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Grammar

Little Mermaid
TEACHER’S MANUAL BOOK 4

Pamela White
THIRD EDITION
Also by Pamela White
Fix It! Grammar: The Nose Tree Teacher’s Manual Book 1
Fix It! Grammar: The Nose Tree Student Book 1
Fix It! Grammar: Robin Hood Teacher’s Manual Book 2
Fix It! Grammar: Robin Hood Student Book 2
Fix It! Grammar: Frog Prince, or Just Deserts Teacher’s Manual Book 3
Fix It! Grammar: Frog Prince, or Just Deserts Student Book 3
Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid Student Book 4
Fix It! Grammar: Chanticleer Teacher’s Manual Book 5
Fix It! Grammar: Chanticleer Student Book 5
Fix It! Grammar: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Teacher’s Manual Book 6
Fix It! Grammar: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Student Book 6

The purchase of this book entitles its owner to a free download of the Little Mermaid student Blackline Masters.
Go to: IEW.com/FIX-4-E
(See the blue page for complete download instructions.)

Copyright Policy
Fix It! Grammar
Little Mermaid Teacher’s Manual Book 4
Third Edition, April 2014
Third Printing version 4, December 2014
Copyright © 2009, 2014 Pamela White

ISBN 978-1-62341-180-0

Our duplicating/copying policy for this Teacher’s Manual:


All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
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except as provided by U.S.A. copyright law.

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Institute for Excellence in Writing


8799 N. 387 Road
Locust Grove, OK 74352
Introduction

Welcome to Fix It!


Welcome to the fourth book of Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid.
As your students enjoy reading a sentence or two of this abridged version of Hans
Christian Andersen’s classic fairy tale each day, they will learn to apply grammar rules to
the writing. Over the course of the year, they will explore how sentences are structured
and practice applying punctuation rules to that structure.
This book builds on the work that was started in the first three Fix It! stories: The Nose
Tree, Robin Hood, and Frog Prince. It provides thirty-three weeks of grammar instruction
and practice. The process should take about fifteen minutes a day, four days a week. If you
find that this book moves too quickly, it may be better to go back and work through Robin
Hood or Frog Prince.
This is not a traditional grammar program, so it will not feel as if you are really learning
grammar. Instead, you and your students will be internalizing the tools necessary for
editing their own compositions, which is the main goal of grammar.

How Fix It! Is Different


The traditional method of teaching grammar is to present grammar rules and then have
students apply them in a series of contrived exercises. Although students often do well on
these worksheets, the learning does not usually transfer to their own writing and editing.
Why? The grammar involved in real-life sentences is usually much more complicated than
what is in the grammar exercise book, so students are often unable to edit their own work.
Fix It! Grammar overcomes these difficulties by teaching grammar at the point of need and
in the context of writing. Instead of a page full of grammar exercises, students will tackle
real-life sentences with limited instruction. They will learn to think about their writing and
practice applying the grammar rules to written work.
With this daily editing practice, students will develop the habit of editing anything
they write.

The Socratic Method: Modeling and Asking Questions


If you used the earlier Fix It! Grammar books, you will be familiar with the Socratic
method of asking questions to lead students to figure out for themselves what they missed,
as well as helping them understand the why’s behind the fixes they got correct but did not
fully understand. Mastery learning comes about through this repeated process of guiding
students to explain the why’s.
For this method to work, you as the teacher should approach this book as a series of
modeling exercises and engage students in a discussion about the fixes.
In the early weeks, show your students how to label sentences and make corrections until
they get the hang of it. After they finish each day’s fixes, compare their notations and
corrections to those in this book. Especially with anything they missed, lead them to figure
out for themselves the corrections and reasons behind them.
As the fourth Fix It! Grammar book, Little Mermaid provides full explanations but does
not always give pre-formulated questions and answers. Let the questions you ask your
students come from what they already know and what they did in their fixes.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 3


Introduction

For example, one explanation states, “#5 clausal openers take commas: AC, MC.” At this
point, students will have learned what a #5 opener means and what AC and MC mean.
If your students correctly added a comma after the introductory adverb clause, ask them
why the comma was needed. If they do not know why or did not add the comma, ask
them to identify the opener first and then remind you of the comma rule for that opener.
Discussing the Grammar Notations before addressing punctuation is worth the time since
correct punctuation relies heavily on sentence structure.

Handling Mistakes
As your students gain confidence, they will correct more and more without guidance,
but when this is not the case, treat mistakes as an opportunity to learn. If your students
mismark a word or miss a correction, laugh! Show them what they missed, revisit the
grammar concepts involved—guiding them to figure it out for themselves by asking
questions—and encourage them that they can catch it next time.
After all, everyone needs an editor. Even professional writers and editors miss errors. The
important thing is for students to catch as much as they can. Knowing the reasons behind
the fixes will make them much better editors in the long run. In turn, you will gain the
expertise to evaluate your students’ papers better when they are older.

Weekly Classes
If you are using this course with a writing class that meets weekly, we recommend having
each family purchase the Teacher’s Manual. Ask the parents to go over the passages at
home with their children. That frees you up to focus on just some of the concepts so it
does not take up too much class time.

Get Ready
Follow the instructions on the blue page in the front of this manual to download the
student book. Print out one copy per student. You can purchase a spiral-bound version of
the student book if desired at the IEW website: IEW.com/FIX-4-SB.
Your student will need a binder with four tabs organized as follows:
ƒƒFix Its The first part of the book includes the weekly instruction,
passages, and grammar cards. Put all of the first part except
the weekly fixes behind this tab. Each week as you hand your
students the next week’s fixes, they can keep adding them to this
section and not be tempted to read ahead and spoil the surprise.
ƒƒGrammar Glossary The rest of the student book, the Grammar Glossary, should be
placed behind this tab.
ƒƒRewrite Place a few pages of lined paper here for your student to use
when rewriting the passage.
ƒƒVocabulary Provide more lined paper for your student to keep a list of the
vocabulary words along with their meanings.

4 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Introduction

The Layout Week 10


Vocabulary words.
These and their
Sentences. At the beginning definitions are
of each lesson is the student DAY 4
S printed in the
passage with corrections. #1 MC sails V V MC S V MC S V sidebar.
[The sales were hastily unfurled] and [the ship continued her passage], but soon [the waves rose
S

Fixes. These notes provide ]


#3 MC
[
S V
higher . Forebodingly, heavy clouds darkened the sky
MC lightning V
], and [lightening flashed in the distance].
Teacher’s notes
explanations for the reasons and Grammar
behind the fixes. Ask your Fixes unfurled: spread
open or out
lovers. Additional
students questions so they can HOMOPHONES AND SPELLING.
ƒƒThe sails were unfurled. Sales are things that are sold.
forebodingly:
ominously predicting
information is
fix the errors as well as explain ƒƒLightning flashed. Lightening with an e means becoming less heavy.
some misfortune
included in the
why.
PUNCTUATION.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What do the first two cc’s (and, but) join, and do they need
sidebar to further
a comma (and why)? Answer: Two main clauses, which need commas before the cc’s.
Fix, with MCs italicized: The sails were hastily unfurled, and the ship continued her your understanding
You do not have to discuss passage, but soon the waves rose higher.
of the grammar
ADVANCED. When there are two short sets of this pattern in one sentence (MC, cc MC,
everything. Limit the discussion cc MC), both commas sound choppy. You can then omit the comma joining the two
clauses that make most sense together. involved.
to fifteen minutes. If you do not Better fix: The sails were hastily unfurled and the ship continued her passage, but soon
the waves rose higher.
get to something in one passage, These additions
H Teacher’s note.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask students to identify what the second and joins. Answer: If students ask, you
two MCs again, so add a comma. Fix: heavy clouds darkened the sky, and lightning could explain the
it will appear in another and you flashed in the distance. See . advanced MC, cc
MC rule: When two are primarily for
can address it then.
ƒƒ#3 -ly adverb openers. Forebodingly correctly takes a comma because it modifies the
whole sentence, not one verb alone. It was foreboding that these things happened.
Forebodingly, heavy clouds darkened the sky.
MCs are short and
there is no danger
of misreading, the
the teacher’s
comma before and is information to
Advanced. Concepts marked Grammar Notations actually optional. This
sentence could easily
explain something
advanced allow you to use this PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. in the distance. go either way. Since it

that might be
is less confusing (and
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS. still correct) to teach
level with older or advanced ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): The sails were hastily unfurled. students to use the
comma always, you
confusing in the
ƒƒMC: the ship continued her passage.
students, but do not feel you ƒƒMC: the waves rose higher.
do not need to discuss
the issue.
discussion. If a
need to address them if your ƒƒ#3: Forebodingly.
ƒƒMC: heavy clouds darkened the sky.
student is curious,
student is not ready for them. ƒƒMC: lightning flashed in the distance.

go ahead and
Style
Grammar Notations. Use these If desired, have students identify the strongest of the vocabulary dress-ups from this week.  Grammar lovers. discuss those
Discuss their answers. Suggestions: These -ing words are

notes to check your students’ ƒƒStrong verbs. resounded, extinguished, illuminated, ceased, unfurled, darkened.
verbals known as
present participles.
concepts. However,
grammar markings before
ƒƒQuality adjectives. amiable, elegant, turbulent, moaning, grumbling, unquiet.
If students do not realize that moaning and grumbling are adjectives here, ask them
Participles function as
adjectives unless they they are generally
discussing the punctuation fixes.
what they describe and what part of speech it is. Answer: sound, which is a noun.
Since only adjectives can describe nouns, these must be adjectives. See .
have a subject and
helping verb in front
of them, as in “the sea
above the scope
ƒƒ-ly adverbs. strikingly, hastily, forebodingly. was moaning.” of this level and
Style. This enhances vocabulary can be just for a
70
teacher’s enjoyment
Institute for Excellence in Writing

by identifying certain dress-ups


and appears on Day 4 each and training.
week.

Get Started
To get started have your students turn to page 3 of their student book, which is included
on page 7 of this Teacher’s Manual. Read through the instructions, and then turn to page 4
of the student book to begin the first lesson.

Learn It
Students will start each week by reading through the “Learn It” section of the student book.
The first few weeks provide a rapid review of some of the material presented in the earlier
books. If this review is too rapid, consider starting with an earlier book.
Near the back of the student book are grammar cards with tips and reminders about
concepts students have learned. Have your student cut them out and reference them as
needed.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 5


Introduction

Fix It
Students should fix and mark one passage a day as described on the “Learn It” page.
When they are done, use the teacher’s notes to assess your students’ understanding. Let
students do as much as they can on their own but help as needed.
Most importantly, use Socratic questioning to check their understanding of what they fixed
and correct what they missed. This part of the lesson should not take more than fifteen
minutes per day. If you cannot touch on everything in that period of time, that is fine
because the concepts will occur in many other passages.

Rewrite
The rewrite is a key to success. By rewriting the passage and paying attention to detail,
your student will internalize the corrections. For your convenience, the corrected passage
rewrite is printed in the Teacher’s Manual at the end of each week’s fixes.

Grading
This course is intended to be used as a teaching tool and thus should not be graded. If you
must assign a grade, assess the students’ rewrite of the passage. You can simply choose
one of the passages from the week to evaluate. The passage can be worth ten points.
Deduct one point for each error.

Find Help
The Grammar Glossary at the back of both this book and the student book explains the
grammar concepts in all the Fix It! books. If there is a term you do not understand in the
fixes, you can usually find it in the Grammar Glossary. It is also useful to look up grammar
terms online using your favorite search engine.
The scope and sequence for this book is on pages 206–208. If you would like to see a
demonstration of how to do the Fix It! lessons, please watch the webinar on the IEW
website. It is on the Fix It! Overview page. See IEW.com/Fix.
The Institute for Excellence in Writing provides teacher forums for those using our
materials. It is a great place to meet other IEW teachers and find answers to specific
writing and grammar questions. To join, see IEW.com/forum.

6 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Instructions
Read this introductory
page with your
students.
Instructions
Help your students
Welcome to Fix It! Grammar. This year you can enjoy learning grammar by seeing how it works in a
set up their Fix It
real-life story.
notebook as
described in the Get
GET READY Ready section.

To organize your work, you will need a two-pocket notebook with three-hole fasteners and a single-
subject spiral notebook. If you have the spiral-bound Fix It! student book, then all you need is a single
subject spiral notebook.
Use the center of the two-pocket notebook to collect the lesson and Fix It! pages as your teacher
distributes them each week. Rewrite the passage in the front of the spiral notebook and use the back
of the book to write down the vocabulary words and their definitions, working from the back forward.
Grammar cards are located in the back of the student book after page 72 and before the Grammar
Glossary section. These may be cut out as they are needed and stored in a resealable plastic pouch or
taped to a piece of card stock, as illustrated at right. The cards may be kept in the notebook pocket or
tucked into the spiral-bound student book.

LEARN IT

With your teacher, read through the “Learn It” section for the week. This will show you what you will
be looking for that week and for weeks to come.
To help you remember and review what you learned, use the grammar card(s) for the week. Keep
them handy each time you work on Fix It! so that the information is at your fingertips.

FIX IT

Each day complete the following tasks.


Every Day Read the sentence. Look up the bolded word in a dictionary. Decide which
definition best fits the meaning of the word in this sentence. In the vocabulary Notice that the first
section of your notebook, write a brief definition (using key words) labeled with the day of each week
appropriate week. Add to this list every day. is a teaching day.
Read through the
Day 1 Read the instructions for the week with your teacher. Mark and fix the first passage
Learn It part with your
with your teacher’s help. Discuss what you missed with your teacher, and then
students and then
complete the rewrite after fixing.
show them exactly
Days 2–4 Use your grammar cards to help you remember how to mark the passages as taught what to do using the
in the weekly instructions. Your teacher will help you with anything you miss. Day 1 passage.
Remember, a mistake is an opportunity to learn.
On the remaining
Rewrite After marking, correcting, and discussing the passage with your teacher each day, days your students
copy the corrected passage into a separate notebook so that you end up with a can complete the
handwritten copy of the complete story. Your teacher can show you an example of fixes independently
the rewrite in the teacher’s book. before you go over
ƒ Be sure to double-space.
them to ensure
ƒ Do not copy the markings, just the story. understanding.
ƒ Be careful to indent where indicated and use capital letters properly.
ƒ Carefully copy the punctuation and use end marks.

Page Fix
3, Fix It! Grammar:
It! Grammar: Little Student
Little Mermaid, Mermaid,BookStudent
4 Book 4 3

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 7


Week 1
Week 1

LEARN IT

Review Selected Parts of Speech, #1 and 2 Openers, and


Selected Comma Rules
Grammar Cards In the back of this book just before the Grammar Glossary is a set of grammar
cards. Find the ones that say Week 1, cut them out, and review these concepts.
ƒ Fix It/Rewrite It
ƒ Prepositional Phrases
ƒ Subjects and Verbs
ƒ Sentence Openers
II Teacher’s note.
ƒ Transitional Expressions & Interjections Encourage students to
ƒ Commas with Prepositional Phrases (#2 and mid-sentence)
use standard editing
marks as they do
ƒ Coordinating Conjunctions (cc) their fix its. A list of
the most common is
Grammar To help you see how the sentences are constructed, mark the sentences as follows. on the Rewrite It side
Notations of the Fix It grammar
ƒ Find prepositions and mark all prepositional phrases by underlining them.
Test that each phrase is legal by asking if it follows this pattern: preposition card.
+ noun (no verb). It will begin with a preposition, end with a noun, and not
have a verb in it.
ƒ Find all subjects and verbs, marking them by printing an S above the subjects
and a V above the verbs.
ƒ Using the IEW system of sentence openers, mark all the subject openers with
a #1, the prepositional openers with a #2, and transitional openers with a
#T. See the sentence openers and transitional expressions grammar cards if
needed for review.
II Teacher’s note.
Commas Use the grammar cards to review the following comma rules. Although these
ƒ Prepositional phrases (#2 openers and mid-sentence). comma rules
should be review,
ƒ That clauses never take commas. This is so easy there is no grammar card to your students will
remind you! need to continue
ƒ Transitional words and phrases. to apply them to
the passages. Use
ƒ Coordinating Conjunctions (cc’s). The acronym FANBOYS will help you the explanations to
remember the list of coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. assess your students’
Memorize them! Previous books covered the punctuation rules for the things understanding. They
that cc’s connect. Use the grammar card to review these. need to know more
than just where to put
Dress-Ups At the end of the week, find the strongest vocabulary dress-ups from the week’s
punctuation or what
passages and discuss them with your teacher.
to fix; they need to
know why.

The explanations
will suggest some
questions to ask, but
II Teacher’s note. The vocabulary dress-ups are a subjective call to not always. Do not
some degree. Because a strong word for one student may be weak for feel tied to these. The
another, use your own judgment whether to count what students mark. main thing is that you
This is one of many areas where flexibility is best! Mainly, encourage a guide your students
conversation about choices in order to help them think more consciously to figure out the fixes
about the words they choose for their own writing. for themselves.

Page 44, Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Student Book 4 Institute for Excellence in Writing

8 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Week 1

DAY 1

#2 S V
¶ Beneath the surface far out in the ocean, where the water is as blue as the most stunning cornflower,
S V S V V
and as clear as crystal, it is very deep—so deep, indeed, that no cable could fathom it.

Fixes fathom: measure the


depths of
INDENT because of a new topic—the first! Briefly review the four reasons to indent: new
speaker, topic, place, and time. Instruct students to insert a ¶ on their student page to
remind them to start a new paragraph in their rewrite.
SIMILES are a comparison of unlike things using a comparison word. Ask: Find two similes
in this passage. What is being compared? Answer: Water is like a blue cornflower and
clear crystal.
PUNCTUATION. For the first few weeks, cover Grammar Notations before Punctuation
since understanding sentence structure underpins most punctuation choices. As students
become more proficient with the Grammar Notations, discuss as needed.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). No comma before the coordinating conjunction (cc) and when
it joins only two items that are not main clauses: the water is as blue as the most II 1. Teacher’s note.
stunning cornflower and as clear as crystal. See  1. Students should
ƒƒ#2 and multiple openers. Long #2s take commas but usually at the end of all the memorize the
openers just before the main clause (MC). The comma after as clear as crystal correctly coordinating
ends the long opener. See under Clauses in the Grammar Notations section below for conjunctions, easy to
an explanation of the comma before where. remember with the
mnemonic FANBOYS:
ƒƒEm dashes can replace commas when too many commas would be confusing. This one for, and, nor, but, or,
is correct. yet, so.
ƒƒTransitional words take commas when they interrupt the flow of the sentence. Fix: so
deep, indeed, that no cable could fathom it.
Students may ask, “What about no comma before that?” Explain that a must-have
comma for one part of a sentence trumps a no-comma for another. That is, the comma
after indeed takes priority over the no comma before that. II 2. Teacher’s note.
Check underlines and
have students explain
Grammar Notations the patterns until
they have mastered
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Beneath the surface; in the ocean; as the most stunning
prepositional phrases:
cornflower; as crystal. Blue and clear are adjectives, so not in a prep phrase. See  2. preposition + noun
ƒƒBeneath (preposition) + the (article) + surface (noun functioning as object of the (no verb)—first
preposition). No verb. word, preposition;
last word, noun;
ƒƒin (preposition) + the (article) + ocean (object of preposition). No verb.
no verb in phrase.
ƒƒas (word that can be a preposition) + the (article) + most (adverb) + stunning There may be other
(adjective) + cornflower (object of preposition). No verb. words between the
“as … as” is an idiom setting up prepositional phrases here. As usually starts an adverb preposition and its
object (the noun), but
clause, but only if a subject and verb follow.
never a verb.
ƒƒas (word that can be a preposition) + crystal (object of preposition). No verb.
Important.
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS. Prepositional phrases
are a phrase and not a
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: Beneath the surface far out in the ocean. clause because there
When sentences begin with several openers before the main clause, label them by the is no verb.
first opener.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 9


Week 1

ƒƒDC (www clause): where the water is as blue as the most stunning cornflower and as II 3. Teacher’s note.
clear as crystal. Review the be verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been). See  3. Starting Week 2,
students will mark
ŒŒ Grammar lovers. The comma before Also, verbs of being like be verbs link a clauses in the
the where clause is correct because it subject to its complement, a noun or passages. For your
starts a nonessential adjective clause. It is adjective. In this case, water is linked to benefit, clauses are
an adjective (not adverb) clause because the subject complements blue and clear. In listed in the notes
where follows a noun that it also describes; “it is very deep,” it is linked to the subject for Week 1 but
it is nonessential because the rest of the complement deep. not marked in the
sentence makes sense if we remove the passages.
where clause.

ƒƒMC: it is very deep. Pronouns (it) can perform the same functions as nouns,
including acting as the subject. Have students identify the verb; then ask: Who or
what is performing this action (what is very deep)? Answer: It is very deep, so it is
the subject.
ƒƒDC (that clause): that no cable could fathom it.
If needed, explain that helping verbs link arms with action verbs. Have students look
at the list of helping verbs on the back of their verb grammar card and find one in this
passage. Do this whenever students overlook a helping verb.

DAY 2

#1 S V V to
Sundry church steeples piled one upon another would not reach from the ground beneath too the
V
#2 dwell S S
surface of the water above. In that place, dwells the Sea King, and his aquatic subjects.

Fixes sundry: various or


diverse
HOMOPHONES. Use the preposition to: to the surface.
Check that students
AGREEMENT. Verbs must agree in number with their subjects. A plural subject (Sea King know that aquatic
and subjects) takes a plural verb: they dwell, not dwells. means living or
growing in water.
CAPITALIZATION. The story capitalizes Sea King, Sea Witch, and Little Mermaid when used
as names for these characters. Hans Christian Andersen did not name them otherwise in
the original.
PUNCTUATION.
ƒƒADVANCED. Essential phrases do not take commas. The original, an invisible which, is
correct: Sundry church steeples piled one upon another would not reach. Piled one
upon another explains why church steeples would not reach from the ocean bottom to
the surface, so the phrase is essential to the meaning of the rest of the sentence and
therefore not set off with commas.
ƒƒPrepositional openers. Commas are optional after short prepositional phrase openers
II 1. Teacher’s note.
(four words or fewer). Better: In that place dwell the Sea King and his aquatic
The trend is to move
subjects. See  1. away from unneeded
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What words (same part of speech) does the coordinating commas.
conjunction and join? Answer: Sea King and subjects, both nouns. Since there are only
two items and they are not main clauses, no comma. Fix: dwell the Sea King and his
aquatic subjects.

10 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Week 1

Grammar Notations
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. upon another; from the ground; to the surface; of the water;
In that place.
Continue to guide students to see the pattern in prepositional phrases until they
master this concept: preposition + noun (no verb).
Beneath (in the ground beneath) and above (in the water above) are adverbs since they
are not followed by a noun (object of preposition).
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS. See  2. II 2. Teacher’s note.
The clauses listed in
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): Sundry church steeples piled one upon another would not Week 1 notes are for
reach from the ground beneath to the surface of the water above. the teacher’s benefit.
Students may think piled is the verb. In this case, just tell them it is not. To advanced Students will begin
students, teach that verbals ending in -ing or -ed are not verbs unless they have a marking them in
subject and helping verb before them, as in steeples were piled. Also, steeples cannot be Week 2.
the subject of both piled and would reach.
ƒƒADVANCED. Invisible which (no marking required): piled one upon another.
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: In that place.
ƒƒMC: dwell the Sea King and his aquatic subjects.
If students have trouble locating the subject and verb of this clause, point out that
it is common to reverse the usual subject-verb order after a prepositional phrase.
Also, guide them to locate the dual subject (Sea King and subjects) by asking who
dwells there.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 11


Week 1

DAY 3

#1 S V V V S #T
We must not imagine, that there is nothing at the bottom of the sea, but bare sand. No, indeed,
V V S
whose S S V
growing there are the most remarkable plants, who’s leaves and stems are so pliant, that the most

slightest S V S V
slight agitation of the water causes them to stir as if they had life.

Fixes pliant: easily


bending; flexible
WHOSE. Not the contraction who’s (who is) but the possessive pronoun whose: the most
remarkable plants, whose leaves and stems, i.e., the leaves and stems of the plant.
See  1.
ADJECTIVES. Use most to form the superlative with most adjectives of two or more II 1. Teacher’s note.
Teach concepts like
syllables. If the adjective has one syllable, like slight, form its superlative by adding -est possessive pronouns
to it. Fix: the slightest agitation. See  1. and comparative and
PUNCTUATION. Guide students to figure out the punctuation by asking them questions. superlative adjectives
Some are suggested in the notes. on a need-to-know
basis. There is no
ƒƒThat clauses do not take commas. Two fixes: need to pre-teach all
We must not imagine that there is nothing at the bottom of the sea. concepts.
… growing there are the most remarkable plants, whose leaves and stems are so
pliant that the slightest agitation of the water causes them to stir.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What does but join, does it take a comma, and why?
Answer: two nouns, nothing and sand. No comma with only two items that are not
MCs. Fix: there is nothing at the bottom of the sea but bare sand.
If students choose bottom or sea as the words connected with sand, help them see the
answer by dropping the words between nothing and but bare sand: there is nothing …
but bare sand. Since it makes sense, nothing is the correct word linked to sand.
ƒƒTransitional words. Ask: Where is there a transitional word that needs to be set
off with commas? Answer: indeed. Fix: No, indeed, growing there are the most
remarkable plants.
ƒƒADVANCED. Nonessential who-which clauses take commas.
The whose clause is nonessential because you can remove it from the sentence without
changing the meaning of the main clause. The most remarkable plants are still
growing there, regardless of the pliancy of their leaves. The original is correct with
a comma.

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Week 1

Grammar Notations
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. at the bottom; of the sea; of the water.
ADVANCED. To in to stir is a preposition, but infinitives (to + verb) do not look like
other prepositional phrases so are not marked as prepositions in this book.
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS. II 2. Teacher’s note.
In clauses beginning
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): We must not imagine.
with there is, there
ƒƒDC (that clause): that there is nothing at the bottom of the sea but bare sand. are, there was, or
See  2. there were, the true
ƒƒ#T transitional opener: No, indeed.
subject is not there
but comes after the
ƒƒMC: growing there are the most remarkable plants. be verb. Students
Rearrange the sentence to show the S-V pair more clearly: The most remarkable may hear it better if
plants are growing there. you reverse the word
order: nothing is there.
ƒƒDC (who-which clause): whose leaves and stems are so pliant.
If students mark pliant as a verb, explain that it is actually an adjective. See . ŒŒ Grammar lovers.
ƒƒDC (that clause): that the slightest agitation of the water causes them to stir. This is a subject
complement (a.k.a.
Students may confuse the object of the preposition (water) with the subject. Teach predicate adjective)
that a noun cannot be both a subject and an object of a preposition at the same time. linked to the noun
They may see the subject of causes better by removing the prepositional phrase: the it describes (leaves,
slightest agitation causes them to stir. stems) by the linking
If students mark stir as a verb, you could point out that to stir is an infinitive, which is verb are.
formed from a verb but does not function as a verb.
ƒƒAC (adverb clause): as if they had life.
Most students will recognize as and if as www words. If they do not realize that as if
together can also be a subordinating conjunction, you might show them the list on the
back of their www words grammar card.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 13


Week 1

DAY 4

#1 S V among S V among
Fish, both large and small, glide between the branches in the same way, that birds fly between the

#2 V S #1 S V V
trees upon land. In the most deepest spot stands the castle of the Sea King. It’s walls are built of

S V clearest
coral, and the long gothic windows are of the most clear amber.

Fixes amber: a pale


reddish-yellow fossil
HOMOPHONES AND USAGE. resin
ƒƒBetween and among. Use between to compare two items but among three or more:
Fish … glide among the branches (not just two branches) and birds fly among the
trees (not just two trees).

itis
ƒƒIt’s and its. Use the possessive its, not the contraction it’s: Its walls, meaning the walls
of the castle. Teach the difference by explaining that the apostrophe in it’s is like a
little i.
ƒƒSuperlative adjectives. Do not use most in addition to the suffix -est to form the
superlative of adjectives. Add -est to one-syllable adjectives: not most deepest but
deepest; not most clear but clearest.
PUNCTUATION.
ƒƒThat clauses do not take commas. Fix: in the same way that birds fly among the
trees upon land.
ƒƒShort #2s do not need commas. The original is correct: In the deepest spot stands
the castle.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What does and after coral join? Answer: two main clauses,
so and needs a comma before it: MC, cc MC rule.
Fix: Its walls are built of coral, and the long gothic windows are of the clearest amber.

Grammar Notations
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. among the branches; in the same way; among the trees; upon
land; In the deepest spot; of the Sea King; of coral; of the clearest amber.
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS.
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): Fish, both large and small, glide among the branches.
ƒƒDC (that clause): that birds fly among the trees upon land.
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: In the deepest spot.
ƒƒMC: stands the castle of the Sea King.
Convert the MC to the usual word order if this helps students recognize the S-V
pattern better: The castle of the Sea King stands.
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): Its walls are built of coral.
ƒƒMC: the long gothic windows are of the clearest amber.

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Week 1

Style
If you have been doing IEW writing, have students take a few moments to identify the best
of the three vocabulary dress-ups from this week’s sentences. Dress-ups should create a
strong image or feeling, so encourage your students to choose the strongest, not just any
verb, adjective, or -ly word. Discuss their answers. Suggestions:
ƒƒStrong verbs. fathom, dwell, glide.
ƒƒQuality adjectives. stunning, sundry, bare, remarkable, pliant, slightest, gothic.
ƒƒ-ly adverbs. None. Since Hans Christian Andersen used many adjectives but relatively
few adverbs, some weeks there will be no adverbs to choose from.

STUDENT REWRITE

To ensure that the editing sticks, have your student rewrite the passage in a separate section of the notebook. Below is what that
rewrite should look like.

Beneath the surface far out in the ocean, where the water is as blue as the most stunning
cornflower and as clear as crystal, it is very deep—so deep, indeed, that no cable could fathom it. Sundry
church steeples piled one upon another would not reach from the ground beneath to the surface of the
water above. In that place dwell the Sea King and his aquatic subjects. We must not imagine that there
is nothing at the bottom of the sea but bare sand. No, indeed, growing there are the most remarkable
plants, whose leaves and stems are so pliant that the slightest agitation of the water causes them to stir
as if they had life. Fish, both large and small, glide among the branches in the same way that birds fly
among the trees upon land. In the deepest spot stands the castle of the Sea King. Its walls are built of
coral, and the long gothic windows are of the clearest amber.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 15


Week 2
Week 2

LEARN IT

Review Clauses, Run-Ons, More Comma Rules, Lie versus Lay


Grammar Cards Cut out the Week 2 grammar cards to review these concepts and prepare to learn
new ones:
ƒ Clause: Subject-Verb ƒ Commas with Adverb Clauses
ƒ Sentence Openers: #3 and 5 ƒ Stop Run-on Sentences!
ƒ DC with www.asia.b words ƒ Lie versus Lay

Grammar This week you will begin to mark the clauses.


Notations ƒ Once you have marked all the prepositional phrases and subject-verb pairs, go
back and enclose all main clauses in square brackets [ ] and mark them MC.
Enclose all dependent clauses in parenthesis ( ). Every S-V pair signals the
presence of a clause.
ƒ Use the dependent clause grammar card (DC) to remember the words that www words: when,
begin dependent clauses. Mark who-which and that clauses with DC. Because while, where, as, since,
www words usually begin an adverb clause, mark them with AC. if, although, because
ƒ In the brackets or parenthesis, include the words that form the main part
of that clause—namely, the www word or who, which, or that starting the
dependent clause and the subject-verb pair of the clause. End the clause at the
most logical place after the S-V. You could include essential clauses that go
with the clause you are marking, but it is easier to keep it simple.
ƒ Continue to number the sentence openers. This week you will mark #3 -ly
adverbs and #5 clausal openers, as well as #1 subject and #2 prepositional.
See the Sentence Openers grammar card if needed for review.

Run-on A common writing mistake is run-on sentences. This happens when two main
Sentences clauses are connected with nothing stronger than a comma, which is always wrong II Teacher’s note.
because main clauses need something as strong as a period between them. The exceptions to
the no-comma rule
If two main clauses are joined by nothing, it is called a fused sentence (MC MC). If
for mid-sentence
there is only a comma between them, it is called a comma splice (MC, MC). In both
www words will be
cases, something stronger is needed. The easiest way to fix them is to use a period,
addressed as they
but your teacher can explore other options with you, which are also listed on the
come up in the
“Stop Run-on Sentences!” grammar card.
passages. Students
Commas with Use the Sentence Opener grammar card to review the comma rules with #3 are not expected to
#3 -ly Adverb openers. master the exceptions
Openers in this book, but it is
worth pointing them
Commas with Use the Commas with Adverb Clauses grammar card to review that #5 clausal out to increase their
Adverb Clauses openers take commas while mid-sentence adverb clauses do not. Also, www.asia.b awareness.
words are not the only ones that can begin adverb clauses. See the back of the DC
www.asia.b grammar card for more words that can start adverb clauses. However, if you have
a student who is
Lie versus Lay Lie and lay are troublesome words. Does the paper lie there or lay there? A way to easily frustrated by
remember: Someone lies himself down but lays down an object. exceptions to the
ƒ I am going to lie down for a bit. rules—and there are
ƒ Please lay your books on the table. plenty in the English
language!—let these
The confusion is because the past tense of to lie is the same as the present tense of exceptions go for now.
to lay. Here are the verb forms:
verb present past past participle
to lie lie lay lain
to lay lay laid laid
Memorizing a simple sentence might help with the confusing past tense forms:
Henny Hen lay down (something she did to herself) after she laid an egg (something
she did to an object).

Page 66, Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Student Book 4 Institute for Excellence in Writing

16 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Week 2

DAY 1

#3 MC S V V DC S V V AC S V
[ ]( )(
Artistically the roof is formed of shells , which open and close , as the water flows over them , . )
V
#1 MC Their S V AC lies S
[there appearance is magnificent], (because in each lays a glittering pearl) fit for the diadem
queen
of a Queen.

Fixes diadem: crown; cloth


headband adorned
INDENT. No indent because this is still part of the opening description. with jewels

HOMOPHONES AND USAGE. 1) Use the possessive pronoun: Their appearance. 2) The
pearl lies itself: in each lies a glittering pearl.
II 1. Teacher’s note.
PUNCTUATION. See  1. Always guide students
ƒƒ#3 -ly openers take optional commas when they modify just the verb: the roof is to figure out the
artistically formed. This is correct with or without a comma. punctuation by asking
them questions, a
ƒƒADVANCED. Nonessential who-which clauses take commas. The original is correct: few of which will
the roof is formed of shells, which open and close. This which clause is nonessential be suggested in the
because it does not affect the meaning of the rest of the sentence; if you remove it, the discussion notes.
roof is still formed of shells. See  2. It also helps to
ƒƒMid-sentence adverb clauses do not take commas: MC AC. This happens twice. Ask
discuss the Grammar
Notations first.
students to locate the www words (as, because) and explain the corrections.
Fixes: 1) … the roof is formed of shells, which open and close as the water flows II 2. Teacher’s note.
over them. 2) Their appearance is magnificent because in each lies a glittering Often, one clause will
pearl. have inside it one or
more other clauses.
ƒƒRun-on sentence. Ask: Where is a comma splice (MC, MC); what is the problem; what If you prefer to have
is the solution? Answer: The comma after over them is not strong enough to hold two your students mark
main clauses together and should be a period. overlapping clauses,
Fix, with MCs italicized: the roof is formed of shells, which open and close as the water that is fine. This one
flows over them. Their appearance is magnificent. would look like this:
(which open and close
(as the water flows
Grammar Notations over them)).
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. of shells; over them; in each; for the diadem; of a queen. Fix It marks the most
essential part of
With each passage, continue to guide students to explain the pattern: preposition + the clause to keep
noun (no verb). Does the phrase start with a preposition, end with a noun, and have it simple so that
no verb in between? students do not have
to deal with many
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND SENTENCE OPENERS. overlapping clauses,
ƒƒ#3 -ly adverb opener: Artistically. but the overlap
ƒƒMC: the roof is formed of shells. Here, is is a helping verb and formed the action verb.
explains why there is
no comma after which
ƒƒDC (who-which clause): which open and close. open and close. The
ƒƒAC (adverb clause): as the water flows over them. which clause includes
the idea of the as
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): Their appearance is magnificent. clause after it, so even
ƒƒAC (adverb clause): because in each lies a glittering pearl. If students have trouble though the which
identifying the S-V pair, revise the clause: because a glittering pearl lies in each. clause is nonessential,
there should not be a
ƒƒADVANCED. Invisible who-which: fit for the diadem of a queen. Since the subject and
comma after close.
verb are invisible, this is a phrase and not a clause.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 17


Week 2

DAY 2

#2 MC S V V MC S V
¶ For many years, [the Sea King had been a widower], so [his aged mother kept house for him], .
#3 MC S V princesses
[ ]
truly, she deserved ample praise , especially for her nurturance of the little sea princess’s, her

granddaughters.

Fixes nurturance: warm


physical and
INDENT because of a new topic, introducing the grandmother. emotional care

PLURAL, not possessive, because there is no ownership: of the little sea princesses.
PUNCTUATION
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase openers. Commas are optional after short #2 openers but
better without if no pause is needed. Preferred: For many years the Sea King had II 1. Teacher’s note.
The trend is to avoid
been a widower. See  1. unneeded commas
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What does the cc so join, and is punctuation needed? because commas
Answer: It joins two MCs, which need a comma before the cc: MC, cc MC. force a mental pause,
Fix, with MCs italicized: For many years the Sea King had been a widower, so his aged too many of which
can make writing
mother kept house for him. choppy.
ƒƒRun-on sentence. Ask: Find and correct the comma splice (MC, MC). Answer: The
comma after kept house for him is not strong enough to hold together the two MCs.
Use a period instead.
Fix, with MCs italicized: his aged mother kept house for him. Truly she deserved ample
praise.
ƒƒ#3 -ly adverb openers that modify the verb do not require commas. She truly deserved
makes sense, so the comma is not needed. Fix: Truly she deserved ample praise.
ƒƒADVANCED. Appositives. Ask students to find the appositive, a noun that renames
the noun right before it. Answer: her granddaughters, which renames “the little sea
princesses.”
Ask: If we remove the appositive from the sentence, will we still know who the sea
princesses are? Answer: Yes, the appositive adds information, but it is not essential
to the meaning of what comes before it and is therefore set off with a comma.
This is also known as an invisible who because who were is implied (who were her II 2. Teacher’s note.
granddaughters), but it is a phrase, not a clause. To keep house is an
idiom meaning to
Grammar Notations manage a household.
Although house is
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. For many years; for him; for her nurturance; of the little sea not a verb, it is part
princesses. of this idiomatic verb
phrase. If students do
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS. not label house, that
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: For many years. is fine, but point out
that keep house has
ƒƒMC: the Sea King had been a widower. a different meaning
ƒƒMC: his aged mother kept house for him. See  2. from keep.
ƒƒ#3 -ly adverb opener: Truly.
ƒƒMC: she deserved ample praise.

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Week 2

DAY 3 S S #1
#5 AC six V MC youngest V MC S
¶ (Although, all 6 were comely children), [the younger was the most striking of them all]. [her skin
V MC S V #2 MC S
was as delicate as a rose petal ], and [her eyes were as blue as the deepest sea], . like the others [she
V
had no feet, but a fish’s tail instead . ]

Fixes comely: pleasing


in appearance;
INDENT because of a new topic, introducing the youngest mermaid. If students argue for attractive
no new topic because it is still a general introduction of the characters, no indent also
works! The main thing is for them to defend their answer based on the rules for starting
new paragraphs in fiction.
NUMBERS. Spell out numbers that can be written in one or two words: all six were II Teacher’s note.
comely children. See . Teach the basic
COMPARISONS. Use superlatives with three or more: not the younger but the youngest. concept: spell out
numbers that one can
SIMILE. Ask students to find the two similes. Answer: Her skin is like a rose petal; her write in one or two
eyes are like the deep blue sea. words. As exceptions
occur, the notes will
PUNCTUATION. direct you to added
ƒƒ#5 clausal openers. The comma after introductory adverb clauses goes at the end of rules, such as not
the clause, not after the subordinating conjunction that starts the clause. Ask students spelling out numbers
to explain where the comma belongs. Fix: Although all six were comely children, in dates.
the youngest was the most striking of them all.
ƒƒRun-on sentences. Ask students to find one of each kind of run-on, a comma splice
(MC, MC) and a fused sentence (MC MC). Solution: Both work best with a period.
Fixing the FS, with MCs italicized: the youngest was the most striking of them all. Her
skin was as delicate as a rose petal.
Fixing the CS, with MCs italicized: her eyes were as blue as the deepest sea. Like the
others she had no feet, but a fish’s tail instead.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What does and join, and what is the rule? Answer: Two
main clauses: MC, cc MC. Fix: Her skin was as delicate as a rose petal, and her eyes
were as blue as the deepest sea.
ƒƒADVANCED. Contrasting items in a series. But joins two nouns, which normally would
not take a comma. However, when the second item presents a strong contrast, the
comma is needed. The original is correct: she had no feet, but a fish’s tail instead.
Contrast this: She had no feet but her own—no contrast, no comma.

Grammar Notations
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. of them all; as a rose petal; as the deepest sea; Like the others.
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS.
ƒƒ#5 clausal opener (adverb clause): Although all six were comely children.
ƒƒMC: the youngest was the most striking of them all.
ƒƒ#1 subject opener (MC): Her skin was as delicate as a rose petal.
ƒƒMC: her eyes were as blue as the deepest sea.
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: Like the others.
ƒƒMC: she had no feet, but a fish’s tail instead.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 19


Week 2

DAY 4

#2 MC S V #5 AC S V through
¶ Throughout the day, [they frolicked in the opulent halls of the castle], . (when fish swam in threw
MC S V mermaids’
the large amber windows right up to the princesses ), [they nibbled from the mermaid’s hands, and
V themselves
allowed them to be stroked . ]

Fixes opulent: wealthy; rich

INDENT because of a new topic, the activities of all the sea princesses.
HOMOPHONE. Not threw, the past tense of throw, but the preposition: through
the windows.
PRONOUNS. Use reflexive pronouns when referring back to the subject of the same
sentence: they … allowed themselves to be stroked.
PUNCTUATION.
ƒƒShort #2 prepositional phrase openers do not need commas except when they are II Teacher’s note.
transitions requiring a pause. Better: Throughout the day they frolicked. The intervening
dependent clause
ƒƒRun-on sentence. Ask students to find two MCs joined somewhere between them by may confuse
only a comma. Answer: The comma after castle is not strong enough to hold the MCs students. Help them
together and should be a period. See . understand that
Fix, with MCs italicized: they frolicked in the opulent halls of the castle. When fish despite the DC, we
swam in through the large amber windows right up to the princesses, they nibbled still have a comma
splice because there is
from the mermaids’ hands.
nothing stronger than
ƒƒ#5 clausal openers take commas: AC, MC. Fix: When fish swam in through the large a comma anywhere
amber windows right up to the princesses, they nibbled. between these MCs.
ƒƒApostrophes show possession. Plural possessives have the apostrophe after s. DCs do not connect
MCs.
Fix: the mermaids’ hands.
ƒƒItems in a series (cc). Ask: What words does and join, does it need a comma before it,
and why? Answer: No comma because and joins only two verbs, nibbled and allowed.
Pattern: MC cc 2nd verb.
Fix: they nibbled from the mermaids’ hands and allowed themselves to be stroked.

Grammar Notations
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Throughout the day; in the opulent halls; of the castle;
through the large amber windows; to the princesses; from the mermaids’ hands.
If students mark in after swam or right up as prepositions, ask them what the objects
are. Guide them to see that these words are adverbs here. They cannot be prepositions
because they do not have an object-noun after them.
CLAUSES, PHRASES, AND OPENERS.
ƒƒ#2 prepositional phrase opener: Throughout the day.
ƒƒMC: they frolicked in the opulent halls of the castle.
ƒƒ#5 clausal opener (adverb clause): When fish swam in through the large amber
windows right up to the princesses.
ƒƒMC: they nibbled from the mermaids’ hands and allowed themselves to be stroked.

20 Institute for Excellence in Writing


Week 2

Style
If desired, have students identify the strongest of the vocabulary dress-ups from this week.
Discuss their answers. Suggestions:
ƒƒStrong verbs. frolicked, nibbled.
ƒƒQuality adjectives. glittering, aged, ample, comely, striking, delicate, opulent, amber.
ƒƒ-ly adverbs. None to choose from; -ly adverbs that start sentences count as sentence
openers, not as dress-ups.

STUDENT REWRITE

Artistically the roof is formed of shells, which open and close as the water flows over them. Their
appearance is magnificent because in each lies a glittering pearl fit for the diadem of a queen.
For many years the Sea King had been a widower, so his aged mother kept house for him. Truly
she deserved ample praise, especially for her nurturance of the little sea princesses, her granddaughters.
Although all six were comely children, the youngest was the most striking of them all. Her skin
was as delicate as a rose petal, and her eyes were as blue as the deepest sea. Like the others she had no
feet, but a fish’s tail instead.
Throughout the day they frolicked in the opulent halls of the castle. When fish swam in through
the large amber windows right up to the princesses, they nibbled from the mermaids’ hands and allowed
themselves to be stroked.

Fix It! Grammar: Little Mermaid, Teacher’s Manual Book 4 21