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ChapterChapter 66 Maxwell Equations, Macroscopic Electromagnetism, Conservation Laws

6.1 Maxwell's Displacement Current; Maxwell Equations

6.1 Maxwell's Displacement Current; Maxwell Equations 4 equations: Coulomb's law Ampere's law  ∇⋅

4 equations:

Coulomb's law

Ampere's

law  ∇⋅J = 0

Faraday's law

∇⋅D = 

∇ × H = J

∇ × E B =0 t

Absence of free magnetic poles

∇⋅B= 0

All but Faraday's law were derived from steady-state observations. Thus they are inconsistent.= 0 ∂ t Absence of free magnetic poles ∇⋅ B = 0 The faulty equation

The faulty equation is Ampere's law. It is from is valid for steady-state problems.

law. It is from is valid for steady-state problems. ∇⋅ J = 0 ⇐ ∇⋅∇× H

∇⋅J =0 ⇐ ∇⋅∇×H= J=0

problems. ∇⋅ J = 0 ⇐ ∇⋅∇× H = J = 0 the continuity equation ⇒

the continuity equation

∇× H= J D t

∂

t

∇⋅J =0

J J D t

∇⋅J D =0 t

∇⋅D=

D

t : displacement current

It means that a changing electric field causes a magnetic field, even without a current. The term is of crucial importance for rapidly fluctuating fields.

field causes a magnetic field, even without a current. The term is of crucial importance for

∇⋅D= ,

TheThe Maxwell Maxwell equations equations : The MaxwellMaxwell equationsequations:

∇⋅B= 0,

∇× H= J D t

∇ × E B =0 t

When combined with the Lorentz force eqn and Newton's 2 n d law of motion, these eqns provide a complete description of the classical dynamics nd law of motion, these eqns provide a complete description of the classical dynamics of interacting charged particles and EM fields.

6.2 Vector and Scalar Potentials

It is often convenient to introduce potentials, obtaining a smaller number of 2 nd - order equations, while satisfying some of the Maxwell equations identically.

while satisfying some of the Maxwell equations identically. ∇⋅ B = 0 ⇒ B =∇× A

∇⋅B=0

B=∇× A

∇× E A =0 t

E=−∇− A t

D= 0 E ,

B= 0 H ,

∇⋅D=

∇×H= J D t

2 A

2 A1 c 2

t 2

2  t

∇⋅A=−

0

−∇ ∇⋅A

1

∂

c 2

t

=− 0 J

Reduced 4 1 st -order Maxwell equations to 2 2 nd -order equations.

A A ' =A∇

 ' =− t

2 − 1 c 2

2

t 2

 

B

' =B

 

E

' = E

choose

∇⋅A 1 c 2

∂

t

=− ,

0

2 A 2 A1 t 2 =− 0 J

c

2

uncouple the 2 nd -order equations

=0

Lorenz

condition

6.3 Gauge Transformations, Lorenz Gauge, Coulomb Gauge

The transformation is called a gauge transformation , and the invariance of the fields under such transformations is called gauge gauge transformation, and the invariance of the fields under such transformations is called gauge invariance.

∇⋅A  A

1 ∂

c 2 t

0

A ' =A∇ ,

⇒ ∇⋅A ' 1 c 2

⇒ ∇ 2 − 1 c 2

∂ '

1

∂

=0=∇⋅A

=− ∇⋅A

1

t

2

t 2

c 2

t

∂

c 2

t

' =− t

∇ 2 − 1 c 2

2

t 2

the new potentials А ' , ' will satisfy

the Lorenz condition and the wave eqns

' will satisfy the Lorenz condition and the wave eqns ∇⋅ A  1 ∂ c

∇⋅A

1

∂

c 2

t

=0

2 ' 1 c 2

2 '

t

2

A ' =A∇ ' ,

' =− ' t

= 0 restricted gauge transformation

∇⋅A ' 1 c 2

∂ '

t

=0

All potentials in this restricted class are said to belong to the Lorenz gauge . Lorenz gauge.

The Lorenz gauge is commonly used because (1) it leads to the wave eqs, which treat the potentials on equivalent footings; (2) a concept indep. of the coordinate system and so fits into special relativity. 1 c 2 ∂ ' ∂ t = 0 All potentials in this restricted class

Coulomb, radiation, or transverse gauge ∇⋅ A = 0 ⇒ ∇ 2 =−  ⇒

Coulomb, radiation, or transverse gauge

∇⋅A=0

2 =−

x , t=

1

4  0

x ' , t

xx '

d 3 x '

0

instantaneous Coulomb potential

Poisson

1

eqn

2 A

2 A1 c 2

=− 0 J 1 2 ∂

c

t

∇×∇ = 0 t

irrotational

t 2 ∇× J =

0

∇⋅ J t = 0

longitudinal, irrotational

transverse, solenoidal

J= J J t

∇×∇× J=∇∇⋅J−∇ 2 J

2

J t =−∇×∇× J 2

J =∇∇⋅J

2

1

xx '∣ =−4 xx '

J

=− 1

4

'J x ' , t

xx '

d 3 x '

J

t = 1

4

×× J x ' , t

xx '

∂ ∂ 2 t A 2 =− 0 J t

2 A1

c

2

d 3 x '

∂

t

∇⋅J =0

1

2 ∂

1

c

t

= 0 J

the source for the wave equation for A can be expressed entirely in terms of the transverse current.

The radiation gauge stems from that transverse radiation fields are given by the vector potential alone, the Coulomb potential contributing only to the near fields.

the Coulomb potential contributing only to the near fields. This gauge is useful in quantum electrodynamics.

This gauge is useful in quantum electrodynamics. A quantum-mechanical description of photons necessitates quantization of only the vector potential.the Coulomb potential contributing only to the near fields. The Coulomb or transverse gauge is often

necessitates quantization of only the vector potential. The Coulomb or transverse gauge is often used with

The Coulomb or transverse gauge is often used with no source

= 0, J = 0

2 A

 = 0, 2 A1 c 2

t 2

=0

E=− A , t

B=∇× A

In the Coulomb gauge, the scalar potential "propagates" instantaneously, but the vector potential propagates in finite speed of propagation с.

potential propagates in finite speed of propagation с . it is the fields, not the potentials,

it is the fields, not the potentials, that matter. Another is that the transverse current extends over all space, even if J is localized.

not the potentials, that matter. Another is that the transverse current extends over all space, even

6.4 Green Functions for the Wave Equation

2 − 1 c 2

2

Wave Equation ∇ 2 − 1 c 2 ∞ ∂ 2  Form of the wave

Form of the wave eqn:

x , t=

1

=−4 f x , t

f : source function

t 2

x ,  e i t d

2

−∞

1

2

−∞

x , = x , te i t d t

f x , = f x , te i t d t

Fourier

transform

f x , t=

f x ,  e i t d

2 k 2 x , =4 f x , inhomogeneous Helmholtz wave equation

k =/c

The Helmholtz wave eqn is an elliptic partial differential eqn similar to the Poisson eqn to which it reduces for k =0. k=0.

similar to the Poisson eqn to which it reduces for k =0. The Green function satisfies

The Green function satisfies the inhomogeneous eqn

∇ 2 k 2 G k x , x ' =−4 xx '

If there are no boundary surfaces, the Green function depend only on R=x-x' and must in fact be spherically symmetric.

R = x - x ' and must in fact be spherically symmetric. ⇒ 1 d

1

d

2

R 2 R G k k 2 G k =−4 R ⇒

R

d

2

d R 2 R G k k 2 R G k = 0

d

for

R 0

R G k R= A e i k R B e i k R

the delta function has influence only at R  0. In that limit the equation reduces to the Poisson equation, since kR R0. In that limit the equation reduces to the Poisson equation, since kR1

1

lim 0 G k R= R

k R

G k R= A G R B G k R

k

G ± k =

e ±i k R

R

,

AB=1

the 1 st term represents a diverging spherical wave propagating from the origin, while the 2 nd represents a converging spherical wave. The choice of A and В depends on the boundary conditions in time.

To understand their different time behaviors, construct the corresponding time- dependent Green functionsof A and В depends on the boundary conditions in time. (∇ x − 1 2

(∇

x 1

2

2

c

2

t 2 ) G ± (x , t ; x ' , t ')=−4 πδ(x x ')δ(t t ')

⇒ (∇ + k 2 ) G ± (x

2

x

, ω ; x ' , t ')=−4 πδ(x x ') e i ω t '

G ± (x , ω ; x ' , t ')

=G ± (R) e i ω t ' =

e ±i k R

R

e i ω t '

G ± (R , τ)=

1

π −∞

2

e ±i k R

R

e i ωτ d ω

τ≡t t '

= R δ(τ∓ R ) for k = ω

1

c

c

nondispersive

G ± (x , t ; x ' , t ')= δ [ t ' −(t ∓ ∣xx '∣ ∣x x '

c

) ]

G + : retarded Green function G : advanced Green function

the retarded Green function has a causal behavior: an effect observed at the point x at time t is caused by the action of a source a distance R away at an earlier or retarded time t'=t-R/c. Similar with the advanced Green function.

'= t - R / c . Similar with the advanced Green function.  ± 

±  x , t = ∫ ∫ G ±  x , t ; ± x , t= G ± x , t ; x ' , t 'f x ' , t 'd 3

t −∞

2

∇ 2 1 c 2

t 2  in x , t=0

⇒ x , t= in x , t G x , t ; x ' , t

t ∞

∇ 2 1

2

c

2

t 2  out x , t=0

x ' d t

homogeneous solution

'f x ' , t 'd 3 x ' d t

⇒ x , t= out x , t G x , t ; x ' , t 'f x ' , t 'd 3 x ' d t

G + guarantees at remotely early times there is no contribution from the integral. G assures that no signal from the source exists after the source shuts off.

no signal from the source exists after the source shuts off. usually  i n =
no signal from the source exists after the source shuts off. usually  i n =

usually

in =0 ⇒ x , t= [ f x ' , t '] ret d 3 x ' xx '

evaluated at the retarded time

t

' =t xx '

c

6.5 Retarded Solutions for the Fields: Jefimenko's Generalizations of the Coulomb and Biot-Savart Laws; Heaviside-Feynman Expressions for Fields of Point Charge

Use the retarded solution for the wave eqnsHeaviside-Feynman Expressions for Fields of Point Charge  x , t = 1 4  0

x , t=

1

4  0

[x ' , t '] ret

R

d 3 x ' ,

A x , t=

0 [ J x ' , t '] ret

4

R

d 3 x '

From the 2 eqns the E & B fields can be computed, but it is often useful to have retarded integral solutions for the fields in terms of the sources.

integral solutions for the fields in terms of the sources. ∂ 2 E ∇ 2 E

2 E

2 E1

2

c

2 B1

2

c

t 2

2 B

t 2

= 1 ∇

0

1

c 2

J

t



=− 0 ∇× J

E

x , t=

B

x

, t=

1

4  0

R [ −∇ ' −

1

' ]

1 J

c 2

t

[∇ ' × J] ret

0

4

R

d 3 x '

ret

d 3 x '

' [ f ] ret ≠[∇ ' f ] ret

: ' in the retarded bracket is a spatial gradient in x' with t'

fixed; ' outside the retarded bracket is a spatial gradient in x' with x and t fixed.

[ f  x ' , t ' ] r e t = f  x f x ' , t '] ret = f x ' , t R t '/c= f x ' , t '[t t ' R t '/c] d t ' ,

[∇ ' ] ret =∇ ' [] ret

−[

[∇ ' × J] ret =∇ ' ×[ J] ret [

∂

t ' ]

J

' ]

t

ret

ret

' t R =∇ ' [] ret

c

−[

×∇ ' t R =∇ ' ×[ J] ret [

c

∂

t ' ]

J

' ]

t

ret

ret

R= R/ R

×

R

c

R

c

E x , t= 4  0 [ x ' , t 'ret

1

R 2 ∂x ' , t '

R

t

'

ret

B x , t=

[ J x ' , t 'ret ×

0

4

R 2 J x ' , t '

R

t '

R

c R

ret

×

1

c 2 R

J x ' , t '

t '

R

c R

] d 3 x '

ret ] d 3 x '

Jefimenko's generalizations of the Coulomb and Biot­Savart laws

E

x=

B

x=

1

4  0

x '

J x '×

0

4

R

R

2

R

R

2

d 3 x '

d 3 x '

for

,

J

are time­independent

f x ' , t '

t '

ret

= t f x ' , t 'ret

t ' =t xx '

c

x ' , t '= q [x ' r 0 t ' ] ,

J x ' , t ' =  v t '

E=

B=

4  0 [

q

R

R 2 ret

1

c

Rv /c

t

R

ret ]

0 q

4

[ v× R

R 2

ret

1

c

v× R

t

R

ret ]

2

for a point charge

Heaviside­Feynman expressions

R

=1v

c

retardation factor

[t t ' R t '

c

]= [t ' −t]

there is a difference between ∂ [ ⋯ ] r e t / ∂ t and [ ∂⋯ / ∂ [] ret /t and [∂⋯/t] ret because x'r 0 (t'). The fields are functions of x and t, with t'=t-|x-r 0 (t')|/c.

= d t d t '

E=

⇒ 2⇒

 

B=

1 =

d t '

d t

R

=11

d R

c

d t

R ret

4  0 [

q

R

c

t

R 2 ret

R 2 ret

v t '=− d R d t '

1

2

c 2

t 2

R ret ] Feynman's expression

0 q

4

[ v× R

2 R 2

ret

1

v× R

c

R ret

t

ret ]

Heaviside's expression

The sets are equivalent.  2 R 2 ∣ ret  1 ∂  v × R c R

6.6 Derivation of the Equations of Macroscopic Electromagnetism

present a serious derivation of them from a microscopic starting point.Derivation of the Equations of Macroscopic Electromagnetism The derivation remains within a classical framework. For

The derivation remains within a classical framework.derivation of them from a microscopic starting point. For dimensions large compared to 10 - 1

For dimensions large compared to 10 -14 m, the nuclei and electrons can be treated as point systems,

m, the nuclei and electrons can be treated as point systems, ∇⋅ b = 0, ∇

∇⋅b = 0,

∇ × e

b

=0

t

microscopic Maxwell equations

∇⋅e= ,

0

1

e

∇×b

t = 0 j

c

2

no corresponding fields d and h because all the charges are included in and j.

The microscopic EM fields produced by these charges vary extremely rapidly. The spatial variations occur over distances <10 - 1 0 m, and the temporal fluctuations occur from 10 - 1 3 s -10 m, and the temporal fluctuations occur from 10 -13 s for nuclear vibrations to 10 -17 s for electronic orbital motion.

All the microscopic fluctuations are averaged out, giving smooth and slowly varying macroscopic quantities, to appear in the macroscopic Maxwell equations.to 10 - 1 7 s for electronic orbital motion. Only a spatial averaging is necessary

Only a spatial averaging is necessary because in a characteristic length there are still many charges, but the associated characteristic time is about the range of atomic & molecular motions, not appropriate to average out in time.are averaged out, giving smooth and slowly varying macroscopic quantities, to appear in the macroscopic Maxwell

The spatial average of a function with respect to a test function is defined as

The spatial average of a function with respect to a test function is defined as

r  R r  R
r  R
r  R

F x , t〉= f x 'F xx ' , td 3 x '

2 examples isotropic

f

f

x= [ 3/4 R 3 ,

0,

x=e r 2 / R 2  R 2 3/ 2

A test function only needs to have general continuity and smoothness properties that permit a rapidly converging expansion over distances of atomic dimensions.

converging expansion over distances of atomic dimensions. ∂ ∂ x i 〈 F  x ,
converging expansion over distances of atomic dimensions. ∂ ∂ x i 〈 F  x ,

x i

F x , t〉= f x ' F xx ' , td 3 x ' =〈 F ,

x i

x i

t F x , t〉=〈 F

t

The space & time differentiation commute with the averaging operation.

time differentiation commute with the averaging operation. E  x , t =〈 e  x

E x , t=〈e x , t〉 ,

B x , t=〈b x , t〉

〈∇⋅b〉=0 ∇⋅B=0

0 ∇⋅E =〈x , t〉

〈∇×e b 〉=0 ∇×E B =0

t homogeneous

t

1

0

∇×B− 0

E

t

=〈 j x , t〉

inhomogeneous

D and H are introduced by the extraction from and j of certain contributions identified with the bulk properties of the medium.

by the extraction from  and j of certain contributions identified with the bulk properties of

free =

j

freeq j xx j ,

bound =

n molecuesn x , t

⇐  n x , t=

j

nq j xx j

⇒ x , t= q j [xx j t]= free  bound

n x , t〉= f x '

〈

=

=

xx ' ,

td 3 x ' =

j n

q j f x ' xx ' x j n x n d 3 x '

n

j

x j n
x j n

q j

x j n : order of atom dim

j

nq j f xx j n x n

j nq j

x j n x j n

[ f xx n − x j n ⋅∇ f xx n

2 f

x x

xx n ⋯]

1

2



molecular multipole moments :

q n =

j n

p n =

molecular

charge

molecular

dipole moment

j nq j

molecular quadrupole moment

Q ' n =3

nq j x j n x j n

⇒ 〈 n x , t〉=q n f xx n − p n ⋅∇ f xx n 

=〈q n xx n 〉−∇⋅〈p n xx n 〉

1

6

1

6





Q ' n

2 f

x x

xx n ⋯

2

x x

〈Q ' n xx n 〉⋯

n     x − x n 〉⋯ we can view the molecule as

we can view the molecule as a collection of point multipoles.

The details of the molecular charge distribution is replaced in its effect by a sum of multipoles for macroscopic phenomena.can view the molecule as a collection of point multipoles . Fourier transforms is an alternative

its effect by a sum of multipoles for macroscopic phenomena. Fourier transforms is an alternative approach

Fourier transforms is an alternative approach to the spatial averaging

g x , t=

1

 3 gk , te i kx d 3 k

2

and

g  k , t = g x , te i kx d 3 x

convolution

faltung

f F f yF x yd y

ℱ [ f F]=ℱ [ f ]ℱ [F]

[ f F]= ℱ [ f ]∗ℱ [F]

2

⇒ 〈 F x , t〉=

1

 3 f kF k , te i kx d 3 k ⇒ ℱ [〈 F x , t〉]=  f kF k , t

2

f xd 3 x =1

f 0=1 = f xe i 0x d 3 x

f = R 2 3/2 e r 2 / R 2 Gaussian test function ⇒  f k=ℱ [ f x]=e k 2 R 2 /4

the Fourier transform of the averaged quantity contains only low wave numbers, up to k m a x = O (l/ R ), the inverse of the length scale k max =O(l/R), the inverse of the length scale of the averaging volume.

f k 1 1

[(F(x,t)] gives a true representation of the long-wavelength aspects of F(x,t).

ℱ [〈 n x , t〉]=  f k n k , t

 n k , t= n x ' , te i kx ' x n d 3 x '

the support for the product is confined to comparatively small wave numbers

⇒  n k , t= n 0, t k⋅∇ k  n 0, t ⋯=

⇒  n k , t≈ q n i kp n quadrupole & higher

n x ' , t[1i k⋅x ' x n ⋯] d 3 x '

1

 3 f k[q n i kp n ⋯] e i kx x n d 3 k

〈 n x , t〉=

⇒ 2 =q n f x− x n − p n ⋅∇ f x− x
2
=q n f x− x n − p n ⋅∇ f x− x n ⋯

=〈q n xx n 〉−∇⋅〈p n xx n 〉⋯

The Fourier transform has the advantage of giving a complementary view of the averaging as a cutoff in wave number space.

⇒ 〈x , t〉=x , t−∇⋅P x , t



2

x x

Q ' x , t⋯

x , t=〈 freeq j xx j 

j

n moleculesq n xx n macroscopic

charge density

where

P x , t=〈

n

moleculesp n xx n

Q ' x , t=

1

6

n moleculesQ ' n x x n

macroscopic polarization

macroscopic quadrupole density

x [ 0 E P

Q '

x

⋯ ] =

⇐  0 ∇⋅E=〈x , t〉

Q '

D = 0 E P

x

⋯ ⇐ macroscopic displacement vector

 ∂ x  ⋯ ⇐ macroscopic displacement vector j  x , t = ∑

j x , t=

q j v j xx j t= j free j bound

j free =

free q j v j xx j
j

j bound =

n molecues j n x , t

j n x