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LECTURE 5

SHORT COLUMNS

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COLUMN
• It is a vertical member which is primarily subjected to
axial compression in which major deformation is
shortening.
• Columns are structural compression members which
transmit loads from the upper floors to the lower levels
and then to the soil through the foundations.
• Since columns are supporting elements, failure of one
column in a critical location can cause the progressive
collapse of adjoining floors, and in turn, even the
collapse of the entire structure.
• For this reason, columns are one of the most important
structural elements.

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
Classification according to ACI

• Short compression blocks or


pedestals—If the height of an
upright compression member is
less than three times its least
lateral dimensions, it may be
considered to be a pedestal. The
ACI (2.2 and 10.14) states that a
pedestal may be designed with
unreinforced or plain concrete
with a maximum design
compressive stress equal to
0.85φf’c, where φ is 0.65.
The Chinese bixi has been
traditionally used as a pedestal
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4
Short reinforced concrete columns— Should a reinforced
concrete column fail due to initial material failure, it is
classified as a short column. In short column the failure is
due to the crushing of concrete without any instability.
Moment magnification chances are very less in such
columns because radius of gyration is more and length is
small.

Long or slender reinforced concrete columns— As columns


become more slender, bending deformations will increase,
as will the resulting secondary moments. If these moments
are of such magnitude as to significantly reduce the axial
load capacities of columns, those columns are referred to as
being long or slender. The failure load is less than that of a
short column. As the length increases, the probability of
failure due to buckling increases.

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
• Classification on the basis of shape.

Square Rectangular Circular L - Section T - Section

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
• Classification on the basis of Reinforcement.

Tied Column Composite Column Spiral Column Pipe Column

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
Tied Columns - 95% of all columns in
buildings are tied
Tie spacing  h (except for seismic)
tie support long bars (reduce buckling)
ties provide negligible restraint to
lateral expose of core

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
Spiral Columns

Pitch = 1.375 in. to 3.375 in.


spiral restrains lateral (Poisson’s effect)
axial load delays failure (ductile)

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TYPES OF COLUMNS

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
• Classification on the basis of Loading
Concentrically Loaded Column

When the resultant of load coincides


with the centroid of the cross-section ,
the column is said to be concentrically
loaded column.

Concentrically
Loaded Column

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TYPES OF COLUMNS
• Classification on the basis of Loading
Eccentrically Loaded Column

When the resultant of load does not


coincides with the centroid of the
cross-section , the column is said to
be eccentrically loaded column.

a) Uni-axially eccentrically loaded


column
b) Bi-axially eccentrically loaded
column Eccentrically
Loaded Column

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SHORT COLUMNS

AXIAL LOADING ONLY !

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SHORT SQUARE COLUMN

Now as compression strain in concrete at any given


load is equal to compression strain in steel,
𝑓𝑐 𝑓𝑠
ϵ𝑐 =
𝐸𝑐
, ϵ𝑠 = 𝐸𝑠
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SHORT SQUARE COLUMN
From which the relation between steel stress 𝑓𝑠
and concrete stress 𝑓𝑐 is obtained as
𝐸𝑠 𝐸𝑆
𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑐 = 𝑛𝑓𝑐 where 𝑛 =
𝐸𝑐 𝐸𝐶

Now the axial force P is given as

𝑃 = 𝑓𝑐 𝐴𝑐 + 𝑓𝑠 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝑃 = 𝑓𝑐 𝐴𝑐 + 𝑛𝑓𝑐 𝐴𝑠𝑡
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SHORT SQUARE COLUMN

𝑃 = 𝑓𝑐 (𝐴𝑐 + 𝑛𝐴𝑠𝑡 )
𝑃 = 𝑓𝑐 [𝐴𝑔 + (𝑛 − 1) 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ]
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SHORT SQUARE COLUMN
The nominal strength of an axially loaded column can be found
by recognizing the non linear response of both materials.

∑𝐹𝑦 = 0

𝑃𝑛 = 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑐 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡
𝑃𝑛 = 0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡

Ag = Gross Area = b*h


Ast = area of long steel
fc = concrete compressive strength
fy = steel yield strength

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SHORT SQUARE COLUMN
• ACI Recommendations. ACI 10.3.6.3

– Spiral Column
𝑃𝑢 = ⍉𝑃𝑛 = 0.85⍉[0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ]
Where ⍉ = 0.70

– Tied Column
𝑃𝑢 = ⍉𝑃𝑛 = 0.80⍉[0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ]
Where ⍉ = 0.65
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ACI REQUIRMENTS
(Longitudinal Steel Ast)

• Minimum Reinforcement (𝐴𝑠𝑡 ) ACI 10.9.1


– Main reinforcement
Ast
g  0.01  g  0.08
Ag
• Normal = 1%-8% of Gross Area (Ag)
• Seismic = 1%-6% of Gross Area (Ag)

• Minimum No of Bars (nos) ACI 10.9.2


• min. of 6 bars in circular arrangement with min. spiral reinforcement.
• min. of 4 bars in rectangular arrangement
• min. of 3 bars in triangular ties

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ACI REQUIRMENTS
(Lateral Ties)
• Minimum Bars Diameter, ACI 7.10.5.1
– Size of Lateral Tie reinforcement

• # 3 bar if longitudinal bar if # 10 bar or less is used


• # 4 bar if longitudinal bar if # 11 bar or larger is used
• # 4 bar if longitudinal bars are bundled

• Minimum Spacing of Bars, ACI 7.10.5.2


Select least one

• 16 db ( dia of bar for longitudinal bars )


• 48 db ( dia of bar for tie bar )
• least lateral dimension of column

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ACI REQUIRMENTS
(Lateral Ties)

• Arrangement Vertical spacing, ACI 7.10.5.3

• At least every other longitudinal bar shall have


lateral support from the corner of a tie with an
included angle 135o.
• No longitudinal bar shall be more than 6 in. clear
on either side from “support” bar.

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Examples of
lateral ties.

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Example: Design Tied Column for Concentric Axial Load

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Problem Statement
Design a Square column to support an axial
dead load of 400 kips & a live load of 240 kips
using 𝑓𝑐′ = 5 ksi & 𝐹𝑦 =60 ksi. Also provide
necessary tie reinforcement.

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SHORT CIRCULAR COLUMN
It have been experimentally that the increased core
compressive strength in attributed to confining effect of
spiral steel & is given by
𝑓𝑐∗ − 0.85𝑓𝑐′ = 4.0𝑓2′
Where
𝑓𝑐∗ = compressive strength of spirally confined core concrete
0.85𝑓𝑐′ = compressive strength of unconfined concrete
𝑓2′ = lateral confinement stress in core concrete by spiral & is
calculated by assuming yield stress of steel at failure.

2𝐴𝑠𝑝 𝐹𝑦𝑡
𝑓2′ =
𝑑𝑐 𝑠
Where
𝐴𝑠𝑝 = cross-sectional area of spiral wire
𝐹𝑦𝑡 = yield strength of spiral steel
𝑑𝑐 = cross-sectional area of spiral wire
𝑠= spacing/pitch of spiral wire

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SHORT CIRCULAR COLUMN
The volumetric ratio is defined as the ratio of volume of spiral
steel to the volume of core concrete.
Volume of Spiral Asp d c 4 Asp s d c s
s     Asp 
Volume of Core  d 2 s dc s 4
c
4
Now substitute value of 𝐴𝑠𝑝 ,

Now to calculate spiral steel


Strength contributed by Shell = 0.85𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑐ℎ
Strength contributed by spiral = 2ρ𝑠 𝐹𝑦𝑡 𝐴𝑐ℎ

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SHORT CIRCULAR COLUMN
The basis of design of Spiral is the strength gain provided by the
spiral Should be the least equal to that lost when the shell spans.

Strength contributed by Shell = Strength contributed by spiral


0.85𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑐ℎ = 2ρ𝑠 𝐹𝑦𝑡 𝐴𝑐ℎ
𝐴𝑔 𝑓𝑐′
From which ρ𝑠 = 0.425( − 1)
𝐴𝑐ℎ 𝐹𝑦𝑡
According to ACI 10.9.3, spiral reinforcement should not be less
𝐴𝑔 𝑓𝑐′
than ρ𝑠 = 0.45( − 1)
𝐴𝑐ℎ 𝐹𝑦𝑡

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ACI REQUIRMENTS
(Spiral)

• Minimum Bars Diameter, ACI 7.10.4


– Size of Lateral Tie reinforcement
• Size ≥ 3/8 “ dia. (3/8” f smooth bar, #3 bar dll or wll wire)
• 1in ≤ spacing ≤ 3in ACI 7.10.4.3

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Example: Design a circular Column for Concentric Axial Load

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Problem Statement
Design a circular spiral column to support an
axial dead load of 500 kips & a live load of 230
kips using 𝑓𝑐′ = 4 ksi & 𝐹𝑦 =60 ksi. Also provide
necessary spiral reinforcement.

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ACI REQUIRMENTS
(Spiral)

Design for Concentric Axial Loads


(a) Load Combination

Gravity: Pu  1.2 PDL  1.6 PLL


Gravity + Wind: Pu  1.2 PDL  1.0 PLL  1.6 Pw
and Pu  0.9 PDL  1.3Pw
etc. Check for
tension
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SHORT COLUMNS

AXIAL LOADING
&
UNIAXIAL MOMENTS !

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COMPRESSION PLUS BENDING OF
RECTANGULAR COLUMN
• When a member is subjected to combined axial
compression P and moment M, as shown in figure
below, it is convenient to replace the axial load and
moment with an equal load P applied at eccentricity e.

𝑴𝒐𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕
• 𝒆𝒄𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 =
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒊𝒐𝒏

• ⍉𝑃𝑛 ≥ 𝑃𝑢
• ⍉𝑀𝑛 ≥ 𝑀𝑢

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Development of Interaction Diagram
a) Large axial load causes a crushing failure of the concrete with
all bars reaching their yield points in compression.
𝑃𝑛 = ⍉[0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ]

b) Large axial load and small moment but entire cross section in
compression. Failure occurs by crushing of the concrete, all
bars in compression. C > 𝐶𝐵

c) Balanced loading condition—bars on tensile side yield at same time


concrete on compression side crushes at 0.85 f ‘.
ϵ𝑐 =0.003 & ϵ𝑡 = ϵ𝑦

a) Large moment, relatively small axial load—failure initiated by


yielding of tensile bars. ϵ𝑐 =0.003 & ϵ𝑡 = 0.005

a) Large bending moment—failure occurs as in a beam.


ϵ𝑐 =0.003 & ϵ𝑡 ≫ 0.005

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DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTION
DIAGRAMS
Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )

Concrete crushes
before steel yields

Steel yields before


concrete crushes

Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope


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• A short rectangular RPC column is
shown in Figure.(1) equally
reinforced on the two opposite faces
and subjected to axial load (P) and
bending moment (M) around its
major axis.
• The figure also shows the strain
distribution, actual stress
distribution and an assumed
simplified stress distribution.
• The simplified stress distribution
adopted here consists of two
rectangular blocks (one compression
and the other is tension).
• The rectangular compression block
has much in common with the one
specified by ACI 318 code[11]

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Behavior under Combined Bending and Axial
Loads
Axial Load and Moment Interaction Diagram – General

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Columns
Strength Reduction Factor, f (ACI Code 9.3.2)

(a) Axial tension, and axial tension with flexure.


f = 0.9
(b) Axial compression and axial compression with
flexure.
Members with spiral reinforcement confirming
to 10.9.3 f  0.70
Other reinforced members f  0.65
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Column

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Example # 1
The short 14-in. × 20-in. tied column of Figure 10.17 is to be used to support the
following loads and moments: PD = 125 k, PL = 140 k, MD = 75 ft-k, and ML = 90 ft-
k. If f’c = 4000 psi and fy = 60,000 psi, select reinforcing bars to be placed in its end
faces only using appropriate ACI column interaction diagrams.

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Example # 2
Design a short square column for the following conditions: Pu = 600 k, Mu = 80 ft-
k, f’c = 4000 psi, and fy = 60,000 psi. Place the bars uniformly around all four faces
of the column.

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Example # 3
Using the ACI column interaction graphs, select reinforcing for the short round
spiral column shown in Figure 10.19 if f’c = 4000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi, Pu = 500 k,
and Mu = 225 ft-k.

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Example # 4
Design a 14-in.-wide rectangular short tied column with bars only in the two end
faces for Pu = 500 k, Mu = 250 ft-k, f’c = 4000 psi, and fy= 60,000 psi. Select a
column with approximately 2% steel.

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Example # 5
Using the appropriate interaction curves, determine the value of Pn for the short
tied column shown in Figure 10.20 if ex = 10 in. Assume f’c = 4000 psi and fy =
60,000 psi.

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SHORT COLUMNS

AXIAL LOADING
&
BIAXIAL MOMENTS !

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BIAXIAL MOMENTS
• Many columns are subjected to biaxial bending, that is,
bending about both axes.
• Corner columns in buildings where beams and girders
frame into the columns from both directions are the most
common cases.
• Bridge piers are almost always subject to biaxial bending.
• Circular columns have polar symmetry and, thus, the same
ultimate capacity in all directions.
• The design process is the same, therefore, regardless of the
directions of the moments.
Mu = (M ux ) 2 + (M uy ) 2
• .
e= (e x ) 2 + (e y ) 2
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BIAXIAL MOMENTS

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LOAD CONTOUR METHOD
• If the interaction diagram is horizontally sliced at a particular
load level the resulting slice is actually a graph between 𝑀𝑛𝑥
and 𝑀𝑛𝑦 at a constant load & is called a load contour.

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LOAD CONTOUR METHOD

𝑀𝑛𝑥 α1 𝑀𝑛𝑦 α2
( ) +( ) = 1.0
𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝑜 𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑜
Where
• 𝑀𝑛𝑥 = 𝑃𝑛 𝑒𝑦
• 𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝑜 = 𝑀𝑛𝑥 when 𝑀𝑛𝑦 = 0
• 𝑀𝑛𝑦 = 𝑃𝑛 𝑒𝑥
• 𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑜 = 𝑀𝑛𝑦 when 𝑀𝑛𝑥 = 0

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LOAD CONTOUR METHOD
The constants α1 and α2 depends upon
– Column dimensions
– Amount & distribution of steel reinforcement
– Stress-strain characteristics of steel & concrete
– Amount of concrete cover
– Size of lateral ties & spirals.

Generally the values of α1 and α2 are equal to a constant


α and gives satisfactory results reducing the equation to
𝑀𝑛𝑥 α 𝑀𝑛𝑦 α
( ) +( ) = 1.0
𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝑜 𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑜
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LOAD CONTOUR METHOD

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Bresler RECIPROCAL LOAD METHOD
It is derived from a plane segment inside the
interaction surface defined by 1/ 𝑃𝑛 having
eccentricities 𝑒𝑥 & 𝑒𝑦 .

1 1 1 1
= + −
𝑃𝑛 𝑃𝑛𝑥 𝑃𝑛𝑦 𝑃0

This method is found acceptably accurate for


design purposes provided 𝑃𝑛 ≥ 0.1𝑓𝑐′ Ag.
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Bresler RECIPROCAL LOAD METHOD
1 1 1 1
= + −
⍉𝑃𝑛 ⍉𝑃𝑛𝑥 ⍉𝑃𝑛𝑦 ⍉𝑃0
Where,
𝑃𝑛 = Approximate value of nominal load in biaxial
bending with eccentricities 𝑒𝑥 & 𝑒𝑦
𝑃𝑛𝑥 = nominal load when only eccentricities 𝑒𝑥 is
present (𝑒𝑦 = 0)
𝑃𝑛𝑦 =nominal load when only eccentricities 𝑒𝑦 is
present (𝑒𝑥 = 0)
𝑃0 =nominal load for concentrically loaded

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APPROXIMATE METHOD FOR CONVERTING A
BIAXIAL CASE TO UNIAXIAL CASE
• General Expression is given as
ℎ 1−β
𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝑜 = 𝑀𝑛𝑥 + 𝑀𝑛𝑦 ( )( ) (a)
𝑏 β
𝑏 1−β
𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑜 = 𝑀𝑛𝑦 + 𝑀𝑛𝑥 ( )( ) (b)
ℎ β
Where
𝑀𝑛𝑥 & 𝑀𝑛𝑦 = Biaxial moments
𝑀𝑛𝑥 𝑜 & 𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑜 = uniaxial moments
β = 0.55-0.75, use 0.65

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APPROXIMATE METHOD FOR CONVERTING A
BIAXIAL CASE TO UNIAXIAL CASE
• Now If
𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑏
• 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑒𝑞 𝐴
𝑀𝑛𝑥 ℎ
𝑀𝑛𝑦 𝑏
• 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑒𝑞 𝐵
𝑀𝑛𝑥 ℎ

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Example # 6
Determine the design capacity, Pni, of the short tied column shown in Figure,
which is subjected to biaxial bending. F’c = 4000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi, ex = 16 in.,
and ey = 8 in.

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Example # 7
Select the reinforcing needed for the short square tied column shown in Figure
10.24 for the following: PD = 100 k, PL = 200 k, MDX = 50 ft-k, MLX = 110 ft-k, MDY
= 40 ft-k, MLY = 90 ft-k, f’c = 4000 psi, and fy = 60,000 psi.

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