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c Sharif University of Technology, April 2009

Porous Media Employing a v2f Model

R. Bahoosh Kazerooni1 and S. Kazemzadeh Hannani1;

Abstract. In this article, a v2f model is employed to conduct a series of computations of incompress-

ible ow in a periodic array of square cylinders simulating a porous media. A Galerkin/least-squares nite

element formulation employing equal order velocity-pressure elements is used to discretize the governing

equations. The Reynolds number is varied from 1000 to 84,000 and dierent values of porosities are

considered in the calculations. Results are compared to the available data in the literature. The v2f model

exhibits superior accuracy with respect to k " results and is closer to LES calculations. The macroscopic

pressure gradients for all porosities studied showed a good agreement with Forchheimer-extended Darcy's

law in the range of large Reynolds numbers.

Keywords: Porous media; Turbulent ow; Volume averaging; v2f model.

inertial ow regime is the second type of ow, which

Porous media can be found in a wide variety of is initiated at Rep = 1 10, when the boundary

engineering applications and natural systems. For the layers become more pronounced and an \inertial core"

design of engineering systems, it is generally desir- appears. The developing of the \core" ows outside

able to calculate the pressure drop across the porous the boundary layers is the reason for the non-linear

medium and to predict the ow eld characteristics. relationship between the pressure drop and ow rate.

Most porous materials used in traditional engineering As the Rep increases, the \core" ows enlarge in size

applications have very small pores and small perme- and their in uence becomes more and more signicant

ability, therefore, the uid speed is relatively small. to the overall ow picture. This steady non-linear

In these porous materials, the dominant ow regime laminar ow regime persists up to Rep 150. The

is the laminar ow. High speed uid ow through third ow regime detected by [1] is an unsteady laminar

porous media with considerable permeability can lead ow eld in the Reynolds number ranges of 150 to 300.

to turbulent ow within the pores. At Rep 250, the rst evidence of unsteady ow is

Dybbs and Edwards [1] have studied experimen- observed in the form of laminar wake oscillations in

tally the characteristics of turbulent ow through the pores. These oscillations take the form of traveling

porous medium using laser anemometry and ow waves characterized by distinct periods, amplitudes

visualization techniques. They reported that four and growth rates. In this ow regime, these oscillations

ow regimes may occur through porous media. Fol- exhibit preferred frequencies that seem to correspond

lowing [1], the rst type of ow is the Darcy or to growth rates. Vortices form at Rep 250 and persist

creeping ow regime, when the ow is dominated by up to Rep 300. Finally, based on ow visualization

viscous forces and which occurs at Rep < 1 (based on techniques, a highly unsteady and chaotic ow regime,

the average particle dimension and the average pore which occurs for Rep > 300 and which qualitatively

velocity). At Rep O(1), boundary layers begin to resembles turbulent ow, is categorized as a fourth ow

1. Center of Excellence in Energy Conversion, Department of

regime by [1].

Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Modeling turbulent ow through porous media

Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9567, Iran. is important in engineering applications, such as sim-

*. Corresponding autor. E-mail: hannani@sharif.edu ulating compact heat exchangers, composite seawalls

Received 5 March 2007; received in revised form 28 August 2007; and composite break-waters, to mention just a few [2-

accepted 23 September 2007 5]. More traditional applications can be found in the

160 R. Bahoosh Kazerooni and S. Kazemzadeh Hannani

design of
uidized bed combustors and in enhancing details). During the last few years, the v2f (DNS based)

petroleum extraction from reservoirs. Other practical turbulence model, originally introduced by Durbin [15],

phenomena of natural origin and environmental im- has become increasingly popular, due to its ability to

portance are the contaminants transported by air
ow correctly account for near-wall damping without the

through forests and corps. use of ad-hoc damping functions. Wall eects through

Masuoka and Takatsu [6] derived and solved a porous media and the strong blockage of
ow in the

zero equation turbulence model for
ow through porous stagnation and impingement region of pores are very

media by use of the local volume-averaging technique. crucial, therefore, it seems that the v2f model is a good

They modeled the eective eddy diusivity as the candidate.

algebraic sum of the eddy diusivities estimated from Summarizing the introduction, turbulent
ow is

two types of vortices: The pseudo vortex and the ubiquitous, occurring in macroscopic scales of the

interstitial vortex. They studied turbulent
ow and universe and galaxies, down to the interior of porous

heat transfer through stacked spheres. Alvarez et media. A turbulent simulation of porous media en-

al. [7] proposed and solved a one equation `macroscopic' counters two challenges. The rst problem consists

turbulence model. They derived a k equation, starting of presenting an accurate turbulence model mimicking

from a k l version of conventional RANS (Reynolds the complex
ow features in the pores. The second

Averaged Navier-Stokes) models. challenge is to develop a suitable `macroscopic' tur-

Two-equation `macroscopic' turbulence models bulence model, substituting the complex topology of

are also proposed in the literature. Antohe and the pore structures, using the concept of space-time or

Lage [8] derived a two-equation macroscopic turbulence time-space averaging (so-called black box model). The

model by applying the time averaging operator to present work is focused on the rst challenge.

the generalized model for
ow through porous media

(known as the Brinkman-Forchheimer-Extended Darcy GOVERNING EQUATIONS AND V2F

model). Getachew et al. [9] extended Antohe's work by MODEL

taking into account the Forchheimer term into higher

order terms. Following another approach, Kuwahara et The
ow is assumed incompressible. The mean

al. [10] and Nakayama and Kuwahara [11] proposed a
ow variables satisfy the following Reynolds Averaged

two-equation macroscopic turbulence model obtained Navier-Stokes equations (RANS):

by spatially averaging the Reynolds-averaged Navier-

Stokes equations and k " model transport equations. r:U = 0; (1)

For more information on `macroscopic' modeling, see

Pedras and Lemos [12] and the references cited by these DU

authors. = rp + r:[( + t )(rU + rUT )]: (2)

Dt

Kuwahara et al. [10], Nakayama and Kuwa-

hara [11] and Pedras and Lemos [12,13] conducted The v2f model is applied for evaluating t . This is a

numerical experiments for turbulent
ows through a general model that is valid up to the wall, circumvent-

periodic array of cylinders, using the conventional ing the use of wall functions (see below).

`microscopic' two-equation turbulence model, based on The v2f model of Durbin [15-17] and Behnia et

RANS equations. Kuwahara et al. [14] performed the al. [18] consists of solving two additional equations,

Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to study the turbulent with respect to the standard k and " model, the wall-

ow through porous media using a `microscopic' point normal stress, v2 , transport equation and an elliptic

of view and compared the results with a two equation relaxation function, f , equation. This model was de-

k " model. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are veloped for improving the modeling of wall eects and,

the best choice for validating the result of any turbu- more precisely, uses the contribution of wall normal

lence model through porous media, which, however, stress to obtain the eddy viscosity. The Boussinesq

will not be available for engineering applications in the approximation is used for the stress-strain relationship

near future, due to the large memory and CPU time as follows:

requirements.

2 @Ui @Uj

In this paper, to study turbulent
ow through ui uj ij k = t + : (3)

3 @xj @xi

porous media, we have employed a v2f turbulence

model using a `microscopic approach'. The v2f model The turbulent time scale, T , in Durbin's v2f model

is a higher order turbulence model than conventional is [18]:

two-equation models. This model circumvents the

" #

use of wall functions and introduces a more real- k

r

0:6k

istic expression for eddy viscosity and predicts the T = min max ; CT ; p : (4)

impingement region more accurately (see below for " " 2 3C v2 S

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Through Porous Media 161

The strain-rate magnitude, S , in Equation 4 is dened With compensated f~, Equation 10 is converted into:

as:

2 1 P

S=

p

Sij Sij : (5) f~ = L2 r2 f~ = C1 + (5 C1 )v2 =k + C2 k :

3 T k (14)

is the kinematics viscosity, Sij is the strain rate According to this modication, the dissipation rate of

tensor, and the turbulent length scale, L, is [18]: Equation 9 is changed into:

" " # #

" #

k 3= 2 k 3 =2 3 =4

L = CL max min ;p ; C 1=4 : (6) @v2

+ Uj

@v2 @

=

@v2

+ t 6

v2 ~

+ kf:

" 3C v S2 " @t @xj @xj k @xj T (15)

C , CL , CT and C , which are model constants, will

be dened in Equations 20. Using this modication, the upper limit of the realiz-

The Durbin's v2f model can be summarized by ability condition for stagnation
ow is altered for the

the following four transport equations: v2f model (for more details see [19]).

The modied turbulent time scale, T , is written

@k @k @ @k as [19]:

+ Uj = + t + Pk "; (7)

@t @xj @xj k @xj " r #

k 0:6k

T = min max ; CT ;p ; (16)

@" @" @ @" C P C " " 6C v2 S

+U = + t + "1 k "2 ;

@t j @xj @xj k @xj T (8) and the modied turbulent length, L, scale is [19]:

" # " " # #

@v2 @v2 @ @v2 " k 3 =2 k 3 =2 3= 4

+ Uj = + t v2 + kf; L = CL max min ;p ; C :

@t @xj @xj k @xj k (9) " 6C v 2 S

"1=4 (17)

f L2 r2 f = (C1 1) + C2 k : (10)

T k

Sij = (@Ui =@xj + @Uj =@xi )=2: (18)

Pk is the production of turbulent kinetic energy and is

dened below (see Equation 19). Pk , in Equations 7, 8 and 10, is the production of the

The term kf in Equation 9 represents the re- turbulent kinetic energy and dened as:

distribution of turbulence energy from the streamwise

component. This term is non-locally obtained by Pk = ui uj @Ui =@xj : (19)

solving an elliptic relaxation equation for f [18].

The eddy viscosity, vt , is given by: The coecients of the modied model are as fol-

lows [19]:

vt = C v2 T: (11) C = 0:22; CL = 0:23; C = 85;

The no slip boundary conditions, (y ! 0), are approx-

imated as: CT = 6:; C1 = 0:4; C2 = 0:3;

2k C"2 = 1:9; k = 1:; " = 1:3;

kw = 0; "w = lim 2 ; (12a)

y !0 y " #

r

" # k

v2 C"1 = 1:4 1 + 0:045 2 : (20)

vw2 = 0; fw = 20v2 lim : (12b) v

y!0 "w y 4

It is known that the v2f model has a poor numerical

Variable y denotes the coordinate normal to the wall. stability. Sveningsson and Davidson [20] and Davidson

Lien & Kalitzin [19] proposed a modication of et al. [21] proposed a simple modication for improving

the v2f model that allows a simple explicit boundary stability. The source term, kf~, in the v2 transport

condition at walls for elliptic relaxation. They intro- (Equation 15), includes the modeled pressure strain

duced a new variable for f . This new variable is called term, which is damped near walls as compensated f~

compensated f~ and is dened by: goes to zero. Since v2 represents the wall-normal stress,

it should be the smallest normal stress, i.e. v2 u2

f~ = f 5

"v2

: (13) and v2 w2 and, thus, v2 should be smaller than

k2 2k=3 [20,21]. In the homogeneous region far away from

162 R. Bahoosh Kazerooni and S. Kazemzadeh Hannani

2 f~

i.e. @x@j @x j

! 0, then Equation 14 reduces to:

2 1 P

f~ = C1 + (5 C1 )v2 =k + C2 k : (21)

3 T k

On the region far away from the wall, the Laplace term

is not negligible and, as a consequence, v2 gets too

large, so that v2 2k=3.

A modication is to use the right-hand side of

Equation 14 as an upper bound on the source term,

kf~, in the v2 -equation, i.e.:

The Source Term of the v2 transport equation = Figure 2. Structural unit chosen for the computation

domain.

~ 2 C1 k + (5 C1 )v2 1 + C2 Pk : (22)

min kf;

3 T are selected as: = 0:3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.64, 0.75, 0.84 and

0.95.

This modication ensures that v2 2k=3 (for more The boundary conditions related to periodicity

details see [20,21]). are as follows:

PROBLEM DEFINITION U(x = 0:; y) = U(x = 2H; y); (23)

The problem considered is shown schematically in U(x; y = 0) = U(x; y = H ): (24)

Figure 1. In this gure a periodic array of square

cylinders is shown. Based on the geometrical pe- The pressure gradient, p, in a periodically fully devel-

riodicity, only one structural unit is chosen for the oped ow, can be expressed by [22]:

computational domain. The selected area is shown @p @P

in Figure 2. Therefore, the ow was solved only (x; y) = + (x; y); (25)

through the domain that is shown in Figure 2. By this @x @x

technique, eddies larger than the scale of the porous where is a constant and represents the overall pres-

structure are intentionally neglected, since such large sure drop over the gradient imposed on the ow [22].

eddies cannot be detected through a simulated porous The function, P (x; y), behaves in a periodic manner,

medium. so that:

The Reynolds number, ReH = uD H= , is based

on the center-to-center distance, H . The porosity of P (x; y) = P (x + 2H; y + H ): (26)

this domain is calculated from = 1 (D=H )2 . The The ow rate through the periodic cell (Figure 2) was

porosities used in the calculation of the present study set equal to unity by normalizing the variables and

tuning the value of .

The boundary conditions for turbulent kinetic

energy and its dissipation are as follows:

k(x = 0:; y) = k(x = 2H; y);

k(x; y = 0:) = k(x; y = H ); (27)

"(x = 0:; y) = "(x = 2H; y);

k(x; y = 0:) = k(x; y = H ): (28)

The boundary conditions for Reynolds stress v2 and

elliptic relaxation can be written as:

v2 (x = 0:; y) = v2 (x = 2H; y);

Figure 1. Periodic array of square cylinders. v2 (x; y = 0:) = v2 (x; y = H ); (29)

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Through Porous Media 163

f~(x = 0:; y) = f~(x = 2H; y); 17928 elements, therefore, mesh systems of the order

of 12000 seem to be suciently accurate and all

f~(x; y = 0:) = f~(x; y = H ): (30) calculations presented below are obtained using this

mesh system.

Boundary conditions for no slip boundaries were men- Regarding numerical convergence, the normalized

tioned previously by Equations 12a and 12b. residuals for all variables were brought down to 10 5 .

For Reynolds numbers lower than 5 104 , the under

RESULTS relaxation coecient of U and p is 0:8, k and " is 0.6,

v2 and f~ is 0.5 and, for Reynolds numbers equal to or

The governing equations are numerically solved inside greater than 5 104 , the under relaxation coecient of

the domain and the results are shown in Figures 3 to 13. U and p is 0:7, k and " is 0.4, v2 and f~ is 0:3.

The governing equations are discretized using a In Figure 4, streamlines are shown at ReD =

GLS (Galerkin/Least-Squares) nite element method, 40000 and for porosity = 0.84. Pressure contour

employing equal order interpolation for the velocity solutions at ReD = 40000 and porosity = 0.84 are

and pressure in conjunction with a pressure stabilizing shown in Figure 5. In Figure 6, turbulent kinetic energy

method (see for more details [23,24]). contours are depicted at ReD = 40000 for porosity

The Reynolds number, ReH = uD H= , is varied = 0.84, employing the v2f model. The turbulent

from 1000 to 500000. uD = hU if is a Darcian kinetic energy results are converted into macroscopic

velocity and H is set equal to unity. In this work, turbulent kinetic energy by applying the following

the value of D is varied as 0.2236, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7072, volume average operator:

0.7746 and 0.83667. The respected porosities are 0.95,

0.84, 0.75, 0.64, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3. The Reynolds

number based on H is converted to a Reynolds number

based on D (ReD = ReH D) for comparing the

present computations with the recent results of the

literature [14]. D is the particle dimension and, in this

study, ReD is varied between 1000 to 84000.

For checking mesh-independency, the
ow

through the porosity of 0.84 has been solved at

ReH = 1000, 5000, 10000, 50000 and 100000 using

7508, 11948 and 17928 elements. The microscopic

turbulent kinetic energy normalized by the square of

Darcian velocity, k=u2D , of these solutions are shown

at x=H = 1. The Reynolds number of Figure 3 is

ReD = 40000. The mesh stretching near the wall

in these three solutions is similar. There is a good

agreement between the solution data of 11948 and Figure 4. Streamlines for porosity = 0.84 and

ReD = 40000.

Figure 3. Normalized microscopic turbulent kinetic Figure 5. Pressure contours for porosity = 0.84 and

energy at ReD = 40000 and x=H = 1. ReD = 40000.

164 R. Bahoosh Kazerooni and S. Kazemzadeh Hannani

for porosity = 0.84 and ReD = 40000. Figure 8. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy for

Z porosity = 0.64.

hkif = V1 kdV; (31)

f

Vf = V: (32)

The macroscopic turbulent kinetic data are normalized

by the square of Darcian velocity, hkif =u2D . These

data are shown versus Reynolds number based on D, in

Figures 7 to 10. These curves are sketched for various

porosities of 0.84, 0.64, 0.5 and 0.3. The results of

present calculations employing the v2f model have been

compared with the results of [14] obtained using LES.

The normalized macroscopic turbulent kinetic energy

remained almost constant at large Reynolds numbers.

It seems that the v2f model and LES both predict

a Reynolds number independent normalized solution

of k for large ReD number
ows. For the range of

ReD < 1000, no logical correlation can be concluded

between LES and v2f results. It is well known that Figure 9. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy for

turbulence model constants exhibit appreciable non- porosity = 0.5.

Figure 7. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy for Figure 10. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy for

porosity = 0.84. porosity = 0.3.

Simulation of Turbulent Flow Through Porous Media 165

(ReD 1000) (see also [24,25]). We conjecture that for

`very low Reynolds number' turbulent ows, neither the

present v2f model nor LES calculations of [14], which

use an RNG k " near wall model, are suitable for

prediction with acceptable accuracy.

Macroscopic turbulent kinetic energies of all

porosities in this study are depicted in Figure 11.

The results of the present study are compared with

the result of the LES solution of [14]. The slope

of the present study data is smaller than the slope

of LES and low Reynolds k " model data. At

lower porosities, the normalized macroscopic turbulent

kinetic energy of LES [14] is larger than the v2f

predictions. The dierence can be attributed to the

use of a renormalized group (RNG) subgrid scale model Figure 12. Normalized Dissipation rate of turbulent

in LES [14], leading to overestimation of turbulent kinetic energy versus (1 )=1=2 .

kinetic energy near stagnation or impingement regions.

Figure 12 presents the normalized dissipation rate of

turbulent kinetic energy for all porosities used in the simplied into Equation 34.

present study. The present data are compared with the

data of Nakayama and Kuwahara [11]. The dissipation dhpif D 1

2 = 1:75 3 ; (ReD > 3000):

rate of the turbulent kinetic energy of the present study dx uD (34)

is in good agreement with the results of [11].

The Forchheimer equation is known as a popular The dimensionless pressure gradient, dhpif =dx

equation for estimating the pressure drop through 2

[D=uD ], is depicted in Figure 13. The line in this

porous media. Ergun's empirical equation, accounting gure indicates the relation given by Equation 34.

for the Forchheimer drag in packed beds of particle The pressure results of the present study are in good

diameter D, is given by [14]: agreement with Forchheimer-extended Darcy's law.

dhpif D 150(1 )2 1 CONCLUSION

2 = +1:75 3 :

dx uD uD D (33)

A series of computations of incompressible ow in a

periodic array of square cylinders simulating a porous

Following Kuwahara et al. [14], the rst term on the media for various Reynolds numbers and dierent

right hand side of Equation 33 could be neglected porosities, employing the v2f turbulence model, are

at high Reynolds number, therefore, Equation 33 is carried out. The macroscopic turbulent kinetic energies

Figure 11. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy versus Figure 13. Dimensionless macroscopic pressure gradient

(1 )=1=2 . versus (1 )=3 .

166 R. Bahoosh Kazerooni and S. Kazemzadeh Hannani

of this study are compared to the results available in U time averaged velocity vector

the literature. Good agreement for Reynolds number u time
uctuation velocity vector

is observed between LES and the present calcula- uD Darcian velocity

tions. However, for a low Reynolds number
ow of

the order 1000, discrepancies between the results are V total volume of porous media

noted. Further study is needed to elucidate the main Vf volume of
uid in porous media

shortcoming of simulations, both in the context of v2 normal to the wall component of

LES and turbulence modeling. The dissipation rate Reynolds stress

of the turbulent kinetic of the present study showed

good agreement with the available results in the liter- xi coordinate components

ature. The macroscopic pressure gradient results for

all porosities are in concordance with the Forchheimer Greek Letters

law. Our next step is to derive a `macroscopic' v2f overall pressure drop gradient

model for porous media. The v2f model could predict " dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic

a better correlation for turbulent kinetic energy that energy

is important for driving a macroscopic model for
ow ' porosity

through porous media. It can be argued that in the

macroscopic models, the inherent advantages of using kinematics viscosity

a v2f model are not obvious and should be proved t turbulent viscosity

mathematically. However, various applications can density

be stated where porous and non-porous media cal-

culations must be performed simultaneously. Indeed,

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