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Air: Fuel Air Preheat Fuel Draft Burners Heater Process

Excess Heater Leak/ Tramp Air


Air:fuel set wrong or poor mix

Fuel gas not traced/ insulated


APH Air leak. See low Xs air

Excess fouling - convn secn

TMT below acid dew point


Burner tip oriented wrong

Tube expansion restricted


Fuel Composition Change

Burner tip small/ plugged


Incorrect O2 / High Xs Air
Incorrect O2 / Low Xs Air

Poor Burner Adjustment


Poor APH performance

Particulates in fuel gas

Convn fins burned out


Low Fuel Gas Pressure

Damaged burner tile

Tube support failure


Burner tip worn-out

Flame impingement

Less burners online


Wrong type burner

High Firebox Temp


Heavies in fuel gas

Unequal pass flow


High process flow

High vaporization
Burners too close
High Air Preheat

High casing loss


Low primary air

Higher S in fuel
Excessive firing
High N2 in fuel
High H2 in fuel

Low pass flow


Coke build-up
Uneven firing
Low air temp

High draft
Low draft
Issues
Flame lift off X X X
Flashback X X X X
Flame impingement/ Hot spots X X X X X X X X X X
Erratic flames X X X X X X X X X
Flames long X X X X X X X X X X
Flame out X X X X
Flame

Flame pulsating/ Vibration / Noise X X X X X


Flames interact X X X X
High fuel gas pressure X X X X X X
High CO in flue gas X X X X X X X
High O2 in flue gas X X X X
Combustion

High NOx X X X X X X X X X
High combustible in flue gas X X X X X X X X
Afterburning X X X X X X X X X
Burner tip plugged X X X X X X
Positive pressure at arch/ firebox X X X X X X
High radiant TMT X X X X X X X X X X
High convection section temperature X X X X X X X
High stack/ flue gas temperature X X X X X X X
Low heater efficiency X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Firebox

Tube coking X X X X X X X
Damaged tube/ refractory X X X X X X
Tube sagging/ bowing X X X X X X X
Tube bulging X X
Excessive corrosion of APH X X X X X X
Corrosion of convection tube X X X
COT variation X X X
Coil

High radiant coil pressure drop X X X

Modified & Based on "Typical fired heater problems and root causes", Patel, S., Petro-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Hydrocarbon Processing, March 5, 2007