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328.4.2–328.5.1 ASME B31.


(1) Refer to ASME B16.25 for detailed dimensional information on welding ends.

Fig. 328.3.2 Typical Backing Rings and Consumable Inserts

(4) Where necessary, weld metal may be deposited listed in Table A-1 or Table 326.1) shall conform to the
inside or outside of the component to permit alignment requirements of para. 328.4.3(a).
or provide for machining to ensure satisfactory seating (c) Branch Connection Welds
of rings or inserts. (1) Branch connections which abut the outside sur-
(5) When a girth or miter groove weld joins compo- face of the run pipe shall be contoured for groove welds
nents of unequal wall thickness and one is more than which meet the WPS requirements [see Fig. 328.4.4
11⁄2 times the thickness of the other, end preparation and sketches (a) and (b)].
geometry shall be in accordance with acceptable designs (2) Branch connections which are inserted through
for unequal wall thickness in ASME B16.25. a run opening shall be inserted at least as far as the
(04) (6) Buttweld fittings manufactured in accordance inside surface of the run pipe at all points [see Fig.
with ASME B16.9 may be trimmed to produce an angular 328.4.4 sketch (c)] and shall otherwise conform to para.
joint offset in their connections to pipe or to other butt- 328.4.3(c)(1).
weld fittings without being subject to design qualifica-
(3) Run openings for branch connections shall not
tions in accordance with para. 304.7.2 provided the total
deviate from the required contour more than the dimen-
angular offset produced between the two jointed parts
sion m in Fig. 328.4.4. In no case shall deviations of the
does not exceed three degrees.
shape of the opening cause the root spacing tolerance
328.4.3 Alignment limits in the WPS to be exceeded. Weld metal may be
(a) Circumferential Welds added and refinished if necessary for compliance.
(1) Inside surfaces of components at ends to be (d) Spacing. The root opening of the joint shall be
joined in girth or miter groove welds shall be aligned within the tolerance limits in the WPS.
within the dimensional limits in the WPS and the engi-
neering design. 328.5 Welding Requirements
(2) If the external surfaces of the components are
not aligned, the weld shall be tapered between them. 328.5.1 General
(b) Longitudinal Welds. Alignment of longitudinal (a) Welds, including addition of weld metal for align-
groove welds (not made in accordance with a standard ment [paras. 328.4.2(b)(4) and 328.4.3(c)(3)], shall be

ASME B31.3-2004 328.5.1–328.5.4

Fig. 328.4.3 Trimming and Permitted
Fig. 328.4.2 Typical Butt Weld End Preparation Misalignment

made in accordance with a qualified procedure and by

qualified welders or welding operators. The size of a fillet weld is determined as shown in Fig.
(b) Each qualified welder and welding operator shall
be assigned an identification symbol. Unless otherwise (a) Typical weld details for slip-on and socket welding
specified in the engineering design, each pressure con- flanges are shown in Fig. 328.5.2B; minimum welding
taining weld or adjacent area shall be marked with the dimensions for other socket welding components are
identification symbol of the welder or welding operator. shown in Fig. 328.5.2C or MSS SP-119.
In lieu of marking the weld, appropriate records shall (b) If slip-on flanges are single welded, the weld shall
be filed. be at the hub.
(c) Tack welds at the root of the joint shall be made 328.5.3 Seal Welds. Seal welding shall be done by
with filler metal equivalent to that used in the root pass. a qualified welder. Seal welds shall cover all exposed
Tack welds shall be made by a qualified welder or weld- threads.
ing operator. Tack welds shall be fused with the root
328.5.4 Welded Branch Connections
pass weld, except that those which have cracked shall
(a) Figures 328.5.4A through 328.5.4E show accept-
be removed. Bridge tacks (above the weld) shall be
able details of branch connections with and without
added reinforcement, in which the branch pipe is con-
(d) Peening is prohibited on the root pass and final
nected directly to the run pipe. The illustrations are
pass of a weld.
typical and are not intended to exclude acceptable types
(e) No welding shall be done if there is impingement
of construction not shown.
on the weld area of rain, snow, sleet, or excessive wind,
(b) Figure 328.5.4D shows basic types of weld attach-
or if the weld area is frosted or wet.
ments used in the fabrication of branch connections. The
(f) Welding End Valves. The welding sequence and
location and minimum size of attachment welds shall
procedure and any heat treatment for a welding end
conform to the requirements herein. Welds shall be cal-
valve shall be such as to preserve the seat tightness of
culated in accordance with para. 304.3.3 but shall be not
the valve.
less than the sizes shown in Fig. 328.5.4D.
328.5.2 Fillet and Socket Welds. Fillet welds (includ- (c) The nomenclature and symbols used herein and
ing socket welds) may vary from convex to concave. in Fig. 328.5.4D are: