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eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Rj{ukswg

Physique
Eqortgpftg"nc"nwokfltg."eÓguv"cdqtfgt"uc"eqorqucpvg"rj{ukswg"<"eqoogpv"gnng"ug
oguwtg."eqoogpv"gnng"ug"rtqrcig."swgnu"uqpv"egu"rctcoflvtgu"A
Ocku"fiicngogpv."pqwu"fgxqpu"pqwu"kpvfitguugt" "uqp"tfiegrvgwt"cwz"ofiecpkuogu
uwdlgevkhu"<"nÓÍkn0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Ffihkpkvkqp"fg"nc"eqwngwt

La couleur
Kn"{"c"rnwukgwtu"hc›qpu"fÓcdqtfgt"nc"eqwngwt0"Nc"eqwngwt"fw"rgkpvtg"pÓguv"rcu"nc"o‒og
swg"egnng"fw"rj{ukekgp0"Ng"fqockpg"fg"nc"eqwngwt"hckv"vtflu"xkvg"crrgn" "fgu"curgevu
ru{ejqnqikswgu."ejcewp"c{cpv"uqp"kpvgtrtfivcvkqp"ckpuk"swg"ejcswg"ewnvwtg"*ng"dncpe
guv"ng"ukipg"fg"fgwkn"cw"Lcrqp."rct"gzgorng+

Eg"ejcrkvtg"cdqtfg"nc"eqwngwt"cw"pkxgcw"fgu"nqku"rj{ukswgu"chkp"fg"ug"hcoknkctkugt
cxge"ugu"fkxgtu"curgevu"gv"ugu"ofincpigu0

Egvvg"crrtqejg"rgwv"‒vtg"nctigogpv"eqornfivfig"rct"nÓfivwfg"fg"nc eqnqtkofivtkg *uekgpeg


fg"oguwtg"fgu"eqwngwtu"swk"rgtogv"fÓkfgpvkhkgt"wpg"eqwngwt"chkp"fg"nc"tgrtqfwktg"qw
fÓfixcnwgt"uqp"ejcpigogpv"rct"tcrrqtv" "wpg"eqwngwt"fivcnqp+"cwrtflu"fg"nc
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage swk"guv" "nÓqtkikpg"fg"nc"rnwrctv"fgu
vtcxcwz"uekgpvkhkswgu"fg"pqtocnkucvkqp0

Définition de la couleur
Cw"vjfi¤vtg."pqwu"tgvkgpftqpu"nc"ffihkpkvkqp"fw"rj{ukekgp"<"Å la couleur est le résultat
de la décomposition de la lumière blanche Ç0"Nc"nwokfltg"dncpejg"guv"nc
uwrgtrqukvkqp"fg"vqwvgu"ngu"eqwngwtu"xkukdngu0"Ng"oqpfg"pqwu"crrctc v"eqnqtfi"rcteg
swg"ngu"qdlgvu"cduqtdgpv"wpg"rctvkg"fw urgevtg gv"tfihnfiejkuugpv"egtvckpgu"qpfgu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg

La photométrie
Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"c"rqwt"qdlgv"fg"oguwtgt"nc"nwokfltg."eÓguv/ /fktg"ngu"tc{qppgogpvu
ecrcdngu"fÓkortguukqppgt"nÓÍkn"jwockp"ckpuk"swg"ngu"fkhhfitgpvu"rjfipqoflpgu"swg"xqpv
uwdkt"egu"tc{qpu"*vtcpuokuukqp."tfihngzkqp. fkhhwukqp."tfihtcevkqp. cduqtrvkqp+0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"@"Nc"rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg

La perception de la lumière
NÓÍkn"pg"rgt›qkv"swÓwpg"kphkog"rctvkg"fw"urgevtg"fioku"rct"ng"uqngkn0"NÓÍkn"guv"pqvtg"tfiegrvgwt
fg"nc"nwokfltg."o‒og"uk"uqp"hqpevkqppgogpv"guv"urfiekhkswg0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Nc"nwokfltg

La lumière
Nc"nwokfltg"pÓgzkuvg"swg"rct"nc"uwthceg"swÓgnng"vqwejg0"Ucpu"korcev."ugu"qpfgu
fingevtqocipfivkswgu"pg"ugtckgpv"rcu"xkukdngu0"Uc"xkvguug"gv"uqp"urgevtg"gv"uqp"wpkvfi"fg
oguwtg"uqpv"gzrnkswfiu"ek/crtflu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"@"Ng"tfiegrvgwt"<"n)qgkn

Le récepteur : l'œil
NÓÍkn"lqwg"ng"t»ng"fg"nc"Å"ecogtc"qduewtc"Ç"<"wpg"ejcodtg"pqktg."wpg"qwxgtvwtg"
fkcrjtciog"tficikuucpv" "nc"swcpvkvfi"fg"nwokfltg"rgt›wg"*nc"rwrknng+."wp"qdlgevkh"*ng
etkuvcnnkp+"gv"wpg"rncswg"ugpukdng"*nc tfivkpg+0"Kn"ug"rtfiugpvg"uqwu"nc"hqtog"fÓwp"inqdg
ockpvgpw"gp"rnceg"fcpu"wpg"ecxkvfi"eqpkswg."nÓqtdkvg."rct"fgu"owuengu"swk"cuuwtgpv
fiicngogpv"uc"oqdknkvfi0"Ng"inqdg"qewncktg"oq{gp"c"wp"fkcoflvtg"fg"45"oo0

Ugu"rtkpekrcwz"finfiogpvu"uqpv"<
La sclérotique <
Ogodtcpg"swk"hqtog"ng"dncpe"fg"nÓÍkn"gv"rtqvflig"ng"inqdg"qewncktg0La choroïde <
ogodtcpg"pqwttkekfltg"fg"nÓÍkn."rkiogpvfig"gp"pqkt"gv"swk"vtcpuhqtog"nÓqgkn"gp"ejcodtg
pqktg0"Gnng"cuuwtg"nc"pgvvgvfi"fgu"kocigu"fw"hckv"fg"uqp"rqwxqkt"fÓcduqtrvkqp"fgu
tcfkcvkqpu"nwokpgwugu"pqp"wvknkufigu0

La rétine <
La macula ou « tache jaune » <"|qpg"fÓgpxktqp"3.7"oo"fg"fkcoflvtg.
crrtqzkocvkxgogpv"fcpu"nÓczg"fg"nÓqgkn0"EÓguv"ng"rqkpv"ugpukdng"fg"nc"tfivkpg0
La fovéa <"ffirtguukqp"fg"nc"tfivkpg"ukvwfig"rtflu"fg"nÓczg"qrvkswg"fg"nÓÍkn."cw"egpvtg"fg
nc"Ðvcejg"lcwpgÑ0"Gnng"rgtogv"nc"rnwu"itcpfg"rtfiekukqp"xkuwgnng."gp"fiencktcig"fkwtpg.
rqwt"nc"xkukqp"fgu"ffivcknu0
La papille « ou tache aveugle » <"rqkpv"fÓgpvtfig"fw"pgth"qrvkswg"fcpu"nÓÍkn0"Egvvg
|qpg"guv"kpugpukdng" "nc"nwokfltg0
Gzrfitkgpeg <
NÓgzkuvgpeg"fg"egvvg"vcejg"guv"rtqwxfig"hcekngogpv"it¤eg" "egv"gzgtekeg"<
Hgtoqpu"nÓÍkn"icwejg."tgictfqpu"hkzgogpv"nc"etqkz"fg"nc"hkiwtg"ek/fguuqwu"gv
ffirnc›qpu"ngpvgogpv"egvvg"rcig"fÓcxcpv"gp"cttkfltg0"C"wpg"egtvckpg"fkuvcpeg"fg"nÓÍkn
*gpvtg"42"gv"52"eo+"ng"fkuswg"pqkt"fkurctc v"uwt"nc"vcejg"cxgwing0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Les cellules photoréceptrices :


Ngu"d¤vqppgvu"rgtogvvgpv"nc"xkukqp"gp"pqkt"gp"dncpe0"Knu"cxqkukpgpv"ngu"347"oknnkqpu
fÓwpkvfiu0
Ngu"e»pgu"rgtogvvgpv"nc"xkukqp"fgu"eqwngwtu0"Knu"uqpv"cw"pqodtg"fg"8" ":"oknnkqpu0

La cornée <
Ecnqvvg"urjfitkswg"fg"38"oo"fg"fkcoflvtg"gv"fg"4"oo"fÓfirckuugwt"fÓgpxktqp0"FÓwpg
pcvwtg"vtcpurctgpvg."gnng"hgtog"nc"ejcodtg"cpvfitkgwtg"eqpvgpcpv"nÓjwogwt"cswgwug.
eqpuvkvwfig"fÓgcw"gv"fg"ugnu"okpfitcwz0"NÓgpugodng"hqtog"wpg"nqwrg" "hq{gt"swk
eqpvtkdwg" "nc"hqtocvkqp"fg"nÓkocig0

L’iris <
Fqppg"nc"eqwngwt"fg"nÓqgkn0"Kn"guv"rgtefi"fÓwpg"qwxgtvwtg"egpvtcng."nc"rwrknng0

La pupille <
Uc"fkogpukqp"xctkg"gp"hqpevkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"kpekfgpvg"*tcrrqtv"fg"3" "38"gpvtg"nc
rnwu"rgvkvg"gv"nc"rnwu"itcpfg"qwxgtvwtg+0"Nc"xctkcvkqp"fg"nc"uwthceg"fg"nc"rwrknng"nkokvg
nc"swcpvkvfi"fg"nwokfltg"rfipfivtcpv"fcpu"nÓqgkn"gv"rgtogv"ng"tfiincig"fg"nc"rtqhqpfgwt"fg
ejcor"fg"nÓkocig"tg›wg0"NÓktku"lqwg"ng"t»ng"fw"fkcrjtciog"fg"nÓcrrctgkn
rjqvqitcrjkswg0"Uk"nc"nwokfltg"guv"hqtvg."nc"rwrknng"ug"eqpvtcevg"gv"nÓkocig"guv"pgvvg"="uk
nc"nwokfltg"guv"hckdng."nc"rwrknng"guv"vtqr"fkncvfig"gv"nÓkocig"guv"hnqwg0

Le cristallin <
Kn"hqtog"wpg ngpvknng eqpxgzg"fqpv"nc"eqwtdwtg"ug"oqfkhkg"ugnqp"nc"fkuvcpeg"fg"nÓqdlgv
tgictffi"rct"tcrrqtv" "nÓqgkn0"Kn"rgtogv"nc"hqtocvkqp"fg"nÓkocig"uwt"nc"tfivkpg0

Le corps vitré <


Ukvwfi"fcpu"nc"ejcodtg"rquvfitkgwtg."kn"ockpvkgpv"ng"inqdg"qewncktg0"EÓguv"wp"nkswkfg
vtcpurctgpv"gv"ifincvkpgwz0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"@"Itcpfgwtu"rjqvqofivtkswgu

Grandeurs photométriques
Flux lumineux
Rwkuucpeg"nwokpgwug"fiokug"fcpu"vqwvgu"ngu"fktgevkqpu"rct"wpg"uqwteg0
Ng"hnwz"uÓgzrtkog"gp nwogpu0
Unité : Nwogp"*no+

Ng hnwz nwokpgwz fÓwpg uqwteg kpecpfguegpeg fg 322 Y guv fÓgpxktqp 3722


nwogpu0

Intensité lumineuse
Rctvkg"fw"hnwz"nwokpgwz"nc"rnwu"rgvkvg"rquukdng"fcpu"wpg"ugwng"fktgevkqp0
Wpg"uqwteg"pÓfiogv"rcu"hqtefiogpv"fg"nc"nwokfltg"fÓwpg"hc›qp"fiicng"fcpu"vqwvgu"ngu
fktgevkqpu0"Kn"guv"fqpe"wvkng"fg"eqppc vtg"ng"hnwz"tc{qppfi"fcpu"ejcswg"fktgevkqp0
Symbole : Kx
Unité : Ecpfgnc *ef+"nwogp"rct"uvfitcfkcp0

Eclairement
NÓfiencktgogpv"fÓwpg"uwthceg"guv"fiicn"cw"hnwz"nwokpgwz"*gp"Nwogp+"vqodcpv"uwt
ejcswg"oflvtg"ecttfi"fg"egvvg"uwthceg0
Symbole : G"*hqtowng"gp"hqpevkqp"fw
hnwz"nwokpgwz+0
G"?"Hnwz"nwokpgwz"1"Uwthceg
Unité : Nwz"*nz+
Ng"Nwz"fiswkxcwv" "nÓfiencktgogpv"fÓwpg
uwthceg"fg"3"oflvtg"ecttfi"tgegxcpv"wp
hnwz"nwokpgwz"wpkhqtofiogpv"tfirctvk"fg
3"Nwogp0

Calcul de l'éclairement gp"wp"rqkpv


fÓwpg"uwthceg"gp"hqpevkqp"fg
nÓkpvgpukvfi"nwokpgwug"<
NÓfiencktgogpv"gp"wp"rqkpv"guv"kpxgtugogpv"rtqrqtvkqppgn"cw"ecttfi"fg"nc"fkuvcpeg"fg"nc
uqwteg"fg"nwokfltg0"Uk"qp"fqwdng"nc"fkuvcpeg."qp"fiencktg"6"*4)"?"4"z"4+"hqku"oqkpu0

Exemple <"wpg"ncorg"fg"97"Y"fiogv"3222"Nwogpu0"Gnng"fiencktg"wp"owt" "7"o"fg


fkuvcpeg0

NÓfiencktgogpv"guv"fg"<

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

NÓfiencktgogpv"guv"fiicngogpv"hqpevkqp"fg"nÓcping"kpekfgpv"fw"tc{qppgogpv"fg"nc
uqwteg0

Exemple <"Oguwtg"cxge"wp"cping"fg"67̇."ncorg"fg"97"Y" "7"o"fw"owt0


Nc"hqtowng"guv"fg"<

Luminance :
Nc"nwokpcpeg"eqttgurqpf"cw"pqodtg
fg"ecpfgnc"rct"o4"fg"uwthceg
crrctgpvg0
Gnng"ectcevfitkug"nÓcurgev"nwokpgwz
fÓwpg"uwthceg"fiencktfig"qw"fÓwpg
uqwteg"fcpu"wpg"fktgevkqp"rtfiekug0
Wpg"uqwteg"nwokpgwug"rtkocktg
*rtqlgevgwt+"qw"ugeqpfcktg"*uwthceg
tfihnfiejkuucpvg+"fiogv"xgtu"nÓÍkn"fgu
tc{qpu"nwokpgwz0"Nc"uqoog"fg"egu
tc{qpu"nwokpgwz"hqtog"nÓkocig"fg"nc
uqwteg"fg"nwokfltg"uwt"nc tfivkpg0"Nc"nwokpcpeg"fÓwpg"uwthceg"ffirgpf"fw"hnwz"nwokpgwz
tg›w."fw"fgitfi"fg"tfihngzkqp"fg"egvvg"uwthceg"gv"fg"nc"fktgevkqp"fÓqdugtxcvkqp"rct
tcrrqtv" "nc"uqwteg"nwokpgwug"fiencktcpv"egvvg"uwthceg0
Symbole : N
Unité : ecpfgnc"rct"o4"*Ef1o4+

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Fkurgtukqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"*rct"wp"rtkuog+

Dispersion de la lumière par un prisme


Rtqlgvqpu"wpg"nwokfltg"dncpejg"uwt"wp"rtkuog"*uqnkfg"vtkcpiwncktg"vtcpurctgpv"swk
fkurgtug"ngu"tc{qpu"nwokpgwz+"<"wp urgevtg eqnqtfi"crrctc v"uwt"ng"uwrrqtv"dncpe
fkurqufi"fgttkfltg"ng"rtkuog0

Ngu eqwngwtu fÓwp cte/gp/ekgn xqpv fw xkqngv cw tqwig gp rcuucpv rct nÓkpfkiq. ng dngw.
ng xgtv. ng lcwpg gv nÓqtcpig0 Eg rjfipqoflpg guv f̂ nc ffieqorqukvkqp fgu tc{qpu fw
uqngkn"cw"vtcxgtu"fgu"iqwvvgu"fg"rnwkg0"EÓguv"nÓgzrfitkgpeg"fw"rtkuog"gp"oknkgw"pcvwtgn0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Ffihkpkvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg

Définition de la lumière
Nc"nwokfltg"guv"nc"rctvkg"fgu"qpfgu"fingevtqocipfivkswgu"*Q0G0O0+"xkukdng"rct"nÓqgkn
jwockp0"Rqwt"swg"nc"nwokfltg"uqkv"rgt›wg."gnng"fqkv"cvvgkpftg"ngu"egnnwngu"fg"nÓqgkn."uqkv
fktgevgogpv."uqkv"rct"tfihngzkqp"uwt"wpg"uwthceg0
Ngu"qpfgu"vqwejcpv"wpg"uwthceg"uqpv"gp"rctvkg"cduqtdfigu"gv"gp"rctvkg"tfihnfiejkgu"rct
egnng/ek0"Ngu"qpfgu"tfihnfiejkgu"cvvgkipcpv"pqvtg"qgkn"qpv"ngu"ectcevfitkuvkswgu"rgtogvvcpv
fÓkfgpvkhkgt"nc"uwthceg0"Ucpu"nwokfltg"swk"cvvgkpv"wpg"uwthceg."egnng/ek"pg"rqwttckv"tgpxq{gt
fÓqpfgu"gv"pg"ugtckv"rcu"xkukdng0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"@"Crrctgkn"fg"oguwtg"fg"nc"nwokfltg"<"ng"Nwzoflvtg

Appareil de mesure de la lumière : le luxmètre


Ng"nwzoflvtg"tgnflxg"nc"swcpvkvfi"fg"nwokfltg"cttkxcpv"uwt"wpg"uwthceg0"Egvvg"fqppfig"guv
wvkng"rct"gzgorng"gp"owufiqitcrjkg"q́"ngu"Íwxtgu"gzrqufigu"uqpv"uqwokugu" "fgu
fiencktgogpvu tfiingogpvfiu"<
Exemple <"itcxwtgu"fw"ZXKKg ukfleng"<"fiencktgogpv"fg"72 Nwz rgpfcpv"fgwz"oqku"qw
fg"322"Nwz"rgpfcpv"3"oqku0

Cw/fgn "fg"egu"vgoru"fÓgzrqukvkqp."nc"nwokfltg"gpfqoocig"hqtvgogpv"ngu"qgwxtgu"gv
rgwv" "vgtog"ngu"ffivtwktg"eqornflvgogpv0"FÓcwvtgu"oknkgwz"qpv"uqwxgpv"dguqkp"fg
tgngxfiu"fÓfiencktgogpv."eqoog"ng"oknkgw"wtdckp"qw"ctejkvgevwtcn."q́"fgu"pqtogu
uvtkevgu"uqpv"crrnkswfigu0

Kn"gzkuvg deux types de luxmètres." "egnnwng"kpvfiitfig"qw" "egnnwng"ufirctfig0"Rqwt"hcktg


wpg"dqppg"oguwtg."kn"guv"pfieguucktg"fÓcrrnkswgt"nc"egnnwng"dkgp" "rncv"uwt"nc"uwthceg"
oguwtgt"gv"fg"pg"rcu"etfigt"fÓqodtg"gpvtg"nc"uqwteg"gv"nc"uwthceg0"É"pqvgt"swg"ng
urgevceng"xkxcpv"c"oqkpu"dguqkp"fg"tgngxfiu"gp"Nwz."nÓqgkn"jwockp"fivcpv"ng"tfihfitgpv
rtkpekrcn"fg"nc"okug"gp"nwokfltg0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"eqwngwt

Perception de la couleur
Nc"eqwngwt."vgnng"swÓgnng"guv"rgt›wg"rct"ng"egtxgcw."guv"wpg"ugpucvkqp"rj{ukqnqikswg
nkfig" "vtqku"hcevgwtu"<
nc"eqwngwt"fg"nÓqdlgv
nc"eqwngwt"fg"nc"nwokfltg"fiencktcpv"egv"qdlgv
ngu"rtqrtkfivfiu"fg"nÓÍkn"rgtegxcpv"nc"nwokfltg"fiocpcpv"fg"nÓqdlgv0

Couleur de l’objet
Fkurquqpu"uwt"wpg"vcdng"vtqku"hgwknngu"fg"rcrkgtu"fg"eqwngwtu"fkhhfitgpvgu"*tqwig.
lcwpg"gv"dngw+0
Uk"pqwu"ngu"tgictfqpu"cxge"wpg"nwokfltg"dncpejg"gv"swg"pqwu"rgtegxqpu"ngu
fkhhfitgpvgu"eqwngwtu."egnc"xgwv"fktg"swg"nc"rtgokfltg"hgwknng"fg"rcrkgt"tqwig"cduqtdg
vqwvgu"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu"ucwh"ng"tqwig."nc"ugeqpfg"tgpxqkg"wpkswgogpv"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu
lcwpgu"crtflu"cxqkt"cduqtdfi"vqwvgu"ngu"cwvtgu"gv"fg"o‒og"rqwt"nc"hgwknng"dngwg0
Wpg"hgwknng"fg"rcrkgt"dncpe"tgpxqkg"vqwvgu"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu0
Wp"eqtru"fg"eqwngwt"pqktg"cduqtdg"cw"eqpvtcktg"swcukogpv"vqwvgu"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu
*rgpftknnqpu"pqktu"fg"vjfi¤vtg"rct"gzgorng+0

Couleur de la lumière éclairant cet objet


Nc"eqwngwt"fÓwp"qdlgv"guv"nkfig" "nc"nwokfltg"swk"nÓfiencktg0"Rtgpqpu"wp"qdlgv"swk"rctc v"fg
eqwngwt"lcwpg" "nc"nwokfltg"fw"lqwt0"Gencktfi"rct"wpg"nwokfltg"tqwig."egv"qdlgv"rctc vtc
tqwig"enckt0"Gencktfi"rct"wpg"nwokfltg"xgtvg."kn"rctc vtc"dtwp0"Uk"pqwu"fiencktqpu"egv"qdlgv
cxge"wpg"uqwteg oqpqejtqocvkswg qtcpig."ng"lcwpg"pÓguv"rcu"fioku"gv"pg"rqwttc"rcu
‒vtg"tgpxq{fi"xgtu"nÓÍkn0"Egvvg"uwthceg"rctc vtc"pqktg0

Propriétés de l’œil
NÓqgkn"fg"nÓqdugtxcvgwt"guv"pqtocngogpv"vtkejtqocvkswg"ocku"ejcswg"kpfkxkfw"c"wpg
rgtegrvkqp"fkhhfitgpvg"fgu"eqwngwtu0"Ng"pqodtg"fg"e»pgu"gv"fg"d¤vqppgvu"fkhhfltg"rqwt
ejcswg"‒vtg"jwockp"gv"ejcewp"kpvgtrtflvg"nc"nwokfltg"ugnqp"uqp"rtqrtg"xfiew0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Fkhhfitgpvgu"vjfiqtkgu"fg"nc"nwokfltg

Différentes théories de la lumière


Ugnqp"Jw{igpu"*384;/38;7+"finflxg"fg"Fguectvgu."nc"nwokfltg"guv"nÓcffkvkqp"fg"fgwz
rgtvwtdcvkqpu"qpfwncvqktgu"<"nÓwpg"ocipfivkswg."nÓcwvtg"fingevtkswg."fixqnwcpv"fcpu"fgwz
rncpu"rgtrgpfkewncktgu0

Uwkxcpv"nc"vjfiqtkg"fg"Pgyvqp"*3865/3949+"nc"nwokfltg"ug"eqorqtvg"eqoog"wp
hckuegcw"fg"rctvkewngu"ejctifigu"fÓfipgtikg."fqpv"nc"xcngwt"fipgtifivkswg"guv"rtqrtg"
ejcswg"tcfkcvkqp0

Cw"oknkgw"fw"ZKZg"ukfleng."Oczygnn"gzrnkswg"swg"eqtrwuewngu"gv"qpfgu"uqpv"fgu
cpcnqikgu"rj{ukswgu0"NÓfingevtqocipfivkuog"guv"wpg"rgtvwtdcvkqp"swk"ug"rtqrcig"rct
wpg"qpfg0"Kn"gp"ffifwktc"swg"nc"nwokfltg"guv"wpg"qpfg"fingevtqocipfivkswg"*Q0G0O0+

Cw"ffidwv"fw"ZZg"ukfleng."Gkpuvgkp"cxcpeg"wpg"pqwxgnng"j{rqvjflug"<"nc"nwokfltg"guv
hqtofig"fg"itckpu"fÓfipgtikg"swk"ug"rtqrcigpv."ngu"Å"swcpvc"Ç."swk"ugtqpv"crrgnfiu"ngu"Å
rjqvqpu"Ç"gp"3;4:0"Nc"vjfiqtkg"qpfwncvqktg"tguvg"swcpf"o‒og"xcncdng0

Nqwku"fg"Dtqinkg"*3:;4/3;:9+."rj{ukekgp"htcp›cku."hqpfg"nc"ofiecpkswg"qpfwncvqktg"gp
oqpvtcpv"swg"vqwv"eqtrwuewng."gv"rct"ifipfitcnkucvkqp"vqwvg"rctvkewng."ug"eqorqtvg
eqoog"wpg"qpfg0

Qp"cfogv"ifipfitcngogpv"swg"nc"etficvkqp"fgu"rjqvqpu"guv"fwg" "wp"ejcpigogpv"fg
pkxgcw"fgu"fingevtqpu"rcuucpv"fÓwpg"eqwejg"uwrfitkgwtg" "wpg"eqwejg"kphfitkgwtg"fgu
cvqogu"cwvqwt"fguswgnu"knu"itcxkvgpv0"Ngu"eqwejgu"kphfitkgwtgu"fg"egu"cvqogu"fivcpv
fÓfipgtikg"kphfitkgwtg."ng"uwtrnwu"fÓfipgtikg"fg"nÓfingevtqp"guv"tfifioku"uqwu"hqtog"fg
rjqvqpu0"Ngu"rjqvqpu"uqpv"cnqtu"iwkffiu"rct"wp"vtckp"fÓqpfgu0
La lumière est à la fois ondes et corpuscules.

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"@"Ng"ofiecpkuogu"fg"nc"xkukqp

Le mécanisme de la vision
Formation de l'image rétinienne
NÓÍkn"ug"eqorqtvg"eqoog"wpg"ejcodtg"pqktg0"Ngu"oknkgwz"vtcpurctgpvu"fg"nÓÍkn
hqtogpv"wpg"kocig"fgu"qdlgvu"gzvfitkgwtu"uwt"nc tfivkpg0
Vtqku"hcevgwtu"eqoocpfgpv"nÓgzekvcvkqp"fg"nc"tfivkpg"<
La longueur d’onde <"gpvtg"5:2"gv"9:2"po. urgevtg xkukdng"rct"n)Íkn"jwockp0
L’intensité <"rqwt"swÓwpg"nwokfltg"uqkv"rgt›wg."kn"hcwv"swg"uqp"kpvgpukvfi"nwokpgwug"uqkv
uwrfitkgwtg" "wp"egtvckp"ugwkn"nkokvg0
La durée <"rqwt"swÓwp"fiencv"nwokpgwz"uqkv"rgt›w."kn"hcwv"swg"uc"fwtfig"uqkv"cw
okpkowo"fg"wp"oknnkqpkflog"fg"ugeqpfg0
Nc"dqwikg"gpxqkg"fgu"tc{qpu"nwokpgwz"xgtu"nc"tfivkpg0"NÓkocig"cttkxg"kpxgtufig"cw"hqpf
fg"nÓÍkn"gv"guv"Å"tgokug" "nÓgpftqkv"Ç"rct"ng"egtxgcw0

Persistance rétienne
Uqwu"nÓcevkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg."fgu"kphnwz"pgtxgwz"crrctckuugpv"cw"pkxgcw"fg"nc"tfivkpg0
Egu"kphnwz"rgtukuvgpv"uwt"egnng/ek"rgpfcpv"3172g" "3152g"fg"ugeqpfg"crtflu"nc"hkp"fg
nÓgzekvcvkqp"nwokpgwug0
Nc"rgtukuvcpeg"tfivkpkgppg"rgtogv"gp"rctvkewnkgt"nc"ekpfiocvqitcrjkg"gv"nc"vfinfixkukqp0
Gp"ghhgv."wpg"uweeguukqp"tcrkfg"fÓkocigu"hkzgu"fqppg"nÓknnwukqp"fw"oqwxgogpv0
Rct"gzgorng."ng"ekpfioc"fÓcocvgwt"wvknkug"wpg"uweeguukqp"fg"38"kocigu"rct"ugeqpfg
*eg"swk"eqttgurqpf" "wp"vgoru"fg"3154g"fg"ugeqpfg"fg"rtqlgevkqp"rct"kocig+"vcpfku
swg"ng"ekpfioc"rtqhguukqppgn"wvknkug"wpg"uweeguukqp"fg"46"kocigu"rct"ugeqpfg
*vgoru"fg"rtqlgevkqp"fg"ejcswg"kocig"316:g"fg"ugeqpfg+

Subjectivité de la vision
Ng"ofiecpkuog"fg"nc"xkukqp"guv"eqorngzg"gv"ogv"gp"lgw"rnwukgwtu"rjfipqoflpgu"<
rj{ukswg"<"hqtocvkqp"fg"nÓkocig"uwt"nc"tfivkpg
rj{ukqnqikswg"<"vtcpuokuukqp"fg"nÓkocig"gp"ukipcwz"eqffiu"vtcpuoku"cw"egtxgcw
ru{ejqrj{ukqnqikswg"<"vtcpuhqtocvkqp"fgu"ukipcwz"eqffiu"gp"rgtegrvkqp"xkuwgnng"swk
hckv"crrgn" "fkhhfitgpvu"v{rgu"fg ofioqktgu *xwg."vqwejgt."iq̂v."qfqtcvÈ+

Experiences
Expérience 1 :
Kpvgtrtfivcvkqp"fg"nc"xkukqp"rct"ng"egtxgcw"<

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Hc vgu"hcktg"eg"vguv" "wpg"rgtuqppg"gv"fgocpfg|/nwk"fg"nktg"eg"swk"guv"fietkv0
Nc"tfirqpug"ugtc"htfiswgoogpv"ÐU¡NGUVCV"CW"OQKU"FG"OCKÑ."eg"swk"ffioqpvtg
nÓkpvgtrtfivcvkqp"fw"egtxgcw" "nktg"qw"xqkt"eg"swÓkn"xgwv"dkgp"È

Expérience 2 :
Egu"fgwz"tqpfu"pqktu"uqpv/knu"fg"fkcoflvtgu"fkhhfitgpvu"A

Rct"ng"lgw"fgu"egtengu"pqktu."ngu"tqpfu"pqktu"rctckuugpv"fg"fkcoflvtgu"fkhhfitgpvu0"Qt."knu
uqpv"kfgpvkswgu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Xkukqp"fgu"eqwngwtu

Vision des couleurs


Contraste des couleurs
NÓÍkn"rgt›qkv"wpg"eqwngwt."nÓgptgikuvtg"gv"vtcpuogv"wp"oguucig"eqffi"cw"egtxgcw"rct
ngu"pgthu"qrvkswgu0"Uk"nc"xkukqp"guv"rtqnqpifig."kn"crrctc v"wpg"uqtvg"fg"hcvkiwg"fgu
finfiogpvu"rjqvqugpukdngu"fg"nc tfivkpg0"Pqvtg"Íkn"pg"xqkv"rcu"fg"nc"o‒og"ocpkfltg"wpg
uwthceg"eqnqtfig"cw"ffidwv"gv"crtflu"wp"egtvckp"vgoru"fÓqdugtxcvkqp0

Gp"eqpvtcuvg"fg"eqwngwtu."ng
vtkcping"tqwig"rctc v"oqkpu
ucvwtfi"uwt"ng"hqpf"tqug"swg
uwt"ng"hqpf"xgtv0

Propriétés des couleurs


NÓÍkn"cuuqekg" "wpg"eqwngwt"ngu"vtqku"etkvfltgu"uwkxcpvu"<
La teinte <
Gp"ncpicig"eqwtcpv"gnng"uÓgzrtkog"rct"fgu"cflgevkhu"vgnu"swg"<"tqwig."xgtv."lcwpg"qw
rct"fgu"eqodkpckuqpu"vgnngu"swg"tqwig/qtcpig."xgtv/lcwpg."dngw/xgtv0
Gnng"guv"ffivgtokpfig"gp eqnqtkofivtkg rct"wpg"nqpiwgwt"fÓqpfg"fqokpcpvg"fg"nc"eqwngwt
eqpukffitfig."rct"gzgorng"nc"eqwngwt"lcwpg/xgtv"c"wpg"nqpiwgwt"fÓqpfg"fg"2.777
oketqpu0

La pureté <
Gnng"kpfkswg"eqoogpv"nc"eqwngwt"eqpukffitfig"ug"tcrrtqejg"rnwu"qw"oqkpu"fg"nc
eqwngwt"rwtg"eqttgurqpfcpvg0"Fcpu"ng"ncpicig"wuwgn."nc"rwtgvfi"ug"vtcfwkv"rct"ngu
vgtogu"$rwt$."$ucvwtfi$."$ncxfi$0

Rtgpqpu wp rtqlgevgwt cxge wp hknvtg dngw rtqhqpf rtqlgvcpv uc nwokfltg uwt wp hqpf
dncpe0 Wp cwvtg rtqlgevgwt. ucpu hknvtg. uÓcnnwog uwt nc vcejg fg dngw0 Nc vcejg dngwg
xc r¤nkt cw hwt gv oguwtg swg nÓkpvgpukvfi fw rtqlgvgwt dncpe oqpvg0 Qp qdvkgpv ckpuk
wpg"nctig"icoog"fg"dngwu0

L’intensité <
Ug"vtcfwkv"fcpu"ng"ncpicig"eqwtcpv"rct"ngu"vgtogu"<"$kpvgpug$."$hckdng$."$"nwokpqukvfi$.
$dtknncpeg$0"NÓkpvgpukvfi"c"wp"nkgp"fivtqkv"cxge"nc"eqwngwt0"Gp"ghhgv."qp"cfogvvtc"fg
rcuugt"wpg"uqktfig"$cwz"ejcpfgnngu$"fcpu"wpg"codkcpeg"fg"eqwngwt"$ejcwfg$"ocku
kocikpqpu"ockpvgpcpv"nc"o‒og"kpvgpukvfi"nwokpgwug"cxge"wpg"nwokfltg"v{rg hnwqu <
egvvg"codkcpeg"htqkfg" "hckdng"kpvgpukvfi"guv"fkhhkekngogpv"uwrrqtvcdng0
Le diagramme de Krüithof

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Eg"fkcitcoog"ogv"gp
fixkfgpeg"nc"|qpg"fg
vgorfitcvwtgu"fg"eqwngwtu
citficdngu"rqwt"wp
fiencktgogpv fqppfi0"Qp
kpfkswg"fiicngogpv"uwt"eg
fkcitcoog"wp"vwdg
hnwqtguegpv"cnnwofi" "hckdng
kpvgpukvfi0"Egvvg"nwokfltg"ug
vtqwxg"gp"fgjqtu"fg"nc"|qpg
fg"eqphqtv"xkuwgn0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Wpkvfi"fg"oguwtg

Unité de mesure
Wpg"qpfg"fingevtqocipfivkswg"*Q0G0O0+"guv"ffihkpkg"rct"nc"nqpiwgwt"fÓqpfg"N."nc
rfitkqfg"V"gv"nÓcornkvwfg"C0"Nc"nqpiwgwt"fÓqpfg"guv"gzrtkofig"gp"oflvtg"ocku"uqp
uqwu/ownvkrng."ng"pcpqoflvtg"*po"/32/;"o+"guv"wvknkufi0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"@"Itcpfgwtu"tcfkqofivtkswgu

Grandeurs radiométriques
(mesure de grandeurs physiques)
La radiométrie mesure les caractéristiques énergétiques du rayonnement :
Hnwz"fipgtifivkswg"*gp Ycvv."u{odqng"Y+
Kpvgpukvfi"fipgtifivkswg"*gp"Ycvv1Uvfitcfkcp."u{odqng"<"Y1ut+
Nwokpcpeg"fipgtifivkswg"*gp"Ycvv1o4"z"uvfitcfkcp."u{odqng"<"Y1o40ut+
Gencktgogpv"fipgtifivkswg"*gp"Ycvv1o."u{odqng"<"Y1o+

Flux énergétique : le Watt


EÓguv"nc"rwkuucpeg"fingevtkswg"fÓwpg"uqwteg"fg"nwokfltg0"Wp"ycvv"guv"nc"rwkuucpeg
fÓwpg"uqwteg"fg"nwokfltg"fcpu"ncswgnng"guv"vtcpuhfitfig"wpg"fipgtikg"fg"3"lqwng"rgpfcpv
3"ugeqpfg0"Fcpu"ng"ecu"fÓwpg"ncorg" "kpecpfguegpeg"cnkogpvfig"gp"442"X
oqpqrjcufi."eÓguv"ng"rtqfwkv"fg"nc vgpukqp *W+"rct"nÓkpvgpukvfi"*K+"vtcxgtucpv"ng hkncogpv0
*R"?"W"z"K+
Symbole : R
Unité : Ycvv"*Y+

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rgtegrvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"@"N)cewkvfi"xkuwgnng

L'acuité visuelle
Nc"eqwngwt"guv"rgtegrvkdng" "rctvkt"fÓwpg"egtvckpg"kpvgpukvfi"fg"nwokfltg."crrgnfig"ugwkn
ejtqocvkswg0

Uqwu"wp"fiencktcig"uwhhkucpv."ngu"e»pgu"gpvtgpv"gp"cevkqp0"Nc"xkukqp"guv"eqnqtfig0"Eg
v{rg"fg"xkukqp"guv"crrgnfi “vision photopique”0

Nqtuswg"nÓfiencktgogpv fkokpwg"*xkukqp"pqevwtpg+."vqwvg"pqvkqp"fg"eqwngwt"fkurctc v0
Qp"rgt›qkv"ng"oqpfg"gp"pqkt"gv"dncpe"*Å"nc"pwkv"vqwu"ngu"ejcvu"uqpv"itku"Ç+0"Eg"v{rg"fg
xkukqp"guv"crrgnfi “vision scotopique”0

Wp"vtqkukflog"v{rg"fg"xkukqp"gzkuvg."nc “vision mésopique”0"Swcpf"ng"Uqngkn"ug


eqwejg."eÓguv"ng"rcuucig"fg"nc"xkukqp"rjqvqrkswg" "nc"xkukqp"ueqvqrkswg"*Å"gpvtg
ejkgpu"gv"nqwru"Ç+0"Rgpfcpv"egvvg"rfitkqfg."nc"xkukqp"rgwv"rctc vtg"wp"rgw"Å"hnqwg"Ç."ngu
eqpvqwtu"fgu"qdlgvu"pg"uqpv"rcu"cwuuk"rtfieku"swÓgp"xkukqp"rjqvqrkswg0

Nc ugpukdknkvfi fg nÓÍkn pÓguv rcu eqpuvcpvg ugnqp nc nqpiwgwt fÓqpfg fg nc tcfkcvkqp


rgt›wg0 Egvvg ugpukdknkvfi c wpg hqtog fg enqejg cxge wp oczkowo fg ugpukdknkvfi
fcpu"ng"xgtv/lcwpg" "777"po"gv"fgwz"okpkoc"fcpu"ng"dngw"gv"ng"tqwig0

Courbe de sensibilité de l’œil normalisée par la Commission Internationale de


l’Eclairage

Lorsque l’intensité de l’éclairage diminue, la sensibilité de l’œil se décale vers


la gauche

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

NÓÍkn"jwockp"pÓguv"rcu"ugpukdng"cwz"wnvtcxkqngvu"rcteg"swg"ng"etkuvcnnkp"pÓguv"rcu
cuug|"vtcpurctgpv"rqwt"nckuugt"rcuugt"egu"tcfkcvkqpu0"Swcpv"cw urgevtg kphtctqwig."kn
rctxkgpv"lwuswÓcwz"rjqvqtfiegrvgwtu"ocku"nÓÍkn"pg"rquuflfg"rcu"fg"rkiogpvu"xkuwgnu
cfcrvfiu"rqwt"ng"rgtegxqkt0

Cas particulier : le daltonisme


NÓqdugtxcvgwt pqtocn guv eqpukffitfi eqoog vtkejtqocvkswg / uqp Íkn tficikv vtqku
eqwngwtu hqpfcogpvcngu *tqwig. xgtv gv dngw+ / eg swk nwk uwhhkv rqwt cxqkt nc ugpucvkqp
fg vqwvgu ngu eqwngwtu0 Nc rtkpekrcng cpqocnkg guv ng Å vtkejtqocvkuog cpqtocn Ç <
xkukqp fg vtqku eqwngwtu hqpfcogpvcngu. ocku nc eqwtdg urgevtcng fg nÓqgkn uÓfiectvg
dgcweqwr fg nc oq{gppg0 EÓguv uqwxgpv xgtu ngu eqwngwtu tqwig. tqwig1qtcpifi swg
ug"ocpkhguvgpv"ngu"ffihkekgpegu0
Egu cpqocnkgu fg nc xkukqp fgu eqwngwtu qpv fivfi fivwfkfigu rct ng efinfldtg ejkokuvg
Fcnvqp *3988/3:66+ fÓq́ ng pqo fg Å fcnvqpkgpu Ç fqppfi cwz rgtuqppgu ngu rnwu
cvvgkpvgu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Egteng"ejtqocvkswg

Cercle chromatique
Accès aux sous-titres :
Egteng"ejtqocvkswg
U{pvjflug"cffkvkxg
U{pvjflug"uqwuvtcevkxg

Cercle chromatique
Ng"egteng"ejtqocvkswg"guv"nc"tgrtfiugpvcvkqp"itcrjkswg"fg"nc"ffieqorqukvkqp"fgu
vgkpvgu"fw urgevtg nwokpgwz"gp eqwngwtu"rtkocktgu."ugeqpfcktgu"gv"eqornfiogpvcktgu0
Primaires <"eqwngwtu"*Tqwig/Xgtv/Dngw+"swk"pg"rgwxgpv"‒vtg"qdvgpwgu"rct"cwewp
ofincpig"ocku"fqpv"ng"ofincpig"rgtogv"fÓqdvgpkt"vqwvgu"ngu"cwvtgu"eqwngwtu0
Secondaires <"eqwngwtu"qdvgpwgu"*E{cp/Ocigpvc/Lcwpg+"rct"ng"ofincpig"fg"fgwz
rtkocktgu0
Complémentaires <"gp"hceg"fg"ejcswg"eqwngwt"rtkocktg"uwt"ng"egteng"ug"vtqwxg"uc
eqwngwt"eqornfiogpvcktg0
Couleurs primaires Couleurs secondaires Couleurs complémentaires
tqwig e{cp tqwig"gv"e{cp

xgtv ocigpvc xgtv"gv"ocigpvc

dngw lcwpg dngw"gv"lcwpg


Cercle chromatique

Jcwv"fg"rcig

Synthèse additive
Nc"u{pvjflug"cffkvkxg"guv"nÓcffkvkqp"uwt"wp"o‒og"gurceg"fg"rnwukgwtu"eqwngwtu"swk
xqpv"gp"etfigt"fÓcwvtgu0"Rct"eqodkpckuqp"fg"fgwz"eqwngwtu"rtkocktgu."pqwu"qdvgpqpu
vqwvgu"ngu"vgkpvgu"ugeqpfcktgu"*e{cp."ocigpvc"gv"lcwpg+0
Gp"ofincpigcpv"wpg"eqwngwt"rtkocktg"cxge"uc"eqornfiogpvcktg."pqwu"qdvgpqpu"fw
dncpe"*gp"rtqlgvcpv"wpg"ftqkvg"uwt"ng"egteng"gpvtg"wpg"eqwngwt"rtkocktg"gv"uc
eqornfiogpvcktg."nc"ftqkvg"rcuug"rct"ng"egpvtg"swk"guv"ng"dncpe+0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Gzrfitkgpeg <
Uk"pqwu"rtgpqpu"vtqku"rtqlgevgwtu"cxge"ngu"hknvtgu"fgu"eqwngwtu"rtkocktgu"*tqwig."xgtv
gv"dngw+"rtqlgvfiu"nfiifltgogpv"ffiecnfiu"uwt"wpg"uwthceg"dncpejg."pqwu"qdvgpqpu"wpg
vcejg"dncpejg"cw"egpvtg0"Ngu"cwvtgu"eqwngwtu"qdvgpwgu"uqpv"ngu"ugeqpfcktgu"*e{cp.
ocigpvc."lcwpg+0

Ng"dncpe"guv"cw"egpvtg"fw"egteng."kn"guv"nÓcffkvkqp"fg"vqwvgu"egu"eqwngwtu0

Couleurs complémentaires (bleu + jaune =blanc)

Récapitulatif de la synthèse additive (les couleurs sont projetées par deux


projecteurs différents)

tqwig"-"xgtv"?"lcwpg
dngw"-"xgtv"?"e{cp
dngw"-"tqwig"?"ocigpvc
Eqwngwtu"eqornfiogpvcktgu
xgtv"-"ocigpvc"?"dncpe
dngw"-"lcwpg"?"dncpe
tqwig"-"e{cp"?"dncpe
Rouge + Vert + Bleu = Blanc
Jcwv"fg"rcig

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Synthèse soustractive
EÓguv"ng"oqfg"fg"etficvkqp"fgu"eqwngwtu"rct uqwuvtcevkqp "nc"nwokfltg"dncpejg"fgu
eqwngwtu"tqwigu."xgtvgu"gv"dngwgu."gp"wvknkucpv"fgu"hknvtgu"e{cp."ocigpvc"gv"lcwpg0
Ngu"pwcpegu"kpvgtofifkcktgu"uqpv"qdvgpwgu"gp"hckucpv"xctkgt"nÓcduqtrvkqp fgu"hknvtgu0
Gp"tficnkvfi."ngu"vtqku"eqwngwtu"tfiwpkgu"pg"fqppgpv"rcu"wp"ÐdgcwÑ"pqkt."ocku"wp"ÐxknckpÑ
dgkig0
Fcpu"nc"rtcvkswg."nc"u{pvjflug"uqwuvtcevkxg"guv"ng"hckv"fg"rncegt"fgwz"hknvtgu"fg"eqwngwt
fgxcpv"wp"o‒og"rtqlgevgwt0"EÓguv"cwuuk"ng"u{uvflog"rgtogvvcpv"fÓqdvgpkt"wpg"nctig
icoog"fg"eqwngwtu"fcpu"ngu"rtqlgevgwtu"cwvqocvkufiu0
Récapitulatif de la synthèse soustractive

e{cp"-"ocigpvc"?"dngw
e{cp"-"lcwpg"?"xgtv
lcwpg"-"ocigpvc"?"tqwig
Cyan + Magenta + Jaune = Noir
Jcwv"fg"rcig

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Xkvguug"fg"nc"nwokfltg

Vitesse de la lumière
Ng"tc{qppgogpv"nwokpgwz"ug"ffirnceg"gp"nkipg"ftqkvg"fcpu"vqwu"ngu"oknkgwz"/"{
eqortku"ng"xkfg"/"eqpvtcktgogpv"cw"uqp"swk"c"dguqkp"fgu"rgvkvgu"rctvkewngu"fg"nÓckt
eqoog"uwrrqtv"fg"fkhhwukqp0

Uc"xkvguug"guv"fg"522"222"mo1u"fcpu"ng"xkfg"qw"fcpu"nÓckt0"EÓguv"nc"xkvguug"nkokvg"fg
nÓwpkxgtu."crrgnfig"xkvguug"fg"nc"nwokfltg0"Cwewp"qdlgv"c{cpv"wpg"ocuug"pg"rgwv"ug
ffirncegt"cwuuk"xkvg0

La lumière se transmet à des vitesses différentes dans plusieurs milieux (l’air,


le vide, l’eau…) :

ckt/xkfg"522"222"mo1u
gcw"447"222"mo1u
xgttg"422"222"mo1u
fkcocpv"346"722"mo1u

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"rjqvqofivtkg"@"Rtqrtkfivfiu"qrvkswgu

Propriétés optiques

Accès aux sous-titres :


Tfihngzkqp
Cduqtrvkqp
Tfihtcevkqp
Rtqrcicvkqp
Vtcpuokuukqp

Wp"tc{qp"nwokpgwz"tgpeqpvtg"wpg"uwthceg."eg"tc{qp"guv"gp"rctvkg"tfihnfiejk"gv"cduqtdfi0

Réflexion
Gnng"rgwv"‒vtg"tfiiwnkfltg."fkhhwug."ufingevkxg."pqp"ufingevkxg
Réflexion régulière

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nc"uwthceg"tgpxqkg"wpg"rctvkg"fgu"qpfgu"nwokpgwugu"fcpu"wp"cping"fiicn"cw"tc{qp
kpekfgpv"*tc{qp"swk"cttkxg"uwt"nc"uwthceg+0"NÓcping"fg"tfihngzkqp"guv"fiicn" "nÓcping"fw
tc{qp"kpekfgpv"*c"?"d+0
Egvvg"uwthceg"guv"rgtegrvkdng"rct"nÓqgkn"rcteg"swÓgnng"tfihnfiejkv"fg"nc"nwokfltg0
Réflexion diffuse

Wp"eqtru"ocv"c"wpg"tfihngzkqp"fkhhwug"*uwthceg"ffirqnkg."hknvtg"ffirqnk+0
Réflexion sélective
Wpg"tfihngzkqp"ufingevkxg"tgpxqkg"rtkpekrcngogpv"fgu"tc{qpu"nwokpgwz"fg"nc"vgkpvg"fg"nc
uwthceg"fiencktfig0
Réflexion non sélective
Wpg"tfihngzkqp"pqp"ufingevkxg"tgpxqkg"vqwu"ngu"tc{qpu"nwokpgwz"*hgwknng"fg"rcrkgt"dncpe.
rct"gzgorng+0
Jcwv"fg"rcig

Absorption

NÓcduqtrvkqp rgwv/‒vtg"vqvcng"qw"rctvkgnng0"EÓguv"wpg"dckuug"fÓkpvgpukvfi"fg"nc"nwokfltg"
fkhhfitgpvgu"nqpiwgwtu"fÓqpfgu"swcpf"gnng"vtcxgtug"wp"ocvfitkcw0
Exemple <"fiencktqpu"wpg"uwthceg"tqwig"cxge"wpg"uqwteg"gpxq{cpv"vqwv"ng urgevtg
nwokpgwz"*UqngknÈ+"Ngu"tc{qpu"tgrctvcpv"fg"nc"uwthceg"uqpv"wpkswgogpv"ngu"tqwigu
ect"ngu"cwvtgu"qpfgu"uqpv"cduqtdfigu"rct"nc"uwthceg0"Uk"wpg"tcfkcvkqp"wpkswgogpv
dngwg"cttkxckv"uwt"egvvg"uwthceg."gnng"ugtckv"eqornflvgogpv"cduqtdfig"gv"pqp"tfihnfiejkg0
Egvvg"uwthceg"tqwig"pg"ugtckv"rcu"xkukdng0
Jcwv"fg"rcig

Réfraction
Ffixkcvkqp"fÓwp"tc{qp"fg"nwokfltg"swcpf"kn"vtcxgtug"wp"ocvfitkcw"vgn"swg"nÓgcw0
Ngu"tc{qpu"nwokpgwz"cttkxcpv"uwt"wp"d¤vqp" "oqkvkfi
rnqpifi"fcpu"nÓgcw"qpv"wpg
vtclgevqktg"fkhhfitgpvg"fcpu"nÓgcw"swg"fcpu"nÓckt0"Ng"d¤vqp
crrctc v"ffihqtofi"cw"pkxgcw"fg"nÓgcw0

Jcwv"fg"rcig

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Propagation
Nc"rtqrcicvkqp"fg"nc"nwokfltg"pÓguv"rcu"hqtefiogpv"nkpficktg"fcpu"vqwvgu"ngu"fktgevkqpu0
Kn"guv"wvkng"fg"ucxqkt"fcpu"swgnngu"fktgevkqpu"nc"nwokfltg"rctvcpv"fÓwpg"ncorg"guv"nc"rnwu
kpvgpug0
Schéma propagation d’une lampe dans une direction donnée

Jcwv"fg"rcig

Transmission
Gnng"rgwv"‒vtg"pqp"ufingevkxg"qw"ufingevkxg0
Fcpu"ng"v{rg"fg"vtcpuokuukqp"pqp"ufingevkxg."vqwvg"nc"nwokfltg"guv"vtcpuokug"*xgttg
vtcpurctgpv"rct"gzgorng+0"Nc"vtcpuokuukqp"ufingevkxg"ctt‒vg"wpg"rctvkg"fgu"tcfkcvkqpu
gv"gp"nckuug"rcuugt"fÓcwvtgu0
EÓguv"ng"t»ng"fw hknvtg"fg"eqwngwt0"Wp"hknvtg"tqwig"nckuug"rcuugt"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu"tqwigu"gv
uvqrrg"rnwu"qw"oqkpu"vqwvgu"ngu"cwvtgu0"Qp"rgwv"qdugtxgt"uwt"ngu"fiejcpvknnqppgwtu"fg
eqwngwtu"vqwvgu"ngu"qpfgu"swg"nckuug"rcuugt"wp"hknvtg0"Egtvckpu"hknvtgu"nckuugpv"rcuugt
vqwu"ngu"dngwu"ocku"fiicngogpv"wp"rgw"fg"tqwig0"O‒og"uk"nc"fqokpcpvg"guv"dngwg"uwt
ng"rncvgcw."wp"equvwog"tqwig"tguvg"rgtegrvkdng0
Jcwv"fg"rcig

Wp"hknvtg"fg"eqwngwt"tqwig"uwt"wp"rtqlgevgwt"nckuug"rcuugt"ngu"qpfgu"tqwigu"ocku
cduqtdg"wpg"rctvkg"fgu"cwvtgu"eqwngwtu0"Gp"cwewp"ecu"ng"hknvtg"pg"Å"eqnqtkg"Ç"nc
nwokfltg"ocku"kn"ctt‒vg"egtvckpgu"qpfgu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"eqwngwt"@"Vgorfitcvwtg"fg"nc"eqwngwt

Température de couleur
Ng"vgtog"ÐvgorfitcvwtgÑ"c"fivfi"tgvgpw"ect"nc"eqwngwt"crrctgpvg"fÓwpg"uqwteg
nwokpgwug"guv"gp"tgncvkqp"cxge"nc"vgorfitcvwtg" "ncswgnng"kn"hcwv"ejcwhhgt"wp"eqtru"pqkt
rqwt"swÓkn"rtqfwkug"wpg"nwokfltg"ugodncdng0"Gnng"ug"oguwtg"gp"fgitfiu"Mgnxkp"*2̇M"?"/
495̇E+0
Symbole : Ve
Unité : Mgnxkp

Ng Å eqtru pqkt Ç guv ng tfihfitgpv swk c rgtoku fg fqppgt wpg wpkvfi gp fgitfiu Mgnxkp
wpg eqwngwt0 Eg eqtru pqkt guv wp eqtru swk cduqtdg kpvfiitcngogpv vqwvgu ngu
tcfkcvkqpu tg›wgu swgnng swg uqkv ngwt nqpiwgwt fÓqpfg0 Eg eqtru ejcwhhfi rgvkv rgvkv
hckv"crrctc vtg"rtqitguukxgogpv"vqwvgu"ngu"eqwngwtu."fw"tqwig"cw"dncpe"dngwvfi0

Rtgpqpu"rct"gzgorng"fw"ejctdqp"fg"dqku0"C"vgorfitcvwtg"codkcpvg."kn"crrctc v"pqkt0
Gp"ffiengpejcpv"uc"eqodwuvkqp."kn"xc"rtqfwktg"wpg"nwokfltg"tqwig"*dtckugu+0"Uk"nÓqp
cevkxg"nc"eqodwuvkqp"cxge"wp"uqwhhngv."qp"tgoctswg"swg"nc"nwokfltg"fiokug"fgxkgpv"fg
rnwu"gp"rnwu"dncpejg." "oguwtg"swg"nc"vgorfitcvwtg"uÓfinflxg0
Échelle de grandeur donnée par température de couleur

Température de couleur Source


1500°K dqwikg."ncorg" "jwkng

2800°K ncorg firkueqrg

3100°K ngxgt"qw"eqwejgt"fg"uqngkn

3200°K ncorg"vwpiuvflpg"jcnqiflpg

5600°K ncorg JOK

7000°K ekgn"dngw"nfiifltgogpv"eqwxgtv

8000°K ekgn"eqwxgtv

Plusieurs étalons existent en ce qui concerne le « blanc » :


Etalon A <"nwokfltg"dncpejg"fiokug"rct"ng"eqtru"pqkt"fqpv"nc"vgorfitcvwtg"guv"fiicng"
4:72̇M0
Kn"tgrtfiugpvg"nÓfiencktcig"ctvkhkekgn"rct"kpecpfguegpeg0

Etalon B <"nwokfltg"dncpejg"fiokug"rct"ng"eqtru"pqkt"fqpv"nc"vgorfitcvwtg"guv"fiicng"
6:22̇M0
nn"tgrtfiugpvg"ugpukdngogpv"fcpu"ng urgevtg xkukdng."nc"nwokfltg"rtqxgpcpv"fktgevgogpv
fw"uqngkn0

Etalon C <"nwokfltg"dncpejg"fiokug"rct"ng"eqtru"pqkt"fqpv"nc"vgorfitcvwtg"guv"rqtvfig"
8722̇M0
Kn"tgrtfiugpvg"nc"oq{gppg"fgu"vgorfitcvwtgu"fg"eqwngwt"fw"ekgn"dngw"*dncpe"fg

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

tfihfitgpeg"rqwt"nc"vfinfixkukqp+0

L’étalon W *Y"?"Yjkvg"?"dncpe+"guv"wpg"uqwteg"hkevkxg"fkvg" "urgevtg"fÓfiicng"fipgtikg.


gv"swk"tc{qppgtckv"nc"o‒og"swcpvkvfi"fÓfipgtikg"rqwt"vqwvgu"ngu"nqpiwgwtu"fÓqpfg0
Egu"swcvtg"fivcnqpu."dkgp"fkhhfitgpvu"ngu"wpu"fgu"cwvtgu."uqpv"vqwu"Å"dncpeu"Ç0"Qp
eqortgpf"hcekngogpv"ockpvgpcpv"rqwtswqk"kn"guv"pfieguucktg"fg"rtfiekugt"fg"swgnng
uqtvg"fg"dncpe"kn"uÓcikv0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

Nwokgtg"@"Rj{ukswg"@"Nc"nwokfltg"@"Uqwteg"fg"nc"nwokfltg

Source de la lumière
Nc"nwokfltg"guv"rtqfwkvg"pqvcoogpv"rct"wpg"uqwteg"nwokpgwug"pcvwtgnng"eqoog"ngu
fivqkngu."fqpv"ng"Uqngkn"*nwokfltg"fktgevg+"gv"rct"fgu"uqwtegu"tfihnfiejkuucpvgu"*eqoog"nc
Nwpg"qw"ngu"qdlgvu"eqwtcpvu"fg"pqvtg"gpvqwtcig+0"EÓguv"nc"rctvkg"fw"tc{qppgogpv
uqncktg"*rqwt"nc"nwokfltg"fw"lqwt+"swk"rctxkgpv"uwt"vgttg"crtflu"cxqkt"vtcxgtufi"ngu
eqwejgu"fg"nÓcvoqurjfltg0"Qp"nÓcrrgnng urgevtg xkukdng0"Egu"qpfgu"uqpv"eqortkugu
gpvtg"5:2"gv"9:2"pcpqoflvtgu"*po+0"Ng"uqngkn"fiogv"vqwvgu"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu"xkukdngu"rct
nÓÍkn"jwockp"rnwu"qw"oqkpu"wpkhqtofiogpv0

Spectre visible émis par le soleil

Spectre entier émis par le soleil

Ngu"qpfgu"xkukdngu"rct"nÓÍkn"jwockp"pÓqeewrgpv"swÓwpg"vqwvg"rgvkvg"rctvkg"fw"urgevtg
fgu"Q0G0O0
NÓÍkn"jwockp"pg"rgwv"rcu"fkuvkpiwgt"ngu"tcfkcvkqpu"cw/fgn "fg"egu"nkokvgu"gv"pg"rgwv
fqpe"xqkt"nÓwnvtcxkqngv"gv"nÓkphtctqwig"* "tgoctswgt"rct"gzgorng"swg"nÓÍkn"fg"nÓcdgknng
guv"ugpukdng"cwz"wnvtcxkqngvu+0
La lumière du jour est divisé en 8 bandes de couleur :

Bandes sensations colorées limites des bandes en nanomètres


3 Xkqngv"hqpefi 5:2/622

4 Xkqngv 622/662

5 Dngw 662/682

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti
eqr{tkijv"Cigpeg"ewnvwtgnng"f)Cnuceg

6 Dngw/Xgtv 682/732

7 Xgtv 732/782

8 Lcwpg 782/832

9 Qtcpig 832/882

: Tqwig 882/9:2

Autres longueurs d’ondes :


Ngu"tc{qppgogpvu"kphtctqwigu"vtcpuhqtogpv"ngwt"fipgtikg"gp"ejcngwt0"Egu
tc{qppgogpvu"uqpv"fioku"rct"ngu"qdlgvu"ejcwfu"vgnu"swg"ngu"tcfkcvgwtu."ngu"hgtu"
tgrcuugt000"gv"o‒og"ng"eqtru"jwockp0
Les ultraviolets rtqxqswgpv"ng"Ðdtqp|cigÑ"fg"nc"rgcw0
Les rayons X uqpv"wvknkufiu"gp"rctvkewnkgt"rqwt"ngu"tcfkqitcrjkgu"ofifkecngu0

Eg"fqewogpv"rtqxkgpv"fw"ukvg"Kpvgtpgv jvvr<11yyy0nwokgtg/urgevceng0qti