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Geographical Issue: Urbanisation


Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in

urban areas compared to rural areas. An urban area is a built-up area
such as a town or city. A rural area is an area of countryside.

Rural Urban

Urbanisation begins as countries ‘industrialise’ or start mass producing

products in factories in the cities. People can earn more money and so
leave rural areas for the city.

Today, around 50% of the world’s population live in an urban


Q - What percentage of Australians live in urban areas?___________

Geographical Issue: Urbanisation

Consequences of urbanisation

Q - Match some of the key consequences with the images:

1. Traffic congestion
2. Better access to services
3. More opportunities
4. Changes to housing
5. Pollution

Q- What other impacts can you think of?


Geographical Issue: Urbanisation
Consequences continued

There are many consequences of urbanisation and they impact different

groups in different ways.

Q - Note down in the Venn diagram the different impacts for each group.
If it impacts two groups then it should go in the middle space.

People Environment

Geographical Issue: Urbanisation

Case Study: India

One of the major differences between

‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries is
their success in dealing with urbanisation.
Most developing countries are undergoing
industrialisation with big changes in their
society and people’s work and daily lives.

For example, India is the third wealthiest

country in the world according to its GDP
(Gross Domestic Product) however it
struggles to share that wealth equally
across the country (see across).

In the last 50 years, India’s urban

population has doubled to around 31% of the population (363 million
people of its 1.21 billion). This has contributed to India’s wealth however,
urbanisation has also brought many challenges including:
- Urban unemployment
- Development of slums
- Transport (congestion)
- Water supply and sanitation
- Water and air pollution
- Social Infrastructure e.g. schools, hospitals etc.

Urbanisation is not something that can be

controlled by individuals or even
governments, although governments can
make decisions that help or hinder the
problems associated with the process.

Q - Which negative impact of urbanisation should the Indian government

fix first?
Q - How do you think the government might do that?
Q - Do you think any of those impacts might still be impacting Australia?

Geographical Issue: Urbanisation

Extension: Urban Sprawl

This cartoon is trying to poke fun at a consequence of urbanisation:

urban sprawl.

Have a go drawing your own cartoon explaining urbanisation or one of

its consequences.