?
advantages of radar beacons is false:
a) gain increases
a) target identification b) beam width decreases
b) navigation c) bandwidth increases
c) very significant extension of the maximum range d) bandwidth decreases
d) more accurate tracking enemy targets 225. A pyramidal horn used at 5 GHz has an aperture that
217. Refers to more than one transmission path or method is 7 cm by 9 cm. The gain is about
of transmission available between transmitter and a
receiver. a) 10.5 dB
b) 11.1 dB
a) diversity c) 22.6 dB
b) polarization d) 35.8 dB
c) efficiency 226. Type of diversity where the output of the transmitter
d) accuracy is fed to two or more antennas that are physically
218. A solution to the “blind speed” problem is to separated by an appreciable wavelengths

a) change the Doppler frequency a) quad diversity


b) vary the RF b) wavelength diversity
c) use monopulse c) space diversity
d) use MTI d) hybrid diversity
219. A direct path that exist between the transmit and 227. The Doppler effect is used in (indicate the false
receive antennas statement)

a) LOS a) moving-target plotting on the PPI


b) direct waves b) the MTI system
c) space waves c) FM radar
d) terrestrial waves d) CW radar
228. A type of diversity where a single RF carrier is d) needs a long transmit time through the buncher cavity
propagated with two different electromagnetic to ensure current modulation
polarization. 236. An arrangement that avoids a service interruption
during periods of deep fades or equipment failures.
a) space diversity
b) wavelength diversity a) service switching arrangement
c) polarization diversity b) protection switching arrangement
d) hybrid diversity c) interruption switching arrangement
229. The A scope displays d) equipment switching arrangement
237. A type of attenuator where attenuation is
a) the target position and range accomplished by insertion of a thin card of resistive
b) the target range, but not position material through a slot in the top of a waveguide
c) the target position, but not range
d) neither range nor position, but only velocity a) flap attenuator
230. The glass tube of a TWT may be coated with aquadag b) vane attenuator
to c) slot attenuator
d) directional coupler
a) help focusing 238. After a target has been acquired, the best scanning
b) provide attenuation system for tracking is
c) improve bunching
d) increase gain a) nodding
231. Type of diversity which consists of a standard b) spiral
frequency diversity path where the two c) conical
transmitter/receiver pair at one end of the path are d) helical
separated from each other and connected to different 239. A duplexer is used
antennas that are vertically separated as in space diversity
a) to couple two different antennas to a transmitter
a) quad diversity without mutual interference
b) wavelength diversity b) to allow the one antenna to be used for reception or
c) space diversity transmission without mutual interference
d) hybrid diversity c) to prevent interference between two antennas when
232. The biggest disadvantage of CW Doppler radar is that they are connected to a receiver
d) to increase the speed of pulses in pulsed radar
a) it does not give the target velocity 240. Type of protection switching arrangement where
b) it does not give the target range each working radio channel has a dedicated backup or
c) a transponder is required at the target spare channel
d) it does not give the target position
233. The combination of the frequency, space, polarization a) hot swap
and receiver diversity into one system b) hot backup
c) hot standby
a) hybrid diversity d) hot diversity
b) quad diversity 241. If a return echo arrives after the allocated pulse
c) space diversity interval,
d) wavelength diversity
234. If the target cross section is changing, the best system a) it will interfere with the operation of the transmitter
for accurate tracking in b) the receiver might be overloaded
c) it will not be received
a) lobe switching d) the target will appear closer than it really is
b) sequential lobing 242. Points in the microwave system baseband signals
c) conical switching either originate or terminate
d) monopulse
235. The multicavity klystron a) terminator
b) terminal stations
a) is not good low-level amplifier because of noise c) terminating equipment
b) has a high repeller voltage to ensure a rapid transmit d) terminal equipment
time 243. A half wavelength, closed section of a waveguide that
c) is not suitable for pulse operation acts as a parallel resonant circuit is known as _____.
a) half-wave section MCQs Part 5.
b) cavity resonator
c) LCR circuit 201. heterodyne receiver
d) directional couple
244. Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes its resonant 202. system gain
frequency to
203. Doppler effect
a) increase
b) decrease 204. a nonconductor with magnetic properties
c) remains the same
d) drop to zero 205. reduce the axial velocity of the RF field
245. The IF bandwidth of a radar receiver is inversely
proportional to the 206. prevent oscillations

a) pulse width 207. oscillator


b) pulse repetition frequency
c) pulse interval 208. traveling-wave tube
d) the target will appear closer than it really is
246. Which of the following devices are not being used in 209. PCBs
microwave power amplifier?
210. Cathode-ray tube
a) klystron tubes
b) traveling wave tubes 211. circuit simplicity
c) IMPATT
d) magnetron 212. 53 degrees
247. Which is not true? A high PRF will
213. 10
a) make the returned echoes easier to distinguish from
noise 214. baseband repeater
b) make the target tracking easier with conical scanning
c) increase the maximum range 215. ridged
d) have no effect on the range resolution
248. It is a unidirectional device often made up of ferrite 216. more accurate tracking enemy targets
material used in conjunction with a channel-combining
network to prevent the output from interfering with the 217. diversity
output of another transmitter
218. vary the RF
a) circulator
b) magic tee 219. LOS
c) isolator
d) rat race 220. help in subtracting a complete scan from the previous
249. Which is not true about the following: Flat-topped scan
rectangular pulses must be transmitted in radar to
221. frequency diversity
a) allow a good minimum range
b) make the returned echoes easier to distinguish from the 222. intermediate frequency
noise
c) prevent frequency changes in the magnetron 223. Tunnel
d) allow accurate range measurements
250. The power that leaks out of the back and sides of the 224. gain increases
transmit antenna interfering with the signal entering with
the signal entering the input of a nearby receive antenna. 225. 10.5 dB

a) ringaround 226. space diversity


b) ringabout
c) roundabout 227. moving-target plotting on the PPI
d) turnaround
228. polarization diversity
229. the target range, but not position a) fading
b) attenuation
230. provide attenuation c) absorption
d) ghosting
231. hybrid diversity 253. Indicate which of the following cannot be followed by
the word “waveguide”
232. it does not give the target range
a) elliptical
233. quad diversity b) flexible
c) coaxial
234. monopulse d) ridged
254. If the ratio of the antenna diameter to the
235. is not good low-level amplifier because of noise wavelength in a radar system is high, this will result in
(indicate the false statement)
236. protection switching arrangement
a) large maximum range
237. flap attenuator b) good target discrimination
c) difficult target acquisition
238. conical d) increased capture area
255. High-power TWTs are replacing what in microwave
239. to allow the one antenna to be used for reception or amplifiers?
transmission without mutual interference
a) MESFETs
240. hot standby b) Magnetrons
c) Klystrons
241. the target will appear closer than it really is d) IMPATT diodes
256. The most widely used microwave antenna is a
242. terminal stations
a) half-wave dipole
243. cavity resonator b) quarter-wave probe
c) single loop
244. increase d) horn
257. Applies to propagation variables in the physical radio
245. pulse width path which affect changes in path loss between the
transmitter at one station and its normal receiver at the
246. magnetron other station.

247. increase the maximum range a) ghosting


b) absorption
248. isolator c) attenuation
d) fading
249. make the returned echoes easier to distinguish from 258. If the antenna diameter in a radar system is increased
the noise by a factor of 4, the maximum range will be increased by a
factor of
250. ringaround
a) square root of 2
Part VI of the Series b) 2
c) 4
251. Which of the following is not true: The radar cross
d) 8
section of a target
259. If the peak transmitted power in a radar system is
increased by a factor of 15, the maximum range will be
a) depends on the frequency used
increased by a factor of
b) may be reduced by special coating of the target
c) depends on the aspect of a target, if this non-spherical
a) 2
d) is equal to the actual cross-sectional area for small
b) 4
targets
c) 8
252. It is a general term applied to the reduction in signal
d) 16
strength at the input to a receiver
260. Varactor and step-recovery diodes are widely used in a) noise factor
what type of circuit? b) signal to noise ratio
c) carrier to noise ratio
a) amplifier d) dynamic range
b) oscillator 268. What is the peak power of a radar pulse if the pulse
c) frequency multiplier width is 1µs, the pulse repetition rate is 900, and the
d) mixer average power is 18 W?
261. It is defined as line loss incurred by an
electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line a) 10 kW
through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of b) 15 kW
energy from nearby objects. c) 20 kW
d) 30 kW
a) IRL 269. The point where the antenna is mounted with respect
b) FSL to the parabolic reflector is called the
c) RSL
d) Eb/No a) focal point
262. For proper operation, a magnetron must be b) center
accompanied by a c) locus
d) tangent
a) cavity resonator 270. The operating frequency of klystron and magnetrons
b) strong electric field is set by the
c) permanent magnet
d) high dc voltage a) cavity resonators
263. A police radar speed trap functions at a frequency of b) DC supply voltage
1.024 GHz in direct line with your car. The reflected energy c) input signal frequency
from your car is shifted 275 Hz in frequency. Calculate the d) Number of cavities
speed in miles per hour? 271. Using a small reflector to beam waves to the larger
parabolic reflector is known as
a) 60 mph
b) 70 mph a) focal feed
c) 80 mph b) horn feed
d) 90 mph c) cassegrain feed
264. It is the ratio of the wideband carrier to the wideband d) coax feed
noise power 272. If the noise figures and gains of each of the amplifiers
in cascade is 3 dB and 10 dB respectively. What is the total
a) carrier to noise ratio noise figure?
b) signal to noise ratio
c) energy per bit per noise density ratio a) 2.12 dB
d) noise figure b) 3.24 dB
265. What is the duty cycle of a radar pulse if the pulse c) 1.24 dB
width is 1µs, the pulse repetition rate is 900, and the d) 4.23 dB
average power is 18 W? 273. One of the following is unlikely to be used as a pulsed
device
a) 0.09 %
b) 0.99 % a) multicavity klystron
c) 0.90 % b) BWO
d) 1.00 % c) CFA
266. A microwave tube amplifier uses an axial magnetic d) TWT
field and a radial electric field. This is the 274. Calculate the maximum ambiguous range for a radar
system with PRT equal to 400µs.
a) reflex klystron
b) coaxial magnetron a) 13.8 mi
c) traveling-wave magnetron b) 43.5 mi
d) CFA c) 16.4 mi
267. Figure of merit used to indicate how much the signal- d) 32.8 mi
to-noise ratio deteriorates as a signal passes through a 275. When electromagnetic waves are propagated in a
circuit or series of circuits waveguide
a) they travel along the broader walls of the guide
b) they are reflected from the walls but do not travel along a) rms power
them b) rated power
c) they travel through the dielectric without the walls c) peak power
d) they travel along all four walls of the waveguide d) average power
276. What is the distance in nautical miles to a target if it 283. In radars, echoes that are produced when the
takes 123 µs for a radar pulse to travel from the radar reflected beam is strong enough to make a second trip
antenna to the target, back to the antenna, and be
displayed on the PPI scope? a) double range echoes
b) double frequencies echoes
a) 10 nmi c) second return echoes
b) 5 nmi d) second time around echoes
c) 20 nmi 284. Indicate the false statement. Compared with
d) 15 nmi equivalent transmission lines, 3 GHz waveguides
277. Waveguides are used mainly for microwave signals
because a) are less lossy
b) can carry higher powers
a) they depend on straight-line propagation which applies c) are less bulky
to microwaves only d) have lower attenuation
b) losses would be too heavy at lower frequencies 285. The range beyond which targets appear as second
c) there are no generators powerful enough to excite them return echoes is called
at lower frequencies
d) they would be too bulky at lower frequencies a) maximum range
278. Calculate the coupling of a directional coupler that b) maximum unambiguous range
has 70 mW into the main guide and 0.35 mW out the c) maximum usable range
secondary guide. d) any of these
286. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide,
a) 13 dB there appears an extra electric component, in the
b) 23 dB direction of propagation. The resulting mode is
c) 33 dB
d) 10 dB a) transverse electric
279. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide b) transverse magnetic
c) longitudinal
a) is greater than in free space d) transverse-electromagnetic
b) depends only on the waveguide dimensions and the 287. In radars, echoes that arrive after the transmission of
free space wavelength the next pulse are called _____.
c) is inversely proportional to the phase velocity
d) is directly proportional to the group velocity a) second return echoes
280. A rectangular waveguide is 1 cm by 2 cm. Calculate b) second time around echoes
the cutoff frequency c) multiple time around echoes
d) any of these
a) 3.5 GHz 288. When electromagnetic waves are reflected at an
b) 15 GHz angle from a wall, their wavelength along the wall is
c) 7.5 GHz
d) 4 GHz a) the same as the free space
281. The main difference between the operation of b) the same as the wavelength perpendicular to the wall
transmission liners and waveguides is that c) shortened because of the Doppler effect
d) greater than in the actual direction of propagation
a) the latter is not distributed, like transmission lines 289. A radar mile is equivalent to
b) the former can use stubs and quarter-wave
transformers, unlike the latter a) 2000 mi
c) transmission lines use the principal mode of b) 2000 m
propagation, and therefore do not suffer from low- c) 2000 yd
frequency cut-off d) 2000 km
d) terms such as impedance matching and standing-wave 290. As a result of reflections from a plane conducting
ratio cannot be applied to waveguides wall, electromagnetic waves acquire an apparent velocity
282. The useful power of the transmitter that is contained of light in space
in the radiated pulses is termed as ______.
a) velocity of propagation 298. A choke flange may be used to couple two
b) normal velocity waveguides
c) group velocity
d) phase velocity a) to help the alignment of the waveguides
291. In radars, the time between pulses is called ______. b) because it is simpler than any other join
c) to compensate for discontinuities at the join
a) rest time d) to increase the bandwidth of the system
b) duration time 299. The resonant frequency of a cavity may be varied by
c) delay time changing any of these parameters except:
d) propagation time
292. Indicate the false statement. When the free-space a) cavity volume
wavelength of a signal equals the cutoff wavelength of the b) cavity inductance
guide c) cavity capacitance
d) cavity resistance
a) the group velocity of the signal becomes zero 300. In order to couple two generators to a waveguide
b) the phase velocity of the signal becomes infinite system without coupling them to each other, which could
c) the characteristic impedance of the guide becomes not be use?
infinite
d) the wavelength within the waveguide becomes infinite a) rat-race
293. In radars, the duration of the pulse is b) E-plane T
c) hybrid ring
a) duty cycle d) magic T
b) pulse width ANSWERS PART SIX
c) pulse amplitude 251. is equal to the actual cross-sectional area for small
d) pulse cycle targets
294. A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full wave
electric intensity change between two further walls, and 252. fading
no component of the electric field in the direction of
propagation. The mode is 253. coaxial

a) TE11 254. increased capture area


b) TE10
c) TM22 255. Klystrons
d) TE20
295. In radars, the number of the pulses transmitted per 256. horn
second is called
257. fading
a) pulse repetition frequency
b) pulse repetition time 258. 4
c) pulse repetition phase
d) pulse number of repetition 259. 2
296. Which of the following is incorrect? The dominant
mode of propagation is preferred with rectangular 260. frequency multiplier
waveguides because
261. FSL
a) it leads to the smallest waveguide dimensions
b) the resulting impedance can be matched directly to 262. permanent magnet
coaxial lines
c) it is easier to excite than other modes 263. 90 mph
d) propagation of it without any spurious generation can
be ensured 264. carrier to noise ratio
297. It is a mean of employing radio waves to detect and
locate objects such as aircraft, ships and land masses. 265. 0.09 %

a) detectors 266. CFA


b) radars
c) repeaters 267. noise factor
d) beacons
268. 20 kW 295. pulse repetition frequency

269. focal point 296. the resulting impedance can be matched directly to
coaxial lines
270. cavity resonators
297. radars
271. cassegrain feed
298. to compensate for discontinuities at the join
272. 3.24 dB
299. cavity resistance
273. BWO
300. E-plane T
274. 32.8 mi
Part VII of the Series
275. they are reflected from the walls but do not travel 301. A type of tee so-named because of the side arms
along them shunting the E field for the TE modes, which is analogous
to voltage in the transmission lines
276. 10 nmi
a) magic tee
277. they would be too bulky at lower frequencies b) rat tee
c) series tee
278. 23 dB d) shunt tee
302. Which one of the following waveguide tuning
279. is greater than in free space components is not easily adjustable?

280. 7.5 GHz a) screw


b) stub
281. transmission lines use the principal mode of c) iris
propagation, and therefore do not suffer from low- d) plunger
frequency cut-off 303. What type of waveguide is widely used?

282. peak power a) circular


b) ridged
283. double range echoes c) flexible
d) rectangular
284. are less bulky 304. A piston attenuator is a

285. any of these a) vane attenuator


b) waveguide below cutoff
286. transverse magnetic c) mode filter
d) flap attenuator
287. any of these 305. Waveguides act as _____.

288. greater than in the actual direction of propagation a) low-pass filter


b) bandpass filter
289. 2000 yd c) high-pass filter
d) band-stop filter
290. phase velocity 306. Cylindrical cavity resonators are not used with
klystron because they have
291. rest time
a) a Q that is too low
292. the wavelength within the waveguide becomes b) a shape whose resonant frequency is too difficult to
infinite calculate
c) harmonically related resonant frequencies
293. pulse width d) too heavy losses
307. In waveguides, if no component of the E field is in the
294. TE20 direction of propagation the mode is said to be
a) TE 316. A common omnidirectional microwave antenna is the
b) TM
c) TEM a) horn
d) TME b) parabolic reflector
308. A directional coupler with three or more holes is c) helical
sometimes used in preference to the two-hole coupler d) bicone
317. The output of a helical antenna is
a) because it is more efficient
b) to increase coupling of the signal a) vertically polarized
c) to reduce spurious mode generation b) horizontally polarized
d) to increase the bandwidth of the system c) circularly polarized
309. The smallest free-space wavelength that is just d) linearly polarized
unable to propagate in the waveguide 318. For some applications, circular waveguides may be
preferred to rectangular ones because of
a) cutoff wavelength
b) cutoff frequency a) the smaller the cross section needed at any frequency
c) cutoff waveguide length b) lower attenuation
d) cutoff phase c) freedom from spurious modes
310. It is the minimum frequency of waves that can d) rotation of polarization
propagate through the waveguide 319. A helical antenna is made up of a coil and a

a) cutoff frequency a) director


b) cutoff wavelength b) reflector
c) cutoff phase c) dipole
d) cutoff waveguide length d) horn
311. A common application of magnetrons is in 320. In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the
electron beam is produced by the
a) Radar
b) Satellites a) collector
c) Two-way radio b) catcher cavity
d) TV sets c) cathode
312. In waveguides, it is the velocity at which the wave d) buncher cavity
changes phase 321. Increasing the diameter of a parabolic reflector
causes which of the following:
a) waveguide velocity
b) group velocity a) decreased beamwidth
c) phase velocity b) increased gain
d) total velocity c) none of the above
313. The maximum power that may be handled by a ferrite d) decreased beamwidth and increased gain
component is limited by the 322. For low attenuation, the best transmission medium is

a) curie temperature a) flexible waveguide


b) saturation magnetization b) ridged waveguide
c) line width c) rectangular waveguide
d) gyromagnetic resonance d) coaxial line
314. In waveguides, it is the velocity at which the wave 323. Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing
propagates
a) Reflex klystron
a) phase velocity b) TWTs
b) group velocity c) Magnetrons
c) total velocity d) Varactor diodes
d) waveguide velocity 324. One of the reasons why vacuum tubes eventually fail
315. A PIN diode is at microwave frequencies is that their

a) a metal semiconductor point-contact diode a) noise figure increases


b) a microwave mixer diode b) transmit time becomes too short
c) often used as a microwave detector c) shunt capacitive reactances becomes too large
d) suitable for use as a microwave switch d) series inductance reactances becomes too small
325. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1 inch and a d) VTM
height of 0.6 inch. Its cutoff frequency is 334. The main benefit of using microwave is

a) 2.54 GHz a) lower-cost equipment


b) 3.0 GHz b) sampler equipment
c) 5.9 GHz c) greater transmission distances
d) 11.8 GHz d) more spectrum space for signals
326. The TWT is sometimes preferred to the multicavity 335. Which diode is a popular microwave oscillator?
klystron amplifier, because the former
a) IMPATT
a) is more efficient b) Gunn
b) has a greater bandwidth c) Varactor
c) has a higher number of modes d) Schottly
d) produces higher output power 336. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of
327. The most common cross section of a waveguide is a microwave?

a) square a) higher cost equipment


b) circle b) line-of-sight transmission
c) triangle c) conventional components are not usable
d) rectangle d) circuits are more difficult to analyze
328. The cavity magnetron uses strapping to 337. Which of the following is a microwave frequency?

a) prevent mode jumping a) 1.7 MHz


b) prevent cathode back-heating b) 750 MHz
c) ensure bunching c) 0.98 MHz
d) improve the phase-focusing effect d) 22 GHz
329. Signal propagation in a waveguide is by 338. In a TWT, the electron beam, is density-modulated by
a
a) electrons
b) electric and magnetic fields a) Permanent magnet
c) holes b) Modulation transformer
d) air pressure c) Helix
330. The dominant mode in most waveguides is d) Cavity resonator
339. Which of the following is not a common microwave
a) TE 0,1 application?
b) TE 1,2
c) TM 0,1 a) radar
d) TM 1,1 b) mobile radio
331. Periodic permanent-magnet focusing is used with c) telephone
TWTs to d) spacecraft communications
340. Indicate the false statement. Transit time in
a) allow pulsed operation microwave tubes will be reduced if
b) improve electron bunching
c) avoid the bulk of electromagnet a) the electrodes are brought closer together
d) allow coupled-cavity operation at the highest b) a higher node current is used
frequencies c) multiple or coaxial loads are used
332. A popular microwave mixer diode is the d) the anode voltage is made larger
341. Coaxial cable is not widely used for long microwave
a) Gunn transmission lines because of its
b) Varactor
c) Hot carrier a) high loss
d) IMPATT b) high lost
333. A magnetron whose oscillating frequency is c) large size
electronically adjustable over a wide range is called a d) excessive radiation
342. The main advantage of the TWT over a klystron for
a) coaxial magnetron microwave amplification is
b) dither-tune magnetron
c) frequency-agile magnetron a) lower cost
b) smaller size
c) higher power MCQs Part 7.
d) wider bandwidth
343. A magnetic field is used in the cavity magnetron to 301. shunt tee

a) prevent anode current in the absence of oscillations 302. iris


b) ensure that the oscillations are pulsed
c) help in focusing the electron beam, thus preventing 303. rectangular
spreading
d) ensure that the electrons will orbit around the cathode 304. waveguide below cutoff
344. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of 17 GHz. Which
of the signals will not be passed by the waveguide? 305. high-pass filter

a) 15 GHz 306. harmonically related resonant frequencies


b) 18 GHz
c) 22 GHz 307. TE
d) 25 GHz
345. When the electric field in a waveguide is 308. to increase the bandwidth of the system
perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, the
mode is said to be 309. cutoff wavelength

a) vertical polarization 310. cutoff wavelength


b) transverse electric
c) horizontal polarization 311. Radar
d) transverse magnetic
346. The TWT is sometimes preferred to the magnetron as 312. phase velocity
a radar transmitter output tube because it is
313. curie temperature
a) capable of longer duty cycle
b) a more efficient amplifier 314. group velocity
c) more broadband
d) less noisy 315. suitable for use as a microwave switch
347. A magnetic field is introduced into a waveguide by a
316. bicone
a) probe
b) dipole 317. circularly polarized
c) stripline
d) capacitor 318. lower attenuation
348. A reflex klystron is used as a/n
319. reflector
a) amplifier
b) oscillator 320. buncher cavity
c) mixer
d) frequency multiplier 321. decreased beamwidth and increased gain
349. Indicate the false statement: Manganese ferrite may
be used as a 322. rectangular waveguide

a) circulator 323. Reflex klystron


b) isolator
c) garnet 324. noise figure increases
d) phase shifter
350. Indicate the false statement. Klystron amplifiers may 325. 5.9 GHz
use intermediate cavities to
326. has a greater bandwidth
a) prevent oscillations that occur in two-cavity klystron
b) increase the bandwidth of the device 327. rectangle
c) improve the power gain
d) increase the efficiency of the klystron 328. prevent mode jumping
c) coax
329. electric and magnetic fields d) stripline
353. How much must a waveguide be?
330. TE 0,1
a) over a half-wave
331. avoid the bulk of electromagnet b) over a quarterwave
c) over a wavelength
332. Hot carrier d) over three-fourths of a wavelength
354. How high must a waveguide be?
333. VTM
a) over a wavelength
334. more spectrum space for signals b) over a quarter wave
c) over a half wave
335. Gunn d) over two wavelengths
355. What is the designation of the lowest-frequency
336. line-of-sight transmission microwave band?

337. 22 GHz a) V band


b) X band
338. Helix c) Ku band
d) L band
339. mobile radio 356. What is the designation of the highest-frequency
microwave band?
340. multiple or coaxial loads are used
a) R band
341. excessive radiation b) Ka band
c) V band
342. wider bandwidth d) L band
357. What is reduced by using choke flanges?
343. ensure that the electrons will orbit around the
cathode a) refraction
b) reflection
344. 15 GHz c) absorption
d) cancellation
345. transverse electric 358. What is the name of the microwave transmission line
that is used in printed circuits?
346. capable of longer duty cycle
a) microstrip
347. probe b) coax
c) twin lead
348. oscillator d) twisted pair
359. Where is the resistive load placed in a directional
349. garnet coupler?

350. prevent oscillations that occur in two-cavity klystron a) front end of the primary
b) front end of the secondary
Part VIII of the Series c) back end of the primary
351. What are limits of microwaves? d) back end of the secondary
360. One of the following is a type of bolometer
a) 1 – 25,000 GHz
b) 1 – 50,000 GHz a) calorimeter
c) 1 – 75,000 GHz b) thermocouple
d) 1 – 100,000 GHz c) barreter
352. The following transmission lines are used for d) carreter
microwave frequencies, except: 361. Why are bolometers not used to detect modulation?

a) waveguide a) thermal sluggishness


b) twin lead b) inefficiency
c) less accurate c) reverse it
d) less precise d) use low frequency
362. The advantage of a resonant cavity over a hairpin 371. How could a balun change 100 ohms to 900 ohms
tank?
a) use 3:1 turns ratio
a) lesser Q b) use 1:3 turns ratio
b) wider bandwidth c) use 9:1 turns ratio
c) higher Q d) use 1:9 turns ratio
d) efficiency 372. How high a frequency can transistor generate?
363. What type of coupling is used between a waveguide
and a waveguide wavemeter? a) above 10 GHz
b) above 5 GHz
a) loop antenna c) above 2 GHz
b) quarterwave antenna d) above 7.8 GHz
c) hole 373. What is the microwave application of a varactor?
d) E probe
364. Which microwave tube has a repeller? a) mixer
b) frequency multiplier
a) TWT c) demodulator
b) Klystron d) demultiplexer
c) Magnetron 374. What diode does better than varactor in microwave
d) BWO frequencies?
365. Which microwave tube has a series of cavities?
a) step recovery
a) magnetron b) tunnel
b) klystron c) PIN
c) TWT d) Gunn
d) BWO 375. The following diodes can generate microwave AC
366. Which microwave tube has a helix except:

a) klystron a) Tunnel
b) magnetron b) LSA
c) multicavity klystron c) IMPATT
d) BWO d) Magnetron
367. Which microwave tube has a horseshoe magnet? 376. For what are PIN diodes used in microwave?

a) magnetron a) mixers
b) klystron b) modulators
c) TWT c) oscillators
d) BWA d) amplifier
368. What is the advantage of a gridless klystron 377. What is the other name for LSA diodes?

a) power input a) negative resistance


b) gain b) bulk-effect
c) attenuator c) tunneling effect
d) power output d) time-space
369. Which vacuum tube do you think oscillate at the 378. What is the advantage of LSA over a Gunn Diode?
highest frequency
a) more efficient
a) Magnetron b) higher power
b) Gunn c) less noise
c) Klystron d) higher frequency
d) BWO 379. What is wrong with the term Gunn Diode?
370. How would a balun be used to change 200 ohms to
50 ohms? a) not a gun
b) not a semiconductor
a) use a higher turns ratio c) not a diode
b) use a higher frequency d) should be spelled with single “n”
380. What is important property do ferrites have which is 389. To what two circuits would a radar timer circuit feed
used as a switch? signals?

a) faraday rotation a) modulator and mixer


b) resonance absorption b) amplifier and circulator
c) magnetic properties c) modulator and circulator
d) high curie temperature d) amplifier and modulator
381. Which is used in circulators? 390. What is the target display on a CRT called?

a) resonance absorption a) crosshair


b) magnetic properties b) blip
c) ion resonance c) center spot
d) faraday rotation d) round
382. What is the advantage of using a circulator with two 391. What is the main bang on a PPI radar set?
transmitter and two receivers?
a) blip
a) many antennas b) center spot
b) less interference c) bearing
c) easy coupling d) round
d) one antenna only 392. What is the ability to separate adjacent equidistant
383. To what must the fourth port be connected in a targets called?
tunnel diode amplifier?
a) bearing resolution
a) resistor b) narrow bandwidth
b) inductor c) high frequency
c) capacitor d) shorter wavelength
d) impedance 393. What is the approximate rotational rate of a radar
384. To what must the third port be connected in a antenna?
multiplexer circulator
a) 20 rpm
a) reflecting short circuit b) 5 rpm
b) absorbing short circuit c) 25 rpm
c) reflecting open circuit d) 10 rpm
d) absorbing open circuit 394. How is radar CRTs differ from TV?
385. What does radar mean?
a) square
a) radio detection and range b) round
b) radio direction and radiation c) rectangular
c) radio direction and range d) trapezoidal
d) range direction radiation 395. What circuits make up the radar transmitter?
386. In what distance unit are marine radars calibrated?
a) multivibrator
a) statute miles b) trapezoidal oscillator
b) kilometers c) sine wave generator
c) nautical miles d) blocking oscillator
d) feet 396. What type of oscillator determines the PRR?
387. What time unit is the equivalent of a radar mile?
a) blocking
a) 12.3 microseconds b) pulse
b) 6.8 microseconds c) square
c) 4.5 microseconds d) blocking or pulse
d) 7.1 microseconds 397. What other circuit might be used as an oscillator that
388. In what frequency band does marine radar operate? determines the PRR?

a) 9.5 GHz S band a) trapezoidal generator


b) 3 GHz X band b) unbalanced multivibrator
c) 9.5 GHz Ku band c) bistable multivibrator
d) 3 GHz S band d) sinewave generator
398. Why are hydrogen-gas thyratrons used in radar? 369. BWO

a) fast-ionize 370. reverse it


b) cheaper
c) accurate 371. use 3:1 turns ratio
d) efficient
399. What is the other name for a pulse-forming network 372. above 10 GHz
in radars?
373. frequency multiplier
a) tuned circuit
b) oscillators 374. step recovery
c) delay line
d) capacitive circuits 375. Magnetron
400. What determines the PRR in odd-time radar sets?
376. modulators
a) tuned circuit frequency
b) oscillator frequency 377. bulk-effect
c) spark gap speed
d) MOPA transmitter time 378. higher power

MCQs Part 8. 379. not a diode

351. 1 – 100,000 GHz 380. resonance absorption

352. twin lead 381. faraday rotation

353. over a half-wave 382. one antenna only

354. over a quarter wave 383. capacitor

355. L band 384. reflecting short circuit

356. R band 385. radio detection and range

357. reflection 386. nautical miles

358. microstrip 387. 12.3 microseconds

359. back end of the secondary 388. 3 GHz S band

360. barreter 389. modulator and circulator

361. thermal sluggishness 390. blip

362. higher Q 391. center spot

363. hole 392. bearing resolution

364. Klystron 393. 10 rpm

365. magnetron 394. round

366. BWO 395. blocking oscillator

367. magnetron 396. blocking or pulse

368. power output 397. unbalanced multivibrator


398. fast-ionize c) 30 MHz or higher
d) 10 MHz and lower
399. delay line 409. What kind of local oscillators does a radar receiver
use?
400. spark gap speed
a) klystron
Part IX of the Series b) magnetron
401. What is used to carry RF energy from magnetron to c) LSA
antenna in a radar set? d) TWT
410. What solid-state types might be used as a radar
a) helix receiver?
b) parallel wireline
c) coax a) Gunn diode
d) waveguide b) Tunnel diode
402. What is the method of illuminating a parabolic c) Hot carrier diode
reflector with RF? d) Step recovery diode
411. What does an ATR tube aid?
a) horn
b) cassegrain a) transmitting
c) helix b) receiving
d) coax c) both transmitting and receiving
403. How would a radar reflector be parabolic-shaped d) neither transmitting and receiving
412. To what is the AFC voltage applied in a klystron?
a) circularly
b) vertically a) cathode
c) horizontally b) grid
d) none of these c) plate
404. In what way are radar emissions similar to microwave d) any of these
ovens? 413. Sea return is the control that desentisizes a radar
receiver for _____
a) can transmit
b) can receive a) 5 – 10 microseconds
c) can cook b) 15 – 20 microseconds
d) can transceiver c) 10 – 15 microseconds
405. To what tube is a dc keep-alive voltage applied? d) 20 – 25 microseconds
414. In radars, how is blooming prevented?
a) Oscillator
b) Transmit-Receive Mixer a) limit modulation
c) Circulator b) video signal
d) Isolator c) limit the carrier signal
406. In radar, if the mixer diode burns out, what are d) limit the audio signal
replaced? 415. How is brilliance controlled in radars?

a) tube a) audio gain


b) mixer b) IF gain
c) antenna c) RF gain
d) diode d) video gain
407. What is the cavity between magnetron and mixer 416. How is sensitivity limited in radars?
cavity called?
a) RF gain
a) ATR b) video gain
b) TR c) audio gain
c) Transmit d) IF gain
d) Receive 417. How much intensifying pulse is used in radars?
408. Radar receivers use what Ifs
a) Just enough to produce light flicker on screen
a) 20 MHz and lower b) should be high to produce light flicker on screen
b) 10 MHz and higher c) should be low to produce light flicker on screen
d) any amount of intensifying pulse will do c) repair endorsement
418. If echo signals are developed as negative pulses, to d) radar endorsement
what part of the CRT would they be fed in radar? 427. What is the advantage of using Doppler radar?

a) anode a) shows only moving target


b) grid b) shows stationary target
c) cathode c) shows both moving and stationary target
d) 2nd grid d) produce blips with stationary targets
419. What starts the range-marker circuit ringing in 428. How would Doppler radar give speed indications?
radars?
a) adjust output burst
a) intensifying pulse b) correct RF carrier output
b) IF gain c) switch amplitude detector
c) AC signal d) calibrate discriminator output
d) Carrier signal 429. What is another application of Doppler radar?
420. Why is a selsyn pair not too successful for radar
antenna synchronization? a) distance between radar and stationary target
b) ground speed indicator
a) constant lead angle c) ground missile indicator
b) variable lag angle d) enemy base station
c) constant lag angle 430. Why are signal nulls used in Radio Direction Finders
d) variable lead angle work?
421. What is fed to the rotor of a selsyn motor?
a) sharper than maximums
a) power-line AC b) sharper than minimums
b) DC source c) duller than maximums
c) A pulsating DC d) duller than minimums
d) None 431. How many are signal nulls in one loop rotation Radio
422. What is fed to the rotor selsyn generator? Direction Finders?

a) none a) 3
b) power-line AC b) 4
c) DC source c) 5
d) A pulsating DC d) 2
423. What is fed to a control transformer rotor? 432. Under what conditions do the horizontal portions of a
loop pick up difference currents in RDF?
a) A pulsating DC
b) power-line AC a) ground waves
c) DC source b) sky waves
d) none c) space waves
424. What is used to indicate the bow of the ship on the d) direct waves
CRT? 433. The method of balancing a loop used in RDF?

a) tail flash a) Capacitor to ground


b) body flash b) Capacitor to sense antenna
c) heading flash c) Sense antenna to one side of loop
d) none d) Any of these
425. When is an echo box used on ships? 434. For what are unidirectional readings used in loops for
RDF?
a) testing only
b) direction finding a) resolve a 180 degrees ambiguity
c) auto alarm b) resolve a 90 degrees ambiguity
d) ship detection c) resolve a 360 degrees ambiguity
426. What qualification must a person have before he is d) resolve a 270 degrees ambiguity
eligible to make repairs to a radar set? 435. What kind of antenna is a sense antenna used in RDF?

a) NTC endorsement a) circular


b) repair license b) vertical
c) horizontal c) 2182-kHz signal local oscillator
d) any of these d) 2230-kHz signal local oscillator
436. In RDF, what happens to a radio wave path as it 445. What forms the error signal that actuates the ADF
moves outward across a coastline as less than 90 degrees? servo-motor?

a) bends away from the shore a) 75-Hz carrier


b) travels along the shore b) 114-Hz carrier
c) bends towards shore c) 114-Hz sideband
d) travels across the shore d) 75-Hz sideband
437. What is the result of antenna effect in RDF? 446. Which ADF antenna is used for manual operation?

a) rotated 90 degrees a) parabolic antenna


b) nulls shift b) loop antenna
c) decreases land effect c) half-wave dipole
d) coastline refraction d) helical antenna
438. What is the result of re-radiation of signals in RDF? 447. Which ADF antenna is used for simple receive
operation?
a) great circle error
b) non-opposite minimums a) loop antenna
c) polarization errors b) sense antenna
d) nulls shifted c) quarterwave antenna
439. What causes night effect in direction finding? d) parabolic antenna
448. What is heard by earphones in the ADF?
a) ground plus space wave
b) sky plus space wave a) 3 kHz beat
c) ground plus sky waves b) 1 kHz beat
d) ground wave alone c) 2 kHz beat
440. At what time of the day is direction finder bearings d) 5 kHz beat
least accurate 449. If two bearing are determined from a radio beacon or
station over a period of a few minutes, what else must be
a) sunset known to determine the ship’s position?
b) sunrise
c) mid-day a) speed
d) sunset and sunrise b) elapses time
441. At what angles are quadrantal errors maximum in c) ship’s course
direction finding d) any of these
450. What important point regarding-loop RDF system
a) 45 degrees maintenance?
b) 90 degrees
c) 180 degrees a) insulation at top of loop
d) 270 degrees b) clean moving contacts
442. How are quadrantal errors corrected? c) oil bearing of loop
d) any of these
a) 330 degrees
b) 360 degrees MCQs Part 9.
c) 315 degrees
d) 215 degrees 401. waveguide
443. How is it that none of the 120-550 kHz ADF circuits
are tuned to the desired station? 402. horn

a) narrowband amplifiers 403. horizontally


b) broadband amplifiers
c) IF amplifiers 404. can cook
d) Mixers
444. What is the only hand-tuned circuit in the ADF? 405. Transmit-Receive Mixer

a) 3125-kHz signal local oscillator 406. diode


b) 4125-kHz signal local oscillator
407. ATR 436. bends towards shore

408. 30 MHz or higher 437. nulls shift

409. klystron 438. nulls shifted

410. Tunnel diode 439. ground plus sky waves

411. receiving 440. sunset and sunrise

412. plate 441. 45 degrees

413. 10 – 15 microseconds 442. 315 degrees

414. limit the audio signal 443. broadband amplifiers

415. video gain 444. 2182-kHz signal local oscillator

416. IF gain 445. 75-Hz sideband

417. Just enough to produce light flicker on screen 446. loop antenna

418. cathode 447. sense antenna

419. intensifying pulse 448. 1 kHz beat

420. variable lag angle 449. any of these

421. power-line AC 450. any of these

422. power-line AC Part X of the Series


451. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be
423. none used for reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial
communications without repeaters:
424. heading flash
a. 20 kHz
425. testing only b. 15 MHz
c. 900 MHz
426. radar endorsement d. 12 GHz
452. A ship-to-ship communications system is plagued by
427. shows only moving target fading. The best solution seems to be the use of

428. calibrate discriminator output a. A more directional antenna


b. A broadband antenna
429. ground speed indicator c. Frequency diversity
d. Space diversity
430. sharper than maximums 453. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed
by the atmosphere than are the others is called a
431. 2
a. Window
432. sky waves b. Critical frequency
c. Gyro frequency range
433. Any of these d. Resonance in the atmosphere
454. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of
434. resolve a 180 degrees ambiguity
a. Ground waves
435. vertical b. Sky waves
c. Surface waves
d. Space waves b. TE1,0
455. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the c. TM2,2
following range: d. TE2,0
463. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide,
a. HF there appears an extra electric component, in the
b. VHF direction of propagation. The resulting mode is
c. UHF
d. VLF a. Transverse electric
456. When microwave signals follow the curvature of the b. Transverse magnetic
earth, this is known as c. Longitudinal
d. Transverse electromagnetic
a. The Faraday effect 464. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide
b. Ducting
c. Tropospheric scatter a. Is greater than in free space
d. Iosnospheric reflection b. Depends on waveguide dimensions and free space
457. Helical antennas are often used for satellite tracking wavelength
at VHF because of c. Is inversely proportional to the phase velocity
d. Is directly proportional to the group velocity
a. Troposcatter 465. When electromagnetic waves are propagated in a
b. Superrefraction waveguide, they
c. Ionospheric refraction
d. The Faraday effect a. Travel along the broader walls of the guide
458. _______________ consists basically of a thin film b. Are reflected from walls but not travel along them
strip in intimate contact with one side of a flat dielectric c. Travel through the dielectric without touching the walls
substrate, with a similar thin-film ground plane conductor d. Travel along the 4 walls of the waveguides
on the other side of the substrate. 466. When microwave signals follow the curvature of the
earth, this is known as
a. Strip line
b. Lecher wire a. Faraday Effect
c. Microstrip b. Deducting
d. Stub c. Tropospheric Scatter
459. Waveguide is a d. Ionospheric Reflection
467. A waveguide mode in which there is no component of
a. Device used to determine the wavelength of a signal electric field in the direction of propagation given in the
b. Hollow metal tube used for transmission of microwave British European standards.
energy
c. Plastic tubular transmission line for high RF network a. H-mode
d. Braided wire used for transmission of HF b. E-mode
460. Transmission lines which can convey electromagnetic c. TE mode
waves only in higher order modes are usually called d. M-mode
468. The extra strength needed in order to assure that
a. Coaxial cable enough signal reaches the receiving antenna and must be
b. Twisted pair made available to compensate for fades; computed as the
c. Power lines difference between the received signal strength and the
d. Waveguides threshold level
461. In order to reduce cross-sectional dimensions, the
waveguide to use is a. Fade Margin
b. Threshold Level
a. Circular c. Noise Figure
b. Ridge d. RSL
c. Rectangular 469. The use of redundant system to reduce the effects of
d. Elliptical multipath fading is
462. A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full wave of
electric intensity change between the two farther walls, a. Combining
and no component of the electric field in the direction of b. Modulation
propagation. The mode is c. Multiplexing
d. Diversity
a. TE1,1 470. A profile graph of the microwave energy path
478. ________________ is a graph wherein the terrain in
a. Shows the cross section of the earth’s surface which the microwave beam should traverse.
b. Determines LOS or site technical feasibility
c. Determines the actual clearance, antenna heights and a. Topograph
system reliability b. Radio path profile
d. All of the preceding c. Fresnel graph
471. In locating microwave relay stations, the systems d. Net path graph
designer must consider 479. The Fresnel zone is the circular zone about the
_______ path.
a. Terrain obstructions and reflection points
b. Site security and navigational hazards a. Reflected
c. Availability of power, water source and accessible roads b. Direct
d. All of the above c. Diffracted
472. A microwave path over which radio waves barely d. Refracted
touches the obstruction is called 480. The radius in the circular zone is in the first Fresnel
zone when the reflected path is _______ longer than the
a. Line of Sight direct path.
b. Obstructed Path
c. Grazing Path a. λ/2
d. Crooked Path b. λ
473. What is the function of regenerative repeater? c. λ/4
d. λ/8
a. To eliminate bias distortion 481. At __________ of the first Fresnel zone is a condition
b. To help in the loading of the telegraphs lines where there is no gain and no loss.
c. To reduce required signal levels
d. To reshape the pulses after they have become distorted a. 0.5
474. A situation when there is no change in attenuation or b. 0.6
“no gain, no loss” occurs when ________ % of the first c. 0.7
Fresnel radius clears a path obstruction in microwave d. 0.8
systems. 482. The weakest signal the receiver could accept to be
considered satisfactory.
a. 45%
b. 60% a. Threshold
c. 75% b. Fade margin
d. 85% c. RSL
475. ____________ are concentric circular zones about a d. NPL
direct path of a microwave signal called Huygen’s radiation 483. The frequency band from 8 to 12 GHz is known as the
center, forming an imaginary solid called an ellipsoid band.
__________.
a. C
a. Temperature zone b. Ku
b. Skip zone c. X
c. Fresnel zone d. Ka
d. Fraunhoffer zone 484. The difference between the Received Signal Level and
476. Waveguides are used mainly for microwave the FM Improvement Threshold
transmission because
a. System Gain
a. They depend on straight line propagation b. Noise Threshold
b. Losses are heavy at lower frequencies c. Fade Margin
c. They are bulky at lower frequencies d. Reliability
d. No generator is powerful enough to excite them 485. A Fade Margin of 28 dB has a reliability of
477. A waveguide assembly that lets the radar transmitter
and receiver share an antenna is called a. 99%
b. 99.9%
a. Translator c. 99.99%
b. Diplexer d. 99.999%
c. Flip-flop
d. duplexer
486. Topographical maps are used for microwave a. Equal to
communications systems design because _________ are b. Higher than
shown, thereby elevations are known. c. Lower than
d. NOTA
a. Latitudes 495. The following are methods of exciting waveguides
b. Longitudes except
c. Contour lines
d. Scales a. Slot coupling
487. The dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide. b. Antennas
c. Flanges
a. TEM d. Direct coupling
b. TE1,1 496. Higher order mode-waveguides are not used in
c. TE1,0 practice because they have ______ cut-off frequencies.
d. TM1,1
488. The velocity of a resultant wave as it travels through a. Low
the waveguide. b. High
c. Indeterminate
a. Speed of light d. Fixed
b. Group velocity 497. Indicate which of the following cannot be followed by
c. Phase velocity the word “waveguide”
d. Incident velocity
489. The principal mode for a circular waveguide. a. Elliptical
b. Flexible
a. TE1,0 c. Coaxial
b. TM2,0 d. Ridged
c. TE1,1 498. A piston attenuator is a
d. TEM
490. A type of waveguide that reduces the cutoff a. Vane attenuator
wavelength, increases bandwidth and allows for a b. Waveguide below cut-off
variation of the characteristics impedance. c. Mode filter
d. Flap attenuator
a. Ridge 499. Which of the following waveguide tuning components
b. Rectangular is not easily adjustable?
c. Tee
d. Twisted a. Screw
491. The subscript which indicates the number of λ/2’ s b. Stub
along the waveguide height. c. Iris
d. Plunger
a. m 500. Which of the following is not a waveguide
b. n termination component?
c. a
d. b a. Tapered pyramid
492. The international equivalent of the TE mode b. Post
c. Tapered resistance card
a. H d. Stepped resistance card
b. E
c. Z MCQs Part 10.
d. TEM
493. The smallest free space wavelength that is just unable 451. 12 GHz
to propagate in the waveguide under given conditions.
452. Frequency diversity
a. Guide
b. Phase 453. Window
c. Cut-off
d. Group 454. Space waves
494. The characteristic wave impedance of a waveguide in
the TE mode is _______ that of the TM mode. 455. UHF
456. Ducting 484. Fade Margin

457. The Faraday effect 485. 99.9%

458. Microstrip 486. Contour lines

459. Hollow metal tube used for transmission of 487. TE1,0


microwave energy
488. Group velocity
460. Waveguides
489. TE1,1
461. Ridge
490. Ridge
462. TE2,0
491. n
463. Transverse magnetic
492. H
464. Is greater than in free space
493. Cut-off
465. Are reflected from walls but not travel along them
494. Higher than
466. Deducting
495. Flanges
467. H-mode
496. High
468. Fade Margin
497. Coaxial
469. Diversity
498. Waveguide below cut-off
470. All of the preceding
499. Iris
471. All of the above
500. Post
472. Grazing Path

473. To reshape the pulses after they have become


distorted

474. 60%

475. Fresnel zone

476. They are bulky at lower frequencies

477. duplexer

478. Radio path profile

479. Direct

480. λ/2

481. 0.6

482. Threshold

483. X