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New Product Development Process in R&D

organization

Student:

Asad Ali
10K2-115002

PRESTON UNIVERSITY
PLOT NO 85, STREET NO 3, SECTOR H-8/1, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
DECEMBER , 2017
New Product Development Process in R&D
organization

A research work submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement of degree of


B-Tech (Hons) Mechanical Technology

Student:

Asad Ali
10K2-115002

PRESTON UNIVERSITY
PLOT NO 85, STREET NO 3, SECTOR H-8/1, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
DECEMBER, 2017
Abstract
This study is a process oriented case study which is focused in developing a new product

development and innovation process for Company XYZ, a company which offers different

types of machinery and equipment to government and private organizations. The objective

of the thesis is to find and develop a framework which would clarify the entire product

development and innovation process and increase the success rate on the new product

launches. The reviews of the literature, business cases, journals and data analysis are the

foundation of the new product launch model.

The product outcome of this report is a concrete structured process, including each step

from the product conceptualization to the stage of launching the product into the market.

This thesis proposes elaborated guidelines which Company XYZ could follow in its

product development and innovation process.

The proposed plan is developed based on the Stage-Gate process, which is a reliable and

successful method used in different successful launch cases. The Stage-Gate process will

be adopted according to the company´s strategy and product type.


Acknowledgements

All praises to Allah Almighty Who bestowed upon us His blessings, which

enabled me to accomplish this research objectively and successfully and I

pay my deepest gratitude with deepest sense of respect to my parents

whose love and affection kept me steadfast and enabled me to attain

targets and goals of academic and professional life

ASAD ALI
December, 2017
Table of Contents
Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 3

Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................ 4

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................. 8

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................... 9

Chapter 1.......................................................................................................................................... 10

1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 10

1.2 Background: ........................................................................................................................... 10

1.3 Problem statement: ............................................................................................................... 11

1.4 Aims and objectives: .............................................................................................................. 11

1.5 Scope: ..................................................................................................................................... 11

1.6 Limitations: ............................................................................................................................ 12

1.7 Summary: ............................................................................................................................... 12

Chapter 2.......................................................................................................................................... 13

2.1 Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 13

2.2 History of product development and management association: .......................................... 13

2.3 The competitive environment and critical objectives of new product .................................. 13

2.4 Types of new product development: ..................................................................................... 14

2.5 Consumer research in the early stages of new product development:................................. 14

2.5.1. Categorizations scheme: ................................................................................................ 15

2.5.2. Methods of customer’s preferences research: .............................................................. 15

2.6 Harley Davidson product development theory: .................................................................... 16

2.6.1. The Harley-Davidson business process: ......................................................................... 16

2.6.2. Harley operation philosophy: ........................................................................................ 17

2.6.3. KEY CONCEPTS OF HARLEY ............................................................................................ 17

2.7.1. Why business innovation is important .............................................................................. 19

2.7.2. Types of innovation: ...................................................................................................... 19

2.7.3. The innovation diamond-four vectors: .......................................................................... 20

2.7.4. Innovative companies: ................................................................................................... 21


2.8 INNOVATION MODEL: ............................................................................................................ 22

2.8.1. Aachen Innovation Model (W-Model): .......................................................................... 22

2.8.2. Stage gate process: ........................................................................................................ 25

2.9 Case studies regarding stage gate implementation: ............................................................. 31

2.10 Summary: ............................................................................................................................ 33

Chapter 3: ........................................................................................................................................ 34

3.1 Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 34

3.2 Methodology:......................................................................................................................... 34

3.3 Summary: ............................................................................................................................... 35

Chapter 4.......................................................................................................................................... 36

4.1 Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 36

4.2 R&D stage gate process: ........................................................................................................ 36

4.3 Implementation of stage gate process on development of one tip tool: .............................. 37

4.3.1. Project team:.................................................................................................................. 37

4.3.2. Roles and responsibilities: ............................................................................................. 38

4.3.3. Introduction to the tool: ................................................................................................ 38

4.4.1 Stage 1: idea generation: .................................................................................................... 40

4.4.2. Gate 1: Idea Approval: ................................................................................................... 41

4.4.3. Stage 2: Concept Definition: .......................................................................................... 42

4.4.4. Gate 2: Concept Approval: ............................................................................................. 45

4.4.5. Stage 3: Build Business Case: ......................................................................................... 46

4.4.6. Gate 3: Go To Development: ......................................................................................... 47

4.4.7. Stage 4: Development (Cam): ........................................................................................ 48

4.4.8. Gate 4: Post Development Reviews: .............................................................................. 48

4.5 Summary: ............................................................................................................................... 49

Chapter 5: ........................................................................................................................................ 50

5.1 Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 50

5.2 Results: ................................................................................................................................... 50

5.3 Concurrent engineering and stage gate process: .................................................................. 50


5.4 Comparison of Stage Gate with Conventional Product Development .................................. 51

5.5. Summary: .............................................................................................................................. 51

Chapter 6: ........................................................................................................................................ 52

6.1 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 52

6.2 Recommendation:.................................................................................................................. 52

References ....................................................................................................................................... 53

Appendix A ....................................................................................................................................... 54

Appendix B ....................................................................................................................................... 57

Appendix C ....................................................................................................................................... 58

APPENDIX D...................................................................................................................................... 60
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: General New Product Development Process .......................................................14
Figure 2: Harley Davidson Business Process......................................................................17
Figure 3: Innovation Diamond ............................................................................................20
Figure 4: W Model ..............................................................................................................23
Figure 5: Successive Choice or Elimination of Ideas and Refining / Focusing Them........25
Figure 6: General Working Map of Stage Gate Process .....................................................26
Figure 7: A Stage-Gate Consists of a Set of Information-Gathering Stages Followed By
Go/Kill Decision Gates .......................................................................................................26
Figure 8: An Overview of a Typical Stage-Gate® System for Major New Product
Developments ......................................................................................................................27
Figure 9: The Stages ............................................................................................................28
Figure 10: The Gates ...........................................................................................................28
Figure 11: P&G‘S SIMPL™ Process—An Idea-To-Launch Stage-Gate® Model ............29
Figure 12: Methodology ......................................................................................................34
Figure 13: Driving New Products to Market.......................................................................36
Figure 14: Conventional Sheet Forming Tools ...................................................................41
Figure 15: Proposed Design Idea ........................................................................................41
Figure 16: Upper Part of Tool .............................................................................................42
Figure 17: Lower Part of Tool.............................................................................................43
Figure 18: Complete assembly of Tool ...............................................................................43
Figure 19: 3D Model with sectioned view ..........................................................................44
Figure 20: Conventional Product Development Process.....................................................51
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Methods For Customers' Preferences: ..................................................................15


Table 2: Implementation Of Stage Gate Process: ...............................................................31
Table 3: Details of Activities of Stages and Gates ..............................................................39
Table 3: Bill of Material ......................................................................................................47
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is represents the introduction of this project thesis. It includes the beneficial
information related to completion of Project and some parameters like setting of goal,
objectives, and intension of doing the project, scope and restrictions.

1.1 Introduction:
In 21st Century Global market successful planning and a good product strategy are one of
the key elements for an organization succeeding in the market. Companies trend to
dominate everywhere by competing to develop new products or services and gain a higher
position in the market. Companies target to develop a high number of new products every
year. Most of these products fail to secure competitive advantages.
As the new product development is a continuous process and Company XYZ is growing
its product portfolio continuously, the management felt the need in structuring the product
development and launch process in a well-defined step-by-step process that is easy to
follow and communicate internally. New products are very essential for the corporate
success. Innovation is a must if the organizations want to continue competing in the
market. However the new product development is one of the riskiest processes that require
focus and high investments. Several studies have been done in the successful product
launch cases, and success drivers have been discovered. Corporations are using a
structured idea-to- launch process which helps them manage implementing these success
drivers and reduce the risk of product launch fail.
1.2 Background:

Now a days companies are developing new ways to product development and launch
process. All new product development and launch processes goes through the management
experience and the ideas are mainly focused in problem-solving cases. Whereas in other
scenarios product development is based on existing products. In-order to cope with the
existing marketing scenarios there is need of developing a proper business plan that
accommodates the company business portfolio as well as the customers‘ demands. On
product level, a complete development process integrate the drawbacks or deferment in the
existing manufacturing and development processes
1.3 Problem statement:

The Company XYZ having existing process of product development is very random
and based on managerial experience. Since there is no limitation of time resource,
therefore the lead time of projects is available largely and therefore aiming towards lack
of project portfolio management. Therefore due to the conventional product
development methodology there is very less customer input during the development
phase. Whereas for establishment of a new innovative product, there was no decision
agenda during execution phase of project, rejection of design at later stages, lack of
professional experts‘ opinion and lack of front end working
1.4 Aims and objectives:
The main focal Objective of project is designing of a new product development process
and Implementation of it on an innovative product.
In order to achieve this goal, the OBJECTIVES are defined as:
 Establishing Concept of new product development process.

 Tools & Resources applied in new product development.

 Evaluation of stage gate process

 Design of a stage gate process for innovative product.

 Implementation of stage gate process on improvement of single tip tool.

 Evaluation of conventional development process and stage gate process

The finalized business process targets towards increase in the success rate of Company
XYZ ´s product launches. This case study related to the implementation of process
represents the idea for the stage gate implementation transparent to the management.
1.5 Scope:

This research is mainly targeted towards the product development and innovation process
which adopts and develops a product launch method with clear steps. These steps can be
used as checklist which company can edit or modify at any time according to the product
type or the company´s strategic decision. Taking into consideration the nature of Company
XYZ products, the study is concentrated only on building a NPD process through the
stage-gate process developed by Robert G Cooper, which is a reliable and successful
method used in different successful launches.
1.6 Limitations:

As the Company XYZ is a government based organization, the process being developed is
a simple process, therefore avoiding all unnecessary complexities that are applied in
corporations. However it is very important to take into consideration the importance and
relevance of the information being presented. It is also vital to mention that the
consequences of this study is a ready to modify and use business plan, as certain
amendments and changes need to be done depending on the project requirement and type
of product being developed. This limitation comes due the need of the company for a
general product development and launch phase of a process that can be used in a long term
forthcoming.
1.7 Summary:

Therefore this introductory chapter conveys the information that, it is quite evident that the
project is a management related project and depends not only on a particular company or
product but it can be applicable to multiple organizations according to their problem
statements and requirements. The Project Scope is described along with its limitation.
Chapter 2
Relevant literature

2.1 Introduction:
This chapter is associated with the background knowledge of product development and the
internationally recognized theories of product development which are being practiced in
various organization. It involves the literature regarding the importance of product
development as well as its general concepts so that one can go through and understand the
terms associated with product development before moving to the project
Product development has a very long history started in the early era of pyramids
construction but it took many years to become and realize it as a proper body of
knowledge. There are many theories associate with product development process which
have been already practiced in different organizations according to their requirements.
2.2 History of product development and management association:

PDMA (Product Development and Management Association) was started in 1979 as a


dream by three academics merle Crawford (university of Michigan), Robert Rothberg
(Rutgers university), and David Wilemon (Syracuse university). This was a historical
revolution in development of new products because at that time, professional associations
were organized by function, be it marketing, management, or some other fields. New
products required an integrated perspective. PDMA struggled hard to convert the
individual functioning variables to cross team functioning outputs. It succeeded by
1
practically demonstrating the inventions created in R&D labs into innovative products.

2.3 The competitive environment and critical objectives of new product


development2:

The drastic improvement in emphasis on new product development emerged as a


competitive dimension that can be traced back to the globalization of markets, and the
dispersion of markets into ever smaller places. Globalization is a natural result of the
steady decline in barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital across borders
that has transpired since the end of World War II. Therefore this results into a substantial
increase in foreign competition. The more competition in a market becomes, the more
difficult it is for companies to differentiate their product offerings on the basis of cost and
quality. So as a result, new product development has become a focal to achieving for a
significant differentiation. Product life cycle have been becoming shorter and shorter as
the innovations of others competitors and products make existing products obsolete.
In order to recapture development costs and make an economic return, in an environment
characterized by very rapid product obsolescence and market disintegration, a company's
new product development must meet and targeted towards two major critical objectives:
 Lower in time-to-market,

 Narrow down the gap between customer requirements and product characteristics.

:
2.4 Types of new product development
There are a variety of different types of new product developments which are in existence
today. Each kind of development is used for a different reason, and has its own objectives
and dynamics for execution. The following is a list of the different types and their
attributes and contributions.
 New-to-the-world type products

 New product lines

 Additions to existing product lines

 Improvements and revisions of existing products

 Repositioning

 Cost reductions

2.5 Consumer research in the early stages of new product development:

It is recognized that success in aching NPD strongly depends on the quality of the
opportunity identification phase. The main objective at this phase is to search for new
areas of opportunities, which typically involve the unmet needs, desires and wants of
consumers as shown in (fig. 1).

Figure 1: General New Product Development Process


2.5.1. Categorizations scheme:
Based on end-user psychology and marketing literature, a categorization scheme is
established in which methods grouped according to the most significant determinants of
outcome. The output of a particular method depends on the source of information been
considered for need elicitation (i.e. the input) and the task format.

TASK FORMAT
RESPONSE/
INFORMATION multiple/single
OUTPUT
SOURCE FOR NEED products
ELICITATION -action ability for
-response type
-product driven/ marketing/technical
-self-explicated/ development
need-driven
indirectly derived
-familiarity
-structuredness of
data

2.5.2. Methods of customer’s preferences research:


Various methods for customer‘s preferences are given in table 1. Which are based on the
classification structure defined above and criteria.

Information Task format Response/


Source For Output
Need Elicitation
CATEGORY -Product driven -Multiple products -Characteristics
APPRAISAL -familiar - Response (perception / and benefits
preference)
-Indirectly derived
-Structured
CONJOINT -Product driven -Multiple products -Characteristics
ANALYSIS -Unfamiliar -Preference and benefits
-Indirectly driven
structured
EMPATHIC -Need driven -No product evaluation: -Benefits
DESIGN -No stimuli presented observation
-No judgments asked
-Indirectly derived
-Unstructured
FOCUSED -Product or need -Multiple/ single products -Characteristics
GROUPS driven -Preferences and benefits
-Familiar/ -Self articulated
unfamiliar -Unstructured
FREE -Product driven -Single product -Characteristics
ELICITATION -familiar -Association and benefits
-Self-articulated
-Unstructured
INFORMATION -Product driven -Multiple products -Characteristics
ACCELERATION -Familiar -Perception
-Self-articulated
-Unstructured

Table 1: Methods for customers' preferences:


2.6 Harley Davidson product development theory:

Harley Davidson

Harley Davidson is a well-known motorcycle manufacturing


company which was founded in 1903. In 1903, William Harley
(age 21), a draftsman, and his friend, Arthur r. Davidson, began
experimenting with ideas to design and build their own
motorcycles. They were joined by Arthur‘s brothers,
William, a machinist, and Walter, a skilled mechanic. The Harley-Davidson business
process was initiated to compliment the circle organization structure in 1993 and became
the backbone of Harley-Davidson‘s MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Harley-Davidson realized the importance of early involvement of stakeholders in the


development of new products and processes. This involvement includes Harley-
Davidson‘s design engineering, manufacturing, and purchasing organization as well as
Harley-Davidson‘s suppliers. To facilitate and further improvement in this process,
Harley-Davidson built the product development center (PDC). The PDC houses the
engineering and purchasing functional areas that support the development of new
production vehicles.

2.6.1. The Harley-Davidson business process:

The Harley-Davidson business process was originated to compliment the circle


organization structured in 1993 and became the backbone of Harley-Davidson‘s
management system shown in figure 2.

The five Major disciplines of a learning organization are:

 Systems thinking (system degraded into components)



 Personal mastery (personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and
deepening our personal understanding of the world).

 Mental models (mental models are assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures
and images that influence how we understand the world around us).

 Building shared vision (the ability to establish a common picture of the future and
a shared vision).

Collective team learning (team learning is the process of aligning and developing
the capacities of a team to collectively create the results the members truly
wanted).
• IDEA DESCRIBED
Phase 0

• Definition Complete
Phase 1 • Feasibility Demonstraited

• Desing, Development, Vehicle Integration Complete and Parts


Phase 2 Authorised

• PPAP Complete, Equipment, Tooling and Process Ready, FPE Vehicle


Phase 3 Built

• Launch Enterprise wise


Phase 4

Figure 2: Harley Davidson business process

2.6.2. Harley operation philosophy:

The company philosophy was:


 Live by the corporate vision, values, and issues.

 Perpetuate the heritage, tradition and mystique of Harley-Davidson and seek to


enhance it with new motorcycle products and services.

 Value our trademarks, patents, and copyrights; vigorously defend them, and
actively license our trademarks.

 Maintain an outward verses inward focus on products, services and benchmarks of
performance.

 Provide high customer satisfaction by supplying products and services that meet
purchaser‘s expectations.

This theory was basically for the existing products.

2.6.3. KEY CONCEPTS OF HARLEY

A number of fundamental core concepts that determined Harley‘s fortune were:


 Back to the future:

Harley made a clear choice to stay with its traditional styling, a classic 1940's and 50's
design that fans believe motorcycles were meant to have. In Willie g. Davidson, the
grandson of one of the founders, the company had a vital link to its design heritage Mr.
Davidson, head of the design department, took to the road and met with Harley customers,
listening to their comments. Voicing disdain for the slick Japanese machines, they
expressed reminiscence for old Harley models and the fugitive touches that had turned
Harley s into "choppers.‖ Willie g. Designed new lines like the soft tail to mimic the
beauty and elegance of 40's classics like the hydra glide.

 Build a community:

In 1983, at the urging of Mr. Beal‘s, Mr.Fessler set out to create a company -sponsored
club for Harley riders. The Harley owners group, or h. O. G., was started as an
organization that would sponsor rallies, offer special promotions and keep Harley owners
in close contact with the company and each other. For as long as anyone could remember,
Harley s had been called hogs, but the implication was a negative one, of outlaw bikers
like hell's angels.
For many Americans, the sight and sound of an entourage of Harley s roaring into town
meant a nasty motorcycle gang had arrived. So Mr.Fessler pushed hard to get h. O. G.
Associated with the muscular dystrophy foundation. Under the club's banner, groups
would ride for charity. Slowly, the perception began to change. Today, h. O. G. Members
constitutes the fourth-largest contributing group to the jerry Lewis telethon each
September.

 Give them a reason to belong:

At the first h. O. G. Rally in 1984 in California, 28 people showed up. Today, h. O. G. has
365,000 members in 940 chapters throughout the world. The organization sponsors
hundreds of rallies around the country each year, including massive gatherings in Daytona
Beach, Fla., and Sturgis, s. D. With the fly and ride program, h. O. G. Members who are
on vacation or traveling on business can call ahead and rent Harley s through local
chapters. And every five years, the company and h. O. G. Sponsor anniversary reunions in
Milwaukee. More than 100,000 riders are scheduled to converge next year to mark the
company's 95th birthday. Already, there are no hotel rooms available for that weekend
within 100 miles of Milwaukee.

 Extend the brand:

Mr. Fessler realized that legions of Harley riders in black leather jackets and black t-shirts
also hurt the company‘s image. Unfortunately, that is what the company sold them. So in
1986, he launched Harley -Davidson motor clothes, which offered shirts with collars,
denim blue jeans, baby clothes and bright-colored fashion items for women.

 Extend the enterprise:


Even through its bleakest period, Harley has maintained close ties to its dealers. Of the
600 domestic dealers, most have been with Harley for decades; many dealerships have
been in the same family‘s hands for three generations, with one family tracing its
ownership back to 1914. The company holds quarterly meetings with an elected 10-
member dealer advisory council. In July, every senior Harley manager is expected to
attend the annual dealer meeting, where new models are previewed and problems get
aired. Six years ago, the company opened Harley –Davidson University, where dealers can
take three-day courses in such topics as "how to manage your business" or "how to create
a succession plan.‖

2.7 Innovation

Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship that endows resources with a


new capacity to create wealth (Peter Ducker, innovation and entrepreneurship, 1985)
Innovation may be defined as exploiting new ideas leading to the creation of a new
product, process or service. It is important that the invention is not only a new idea, but it
actually ―bringing or pushed it to market‖, put into practice and quality improvement is
included in the price or the new products, services or systems in a manner that leads to the
exploitation of improvement in quality. This potentially require technical changes and
organizational restructuring. Innovations also exploit new technology and out-box to
create jobs to bring new value and meaning of thinking it about significant changes in
society.
2.7.1. Why business innovation is important
There are several reasons why the generation of new ideas can be critical to your
business's success. Every organization will have its own priorities and sector-specific
issues to balance, businesses that fail to innovate run the risk of losing ground to
competitors, losing key staff, or simply operating inefficiently. Innovation can be a key
differentiator between market leaders and their rivals.

 Responding to trends and competition:



 Make the most of what you already have:

 Developing a unique selling point:

2.7.2. Types of innovation:


Business can take a number of diverse approaches to innovation. This will usually depends
on how much time and money you have available and what is your business strategy being
implemented. These methodologies can be part of a continuous cycle or employed on a
more ad-hoc, depending on needs basis.


Incremental innovation:
Incremental innovation emphases on making modest improvements to existing processes,
products or services.


Radical innovation:
Radical innovation involves creating a entirely new process or product in response to a
market need or opportunity.

2.7.3. The innovation diamond-four vectors:


Innovation diamond is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3: innovation diamond

 Vector I:

Develop a valiant innovation strategy that focuses your business on the right strategic
arenas that will be your engines of growth.

 Vector II:

Foster a climate, culture and organization that promotes bolder innovation.

 Vector III:

Create ―big ideas‖ for bold product-service solutions. Then drive these ―big concepts‖ to
market quickly via an idea-to-launch system designed for major innovations.

 Vector IV:
Pick the winners via effective portfolio management.

2.7.4. Innovative companies:

There are many examples of companies who have made their history such an astonishing
and successful that they are now a symbol of successful innovators.

 Greeb Mountain Coffee Roasters:

The company began humbly as a small café in rural Vermont in 1981 and was soon doing
its own coffee roasting, selling to local hotels and restaurants. Management saw the
consumer need, however: an expensive and convenient single-serving coffee maker at
home. Green Mountain created the k-cup and Keurig system, then signed up other well-
known coffee companies (Tully‘s in Seattle, Newman‘s own, timothy‘s in Canada, and
others). The machine itself was Simple and relatively inexpensive. The business model
was similar to the Gillette‘s razor and blade model, namely, sell the machine cheaply and
make money on the k-cups. The company has been enormously successful, achieving
2010 sales of $1.35 billion, and has been able to win against corporate giants like Kraft
and nestle.

 Procter & Gamble’s Olay Skin-Care Business:

Once almost given up by P&G, the business was refreshed based on ―one big concept‖ of
preventing signs of aging in women‘s faces. The company searched for and found the
needed technology (outside of pig) and has launched the business with multiple new
products focused on keeping women‘s faces young looking: regenerates, definite,
professionals and others. Olay now does over $2 billion in sales annually.

 Corning Glass: LCD Displays And DLAT-Screen TV’s:

In the late 1990s, corning glass was growing and profiting, driven by the boom in fiber-
optic communications. Then came the crash of 2000, and overnight, the firm‘s sales
plummeted, and the share prices plunged from over $100 to about $1. Ten years later,
corning is thriving again because their senior management developed a bold product
innovation and technology strategy for company and provided the needed leadership and
direction. They concluded that the ―repeatable keys‖ to corning‘s success were: a
leadership commitment, a clear understanding of company‘s capabilities, a strong
connection to costumer and a deep understanding of major costumer problems, and a
willingness to take big, but well understood risks. A number of few opportunities and
strategic arenas identified, accesses and exploited. The biggest growth engine came from a
Manufacturing process developed originally in the 1960s for automotive windshields, but
which corning leveraged to create a glass substrate used for the flat LCD displays (for
cellphones, initially; then for laptops and desktop monitors; now for LCDTV‘s and larger
displays. Major innovations were developed in each of corning‘s businesses over the
decades, including creation of four new business platforms and exploitation of three major
markets adjancies. New-product sales have now rocketed to 70% of annual sales and
profits have moved from -$500 billion to +$2billion after taxes.
 Sani fair In Germany:

This Germany Company developed a systems solution to a problem we all face when
travelling on the highway of finding a clean and well-equipped restroom. The company
conceived and operates a chain of public restrooms, especially at service centers along the
highways. The facilities are clean, open, friendly, and modern. The restrooms charge
70cents per use, but the system is this: the user gets a voucher for the shop in the service
center, thus up-selling the visitor to spend much more and to buy the goods in the service
center. As one observer noted, ―the travelers probably use the voucher to buy coffee or
beer in the service center restaurant, so they need to visit the restroom again!‖

There is a pattern here: finding major problems, and developing bold solutions. This is the
type of the true innovation that the industry needs, and this is what will generate the
growth desired by so many firms.

2.8 INNOVATION MODEL:

2.8.1. Aachen Innovation Model (W-Model):

The AACHEN innovation model (aim) is a methodical procedure for planning and
deploying successful product innovations. It is a mainly standardized approach,
incorporating both the strategic and operational aspects addressed in the St. Galen
management model. The objective is to provide a framework for creativity, without
applying stifling structure, and assist with the co-ordination of all participants within the
process.

The Aachen innovation management model for the integrated management of the St.
Galen concept was developed in fraunhofeript. This problem represents a reference
framework for the issues of innovation management and enables identifying integration
gaps and main focuses for adjustments.

W-MODEL:

Innovation Road Map (IRM) method based W- model, a view is divided into 7 stages.
This illustrates, starting from the enterprise strategy, how an action plan is developed that
maps the medium- to long-term innovation activities of the enterprise [Waltereversheim]
innovation management for technical products (rwth).
(fig.4)

Figure 4:W model

The IRM (innovation road map) methodology is an instrument or tool that supports the
systematic planning of product innovations.

 Goal setting:

"Goal setting", the strategic direction and objectives are described innovation, or overall
company strategy is derived. . Whereas on the output side is information regarding the
innovation goals, the innovation strategy, the company potential as well as the chosen
formation fields

 Future analysis:

The purpose of the future analysis phase is the identification of innovation potentials and
the formulation of specific innovation activities for the company. To start off with, general
trends as well as more specific developments within the chosen formation fields are
analyzed. Following this, the impact these will have on the formation fields and the
company in general is projected. Based on this, and taking into account the company
potentials, innovation potentials are deduced which will correspond with future market or
technology developments. Output from this phase is therefore information regarding
company innovation potential or more specific innovation tasks.

 Idea generation:

Based on the identification of novelty potential, "idea generation" phase, product ideas are
developed. This starts with the identification of product ideas of the 1st order, i.e. Problem
and solution ideas in a creative-divergent phase. Within the framework of the deduced
innovation potentials, the purpose is to generate a broad spectrum of future-oriented ideas.
The result of the ―idea generation‖ stage is the development of creative-convergent
nd
product ideas of the 2 order, where every problem is combined with at least one possible
solution. These ideas need to be documented for future planning phases.

 Idea evaluation:

The purpose of the ―idea evaluation‖ or rating phase is the identification and evaluation of
all product ideas that might be successful or look promising. The evaluation is based not
only on market- and technology aspects, but also includes strategic conformity and the
advantages for the company. The outcome of this phase is evidence that allows the
allocation of all the ideas both in terms of time and content into the innovation roadmap
(IRM).

 Idea detailing:

―Idea detailing‖ implies that further market and technology information is collected for the
chosen ideas. The purpose is to develop product concepts. To do this, product
requirements need to be defined in detail, and specific detail solutions need to be found for
the resulting technical tasks. Based on these, product concepts can be generated. The result
of this phase is various concept variants for each product idea, and if possible these should
already be validated through functional prototypes or ―demonstrators‖.

 Concept evaluation:

The purpose of the concept evaluation or rating phase is the quantified evaluation of the
developed product concepts. This starts with a basic repetition of idea evaluation, but
including the additional and verified information from the previous phase. Over and above
this, however, the basic economic feasibility needs to be calculated. This is based on either
a cost-income or a cost-benefit analysis. The results of this detailed evaluation will again
be used to further populate the innovation roadmap.

 Implementation planning:

In the ―implementation planning‖ phase, the individual, company-specific activities for the
developed product ideas and concepts are combined into one program, the innovation
roadmap (figure: 5 ).
Figure 5: Successive Choice or Elimination of Ideas and Refining / Focusing Them

2.8.2. Stage gate process:

A stage-gate® process is a conceptual and operational map for moving new product
projects from idea to launch and beyond a blueprint for managing the new product
development (NPD) process to improve effectiveness and efficiency. Stage-gate is a
system or process not unlike a playbook for a North American football team: it maps
out what needs to be done, play by play, huddle by huddle – as well as how to do it –
in order to win the game. Stage-gate is based on the premise that some projects and
project-teams really understand how to win – they get it! Indeed this stage-gate was
originally developed from research that modeled what these winners do (cooper,
2004). But too many projects and teams miss the mark – they simply fail to perform.
At a closer inspection it often reveals that these projects are plagued by missing steps
and activities, poor organizational design and leadership, inadequate quality of
execution, unreliable data, and missed timelines. So they need help in the form of a
playbook based on what winning teams do. Stage-gate is simply that playbook

 How does the stage-gate process work?

The stage-gate process work begins with an idea and ends with the successful launch of a
new product.(figure.6).The steps between these points can be viewed as a dynamic
process. Stage-gate divides this process into a series of activities (stages) and decision
points (gates).
Figure 6: General Working Map of Stage Gate Process

Stage-gate, in simplest format, consists of (figure.7)

• A series of stages – where the project team undertakes the work, obtains the needed
information, and does the subsequent data integration and analysis

• Followed by gates – where go/kill decisions are made to continue to invest in the project.

The model is very similar to that of buying a series of options on an investment. Initially,
one purchases an option for a small amount of money, then does some due diligence, and
finally decides whether or not one wishes to continue to invest.

Figure 7: A stage-gate consists of a set of information-gathering stages followed by go/kill decision gates

A standard stage-gate system designed for major product developments is shown in figure:
8 (cooper 2001). Ideation process called discovery phase, begins with, and ends with post-
launch review. Note that there are three stages– discovery plus two homework phases –
before serious financial commitments are made at the GO-TO-development gate. While
the model in exhibit 2 is for larger development projects, shorter versions exist for lower
risk projects
Figure 8: an overview of a typical stage-gate® system for major new product developments

The innovation process can be visualized as a series of stages, with each stage comprised
of a set of required or recommended best-practice activities needed to progress the project
to the next gate or decision point. (figure.9)

• Each stage is designed to gather information to reduce key project uncertainties and
risks; the information requirements thus define the purpose of each of the stages in the
process.

• Each stage costs more than the preceding one: the process is an incremental commitment
one – a series of increasing bets, much like a game of Texashold‘em. But with each stage
and step- increase in project cost, the unknowns and uncertainties are driven down, so that
risk is effectively managed.

• the activities within stages are undertaken in parallel and by a team of people from
different functional areas within the firm; that is, tasks within a stage are done
concurrently, much like a team of football players executing a play.

Each stage is cross-functional: there is no ―R&D stage‖ or ―marketing stage‖; rather, every
stage is marketing, R&D, production or engineering. No department ―owns‖ any one
stage.
Figure 9: The stages

 The gates:

Following each stage is a gate or a go/kill decision point. The gates are like the huddles on
the football field: gates serve as quality control check points, go/kill and prioritization
decisions points, and points where the path forward for the next play or stage of the project
is agreed to. The structure of each gate is similar.

Gates consist of components shown in (figure: 10):

• Deliverables – what the project leader and team bring to the decision point (for example,
the results of a set of completed activities). These deliverables are visible, are based on a
standard menu for each gate, and are decided at the output of the previous gate.

• Criteria against which the project is judged. These include must meet criteria or knock
out questions (a checklist) designed to weed out misfit projects quickly; and should meet
criteria that are scored and added (a point count system), which are used to prioritize
projects.

• Outputs – a decision (go/kill/hold/recycle), along with an approved action plan for the
next stage (an agreed-to timeline and resources committed), and a list of deliverables and
10
date for the next gate.

Figure 10: the gates

2.8.2.1. Implemented stage gate processes:

P&G SIMPL:
In 1994 P&G management started redirecting their projects using the stage gate system
(fig.11).

Figure 11: P&G‘S SIMPL™ process—an idea-to-launch stage-gate® model

THE SIMPL™ MODEL:


P&G‘s approach is different from that of most firms‘, however. Instead of focusing on the
process per se (like so many companies do), management stepped back and identified the
basic principles that the model is founded on. These principles are constants across many
and varied businesses and geographies. But the constancy of these principles has helped
the company adapt the model to many different types of businesses and different types of
projects leading to a standardized and globally applied stage-gate® process.

The principles which underlie the SIMPL™ model are:

 Remember that winning in the marketplace is the goal.



 Use criteria for making go/kill decisions.

 Balance risk and rigor.

 Use a common language.

 Keep in mind that SIMPL is not stand alone.

 Practice effective implementation

 Winning in the marketplace is the goal.

In many firms, too much emphasis is on getting through the process; that is, getting one‘s
project approved or preparing deliverables for the next gate. In the past, P&G was no
different. By contrast, this principle emphasizes winning in the marketplace as the goal,
not merely going through the process. Specific success criteria for each project are defied
and agreed to by the project team and management at the gates; these success criteria are
then used to evaluate the project at the post-launch review. And the project team is held
accountable for achieving results when measured against these success criteria. (By
contrast, the great majority of businesses still do not conduct post-launch reviews on
projects; and even fewer hold their project teams accountable for achieving agreed-to
project results).
 Use criteria for making go/kill decisions.

Specific success criteria for each gate relevant to that stage are defined for each project.
Examples include: expected profitability, launch date, expected sales, and even interim
metrics, such as test results expected in a subsequent stage. These criteria, and targets to
be achieved in them, are agreed to by the project team and management at each gate.
These success criteria are then used to evaluate the project at successive gates.

 Risk and rigor must be balanced.

Project teams employ appropriate rigor in learning, planning, and decision-making in


order to mitigate risk. They build in a strong consumer focus and rely heavily on voice of-
customer research; they front end-load their projects, undertaking appropriate, often
extensive up-front homework prior to development; and they focus on developing
differentiated, superior products that meet customer needs better than competitors.
SIMPL™ is also scalable and is tailored for specific projects based on level of risk and
size of investment. Not every project requires the same degree of rigor, front-end work,
and market research.

 Use a common language.

Throughout the 1990s, each P&G business unit had developed its own version of a stage-
and-gate new product process. Integration, cooperation, and measurement across
businesses thus proved difficult with each business using a different system and different
terminology.

SIMPL™ is not stand alone.

The idea-to-launch process is only one ingredient of successful innovation, a single


element of a much larger whole, the diamond. Individual projects cannot be managed
independently of other projects, their priorities, resource constraints, and changing
business conditions. Thus the diamond represents the relationship between these elements:
innovation strategy, resource planning, project selection, and the SIMPL™ new product
process.

 Effective implementation

Effective implementation is another area where most companies falter. Not so at P&G.
Because they see the value of SIMPL™, everyone uses it—every business unit, every
manager, and every initiative team. When A.G. LAFLY, chairman of the board, president
and chief executive, headed P&G beauty, he sponsored the early work on stage-gating. He
was a believer; he saw it build the business when he was in japan. Lafly expects rigor and
uses the SIMPL™ terminology. The other company leaders also value the process, so
SIMPL™ has become part of the business culture at all levels. Having a strong sponsor at
the highest level was one key to successful implementation. Perhaps it is no coincidence
that the earliest proponent of the stage-and-gate process is now P&G‘s chief executive.

2.9 Case studies regarding stage gate implementation:


Table 2: Implementation of Stage Gate Process:

S. no. AUTHOR PURPOSE TOOLS FRAMEWORK


1 Woosik et -Risk Delphi -Proposed risk
al. management method(risk management
identification),fault framework in pre-
tree analysis, event stage, on-
tree analysis, risk stage gate, and post
path(risk stage
prioritization gate during design
through phase
quantification) risk
response, risk
mitigation, TRAI
2 Ulf Technology Companies
hogman development comparison
et.al
3 Steven Process Iterations in stage Iterations, sources,
kauper gate model, phases and
structures,
innovation measurements and
targets, exploration &
exploitation
4 Anders Innovation Qualitative data
et.al performance in collection through
creative interviews
organizations (Maxwell‘s
purposeful
approach,). Data
coding( grounded
theory GT of QDA
)
5 Jonis et.al Development Media channels, Focus on the product
and launching for idea strategy
of product to generation, visit in idea generation
market the customers. phase, and
Preliminary development of
market assessment, product
preliminary
technical
assessment and
preliminary
financial
assessment.
6 Fabio Crowdsourcing Nonlinear funneling
prado et of stage
al gate model
7 Thorsten production Cause and effect Positioning of quality
et al supporting diagram, six sigma gates
quality after each stage
management
8 Zeynep et innovation TRIZ Improving and
al implementation methodology, jobs managing
to be done idea generation stage
(JTBD),outcome using the tools
expectations, mentioned
values quotient ,
affinity diagram
9 Roberto Large project Formal project phases
et AL management in and
oil and gas checkpoints
Clear accountability
in an
integrated project
team
Checks and balances
between central
functions
and
Project teams.
Continuous review to
measure project value
and
monitor risk
10 Amelia et Comprehensive Microsoft excess 7 Stage Gate Model
al product Microsoft project Implementation using
innovation navigation defined tasks for each
process stage
11 Gordon et Develop and Project Definition Define the project
al filter capital Rating Index front end
investment (PDRI)4 and the definition for cost
ideas Independent estimation
Project Analysis leading the 3 stages-
(IPA) Front-End gates
Loading (FEL) approach
Index
2.10 Summary:
Product development process is applied almost in every organization whether it is a
manufacturing organization or service sector or business consultants. The tools applied are
according to the end product and requirement of end-user for which the process is
designed. The historic data reveals the fact that different companies applied product
development process somehow in different forms but at the end, for an organization to
work efficiently and effectively, it is the milestone of the management system to achieve
success and better position in a Global Market.
Chapter 3:
Methodology

3.1 Introduction:

This chapter involves regarding the overview of how the project is advanced step by step
and what were the main objectives of steps. It includes the best practices of performing the
defined steps.

3.2 Methodology:

The first phase of the project is usually associated with the database of product
development and finding its tools and techniques for designing the product development
process. The overview of first part is given in figure 12 below

INTRODUCTION
Background Information, Objectives, Scope and Limitations,
Relavance of Study about product developement process

THEOARATICAL FRAMEWORK
Product developement process, Innovation theory and models,
Stage gate model

APPROACH AND METHODS


Theoratical approach, litrature Analysis, Proposed model
formation, implementation of a product

FINDNGS AND DISCUSSIONS


Comparison with the traditional method, expected pros and
cons of implementing stage gate Model

Figure 12: Methodology

In this approach method that is followed in this project is qualitative research. Qualitative
research is usually involves when the expectations or outcomes are unknown and the
researcher needs to define the problem or to develop an approach to the problem.
The study about the product development process is mainly concentrated on literature
review We have used different reliable sources such as books, online articles and other
internet sources to propose a product launch model. Because the final outcome of this
thesis is a tangible product and not a research, the theoretical review plays the most
important role in this thesis. After reviewing the theory and understanding the main stages
of the product launch process we defined a process according to the requirements of
Company XYZ. The stages and gates are defined for the stage gate product development
process.

The next part is to implement that model on a product development. In-order to make this
model functional, we implemented that onto the development of an innovative tool. For
the implementation the stages were defined as:

 Defining stages and gates of stage gate process



 Stage gate team development

 Defining activities of stages

 Implementation of stage gate using predefined tools and techniques.

Tools and techniques implemented are according to the stage requirement as the project
proceeds. The main practice adopted behind the project is internet research, journals, and
research papers for implementation of stage gate process

3.3 Summary:

Thus the project is based mostly on the literature study about the product development
processes implemented in different organization and extraction of relevant data from those
case studies that can be applied in an R&D organization. The tools and techniques used
are the qualitative tools like the process study of different institutions and organizations,
tools applied there and products or services for which the process is designed.
Chapter 4
Case study

4.1 Introduction:
This chapter links with the actual work done in the project in form of experimentation or
st
case study. The chapter is designed according to the methodology defined. The 1 part is
the process design of stage gate for an R&D organization and then in the next part is
implemented on an innovative tool.
Stage gate process:
The Stage Gate™ Model:
The stage Gate model is a series of stages and gates. As shown in the figure there are five
stages and after each stage is followed a gate. The stages represent the activities that are
taken during the NPD process. Gates are checkpoints that are determined by certain
criteria from which companies decide either to continue with the project or not.

Figure 13: Typical stage gate process


4.2 R&D stage gate process:

R&D‘s model for the Stage-Gate process focuses project management activities on the
delivery of the projects based on new technologies or with existing improvements to the
company. The Process directs R&D and its partners to consider the prospects for
commercialization from the start of a project to its conclusion. Planning for
commercialization cannot wait until the end of a project. Studies have repeatedly
demonstrated that a major reason for R&D failing to produce a market influence is the
neglect of market, business and commercial factors early in the R&D process.
Idea Concept Develop Development Launch
generation definition business

Gate 1 Gate 2 Gate 3 Gate 4

The complete stage gate model for R&D organization is attached in appendix A.
4.3 Implementation of stage gate process on development of one tip tool:

Now to appliance all the work done related to the stage gate product development process,
we selected an inventive tool development and proposed the stages and gates for the tool
st
development. The 1 step in employment of stage gate is to create a PROJECT TEAM
and assign duties or responsibilities to them.

Project team selection

Assigning roles and


responsibilities

Defining stages
and gates

Defining the gate


keepers and gate

Implementing the
Process

4.3.1. Project team:

Group of people who communicate with all the stakeholders, keep the record of gate
meeting and results and make decisions of whether the project should proceed to next gate
or not. There must be a PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR and coordinating managers for the
smooth execution of project. It includes the personnel of project management team and
concurrent engineering team.
4.3.2. Roles and responsibilities:

 Project management team:


Who ensures the project scheduling and activities management within the whole product
development process check the time line for the given activity at each gate according to
pre-defined criteria, providing the timeline for project activities, coordinating with all the
team members for current state analysis, providing documentation of tool development
strategic planning, Providing input to Gate decision criteria development, participating in
Gate reviews, holding progress review meetings that cover project status reviews ,
interacting with Principal Investigator and other departments heads to resolve project
issues.
 Concurrent engineering team:
Concurrent engineering team is responsible for all the technical feasibilities and checks
regarding technical issues of the project. Providing technical information regarding, project,
providing the information regarding feasible technology that can be used and tools at each
gate, checking the technical feasibility of steps taken at each gate, checking for the resource
availability, interacting with Principal Investigator to resolve project issues as appropriate.
 Gate keepers:
Gate keepers depend on the activities done in that stage. They may vary from gate to gate
or can be same for all with one or 2 extra members. It includes Project Supervisor, Field
Specialists (Design, Manufacturing, and Operations), Concurrent Engineering Team
Leader, and Project Management Team Leader.

4.3.3. Introduction to the tool:

Single-point incremental forming is a novel sheet metal-forming process. It can provide an


economical alternative of stamping process to produce small batches Single-point
incremental forming (SPIF) is getting increased attention for low-cost small batches and
customized products. It enables three-dimensional shaping without the use of dedicated
dies.

 Applications:
One of the advanced machining applications is in geometrically complex parts fabrications
such as aerospace body parts manufacturing using conventional sheet metal forming
process. The aero industries produce parts in low volume and have complex shapes. The
conventional sheet metal processes have limited applications in terms of flexibility and in
case of low volume production because of its dependency on tools and dies. Incremental
Sheet Forming (ISF) is a technique which uses universal tooling in sheet metal process. It
has a tool that is in continuous contact with the sheet. The tool moves on the surface of the
sheet in three dimensions and produces the required shape. This process is more flexible
and can be used to form complex shapes.

Table 3: Details of Activities of Stages and Gates

IDEA GENERATION: GATE 1: IDEA APPROVAL


• Idea for single tip tool generated ( pre-  Idea approval
market research, internet research on
previously designed tools, experts opinions
on bases of their research work,)
• Relative merit is accessed.
• A preliminary proposal is generated.
CONCEPT DEFINITION( CAD DESIGN AND GATE 2: CONCEPT
ANALYSIS) APPROVAL
• Research on previously applied technology • Concept approval.
in designing the tool. • Technical feasibility test.
• Establish a product definition(initial tool • Manufacturability check
design concept) • Machinability check
• Define value propositions( requirements of • Resource availability
end users from the tool) check.
• Generate possible tool designs on the basis
of idea.
• Study users‘ needs and wants.
• Dimensions and tolerances definition.
• Technical assessment of design.
• Analysis of design on basis of forces and
pressure applied
BUILD BUSINESS CASE: ( CAPP) Gate 3:GO TO
• Process plan for development. DEVELOPMENT
• Material purchasing • Does the process plan meet
• Parts availability. the deadline?
• Review time for mechanical engineering. • Is the material specified
• Generate information accessing technical available and Machine
issues. able?
• Resources required and available • Is there need of
• Make full launch and operation plan outsourcing the resources?
DEVELOPMENT( CAM) Gate 4: POST DEVELOPMENT
• Do technical development work REVIEWS
• Build a pilot model for the testing • Technical feasibility.
according to dimensions and tolerances • Testing and validation,
• Generate the CNC codes for part Gauging.
production. • Practical application
• Assembling the components assessment.
• Finalize launch and
operation plan.
• Quality control and
assurance.

4.4.1 Stage 1: idea generation:


Activities included in this stage were the generation of ideas for single tip tool generated
that was done which was done by internet research on previously designed tools and brain
storming. Then a introductory proposal is generated which consists of a rough sketch of
idea. The idea was basically evolved from the lip roller with a ball at the tip. The idea was
evolved due to the drawbacks in the old methods of incremental forming process. The
tools used are shown in figure 13 due to friction and can easily wear more were rounded
tips, you cannot force the tool tip so that the tip of the rotating mechanism being
implemented
Figure 14: conventional sheet forming tools
Therefore these different designs were proposed by teams formed and then the best suited
was selected which satisfied the end user criteria. The design selected is shown in figure
14.

Figure 15: Proposed Design Idea

4.4.2. Gate 1: Idea Approval:

Then the idea was passed to the project head, which is the gate keeper of this gate and
evaluated the idea on basis of practicality i-e either the design proposed can be practically
developed, idea feasibility i-e the idea of rolling ball at the tip is feasible or viable, solution
to the problems in previously used tools i-e the reduction of friction during machining,
Functionality of tool i-e if this design gets the practical shape then how it will perform the
desired functions

Based on criteria selected by the stage for further improvements otherwise approved back
then passes the next stage gatekeeper.
Since the idea was to select as it met the criteria defined by the gate keepers so it was
passes to the next stage for drawing generation

4.4.3. Stage 2: Concept Definition:

The activities associated with this stage are the conceptualization. The concept of rolling
tip was defined by the Then a CAD DESIGN of the idea was generated to give the idea a
real shape n dimensioning with the required tolerances.

For 3D modeling SOLIDWORKS software selected to develop a model according to our


requirements, since SOLIDWORKS is professional software that generates the 3D views,
sectioned views, dimensioning. Then a CAD DESIGN of the idea was generated to give
the idea a real shape n dimensioning with the required tolerances.

This tool has been divided into three assembly parts that are as following

Upper part:

The upper part which would be mounted in to the machine chuck has following
dimensions and geometry. (Fig: 16) Internal threads on the top define the mechanism for
connecting with the milling center. The nut defines the gripping mechanism and the lower
external threads are for assembling with the lower part of tool. The threads used are
ACME threads.

Figure 16: upper part of tool


The lower part consists of inner threads for assembling with the upper part and tapered
portion with a hole at the end for ball. The outer part is knurled to assure maximum
gripping power for assembling both parts.

Figure 17: lower part of tool


Complete assembly:

Our complete assembly consists of all three parts and they can easily assembled and
disassembled. Complete assembly of tool with dimensions is shown in figure 17 and 3D
model with sectioned view is shown in figure 18

Figure 18: Complete assembly of tool


Figure 19: 3D model with sectioned view

Following are the dimensions of the lower part.

Pitch 1.44
Threads 4 M 20.00 2.50 22.00 17.50 Outer
dia: 20mm
Length before taper: 12mm
Inner dia: 12mm
Tapered length: 8.14 mm
Lower dia: 9mm
Internal tapper 79.25 degree
Outer tapper 47.49 degree
Knurled surface: 11 mm.
Tolerance: ball clearance with the upper threaded part is 0.01mm

Following are the dimensions of upper part.

Pitch: 1.44 mm and 8 threads


Length of the tool before threading: 45mm
Length of threaded portion: 10.10mm
Diameter of nut 20mm
Length of nut 10mm
Diameter of threaded cylinder: 12mm

Advantages:
The advantages of the proposed design can be that Ball can be replaced easily. The tool
can be used with any type of machine chuck, either with gripping mechanism or fixing.
The body of tool can be of different material that is not effected by the friction since only
the ball is under friction effect

After the designing activity, the next was to have the analysis of tool design using
different materials. This is done by the CAD ANALYSIS team.

Cad analysis:

By the cad analysis team, analysis of tool was performed using the analysis software

Material:
 
 Stainless Steel
 
Type: AISI 316


Properties of Stainless Steel:

Applications: food and pharmaceutical processing equipment, marine exterior trim,


surgical implants, and industrial equipment that handles the corrosive process chemicals
used to produce inks, rayon‘s, photographic chemicals, paper, textiles, bleaches, and
rubber.

Corrosion Resistance: better corrosion resistance than 302 and 304; resists sodium and
calcium brines; hypochlorite solutions, phosphoric acid; and the sulfite liquors and
sulfurous acids used in the paper pulp industry.

 The complete analysis report is attached in appendix C

4.4.4. Gate 2: Concept Approval:

At this gate the drawing and analysis results were verified that either they fulfil the
required criteria of not.

Gate keepers:

The gate keepers of this stage were the Project head who assigned this project to us and he
was the major stakeholder of the project. Design expert who checked the design of tool.
Analysis expert who checked the results obtained from the analysis of the tool design that
either the material, forces, pressures applied on tool and its corresponding behavior is
healthy or not. Concurrent engineering member who checked the technical aspects. Project
management member who checked the progress of project and bottleneck in the stage.
Manufacturing expert who checked the design for manufacturability and the material
selected and dimensions of tool were according to the machining requirements or not.

Criteria:

The criteria developed for this stage was that the tool design must meet the end user
requirement i-e it must form a sheet of 0.1mm thickness. The material selected should be
within the range and according to the cutting tool conditions.it should be within the forces
and pressure ranges. The design proposed should be manufacturable and machine able.
And after machining, it should work effectively.

Decision:

Based on the above criteria, the decision was made by the project team and the principle
investigator that either the design should be forwarded to the next department or it should
be sent back for further improvements or either rejected. Keeping in view all the above
mentioned criteria, the design was accepted and passed on to the next stage. Based on the
analysis report of the design, it passed the criteria.to make a copy of results a consent form
was designed for the authentication of results from CAD design and Analysis team.

Since the analysis group had already selected analysis methods of design in SolidWorks
version 2012, CAD design team designed the tool in SolidWorks version 2012, which they
had previously had designed in SolidWorks version 2015.
Analysis team leader was directed to a complete diagnostic test on the tool and afterwards
highlight the properties needed.

4.4.5. Stage 3: Build Business Case:

Basic purpose was to design a comprehensive process plan to develop a single tip forming
tool. Input was taken from Computer aided design team, Computer aided machining team,
& project management team using concerned coordinators. At the same time through
proper channel communication with concurrent team was developed to resolve the issues,
ambiguities, barriers and misunderstandings.

In this stage a complete process plan for the tool design is developed. The activities
associated with this stage are the design a Process plan for development which is done by
the Computer Aided Process Planning team along with the coordination of Design,
Analysis, Manufacturing and Concurrent engineering teams. Material that was approved in
the last gate was purchased for further processing according to the plan designed.by the
concern with the manufacturing team, it was decided to either r manufacture the parts of
outsource if the technology is not available. Then at this stage the project management
team collaborated to find the lead time of manufacturing in accordance with the predefined
project time line. The CAPP team defined the complete processing requirements of the
tool (bill of materials, table 4), the cutting tool conditions for machining, and route sheet
of tool machining steps.

Table 4: Bill of material

Parts and Material


QTY Part Size Material
1 Upper Part 55.1 X 20 Stainless-steel
1 Lower Part 22 X 20 Stainless-steel
1 Ball 10 mm Stainless-steel

The complete process plan attached in appendix D:

4.4.6. Gate 3: Go To Development:

Gatekeepers:

The gate keepers for this gate were the project head who was the main supervisor and end
user, the operations head who checked the process plan according to the requirements
project management head who checked the timeline of project and cost analyst who
justified the cost of project according to the budget

Criteria:

At this gate the decision criteria was strict because if the wrong output passed through this
stage then the results will be according to that output so the criteria was narrowed down to
ensure the quality results.

The criteria was checked against all the mentioned activities and gate keepers that either
the process plan is feasible for the manufacturing team to follow or there must be some
flexibility. The decisions based on the purchasing or manufacturing of tool material were
checked by the project head who was the sponsor of project. The cost estimation of the
project should justify the budget outlined. And the total processing time must be within the
deadline of project.

Decision:
Based on the defined criteria the decisions taken are either let the project move to the final
stage or return to previous stage for improvements. Since it was approved by the project
head and all the concerned authorizes at the gate.

Outsourcing was decided due to unavailability of machine/equipment resources. Process


planning issue about dimensions was forwarded to CAD design and was addressed
quickly. A proper formatted drawing of design with specification was given to the
manufacturer.

4.4.7. Stage 4: Development (Cam):

The activities related to this stage are:

The CAM engineering was responsible for manufacture a rolling ball tool for incremental
sheet metal forming and develops a prototype. CAM team performs turning, drilling,
threading, boring a tool, shaping and knurling operations to manufacture the prototype
design.

The actual working of project is executed in this stage which is based on 2 parts i-e code
generation which is done by the CNC team and then the machining of tool which is done
by the CAM.

This stage is the backbone of product development and all the money investments is done
in this stage.

The complete coding is attached in appendix E.

4.4.8. Gate 4: Post Development Reviews:

Gate Keepers:

The gate keepers at this stage were Project head, Concurrent engineering head, Team
leaders, manufacturing expert, Concurrent engineering head, Project manager,

Criteria:

The criteria set for this gate was that the tool manufactured should meet the requirements
of end user that is offering minimum friction and bend metal sheet of 0.1mm thickness.
This proposed process of product development, the connection between the teams and
information flow is carried out through the members of concurrent engineering team while
the coordination and collaboration of teams is done possible with the project management
team.

Outsourcing can solve the problem of the machine, CNC team also made sure to include
the Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) Taxila, the CNC machine tool that was another
option. This solution was not accepted due to unknown reasons.

4.5 Summary:

At the end of this chapter the experimental is completed with the defined stages, their
activities, teams associated with these activities and gate criteria. The proposed
methodology for implementing a stage gate process on an innovative tool development is
presented.
Chapter 5:
Results and Discussion
5.1 Introduction:

This chapter is about the findings of the project. The end product of the whole project is
presented in this chapter. The results are provided and issues related to the project are
discussed below

5.2 Results:

Thus a complete product development process is designed on the principles of stage gate
process. The expected results of implementing stage gate process are Risk management
through enhanced project prioritization which can be reduced by time to time gate
checking of the stages that either they have sufficient to proceed to the next stage.
Improved quality of execution due to a systemic flow of activities defined in the beginning
of each stage and checked timely by the stage gate team. The decisions made at each stage
were fact-based and authentic since a complete detail was provided at the end of each
stage regarding the activities so whatever the decision was, it was completely based on the
information or facts provided at the end of each stage. There was parallel, multi-functional
execution of activities since each stage involved different departmental inputs and
activities working simultaneously. There was effective end-user involvement (stake
holders) as they were involved at each stage either it was the project head who assigned
the project or every team whose efforts were involved in that stage. Due to flow of
information in a systemic way and the checking of each step, there was very less rework in
the project activities or the rework done was based on the desired output that was missing
in the last stage, moreover the teams involved were working simultaneously instead of
waiting for the completion of work by one team only and then forwarded to the next team.
Thus the total lead time of the project was reduced.

5.3 Concurrent engineering and stage gate process:

Both processes are complimentary to each other .Both have same concepts i-e to move
along every department simultaneously but to ensure the concurrent engineering
application, there must be an environment that supports the concurrent engineering
concept and that environment is applied using the stage gate process. Stage gate model
defines the roles and responsibilities of every individual and the criteria through which
they will be evaluated. So we can say that for the smooth execution of concurrent
engineering, stage gate provides a platform.
5.4 Comparison of Stage Gate with Conventional Product Development
Process:

In conventional product development, there is a gap between the communication flow or


problems definition. Although the development goes with the consent of all teams but
there isn‘t a proper channel or steps defined. The conventional product development is
depicted in Figure 20 below with some of its drawbacks in case of product development.

Equipment not
available for
Design rejected and Unavailability executing the
transferred back to of technology design.
design team Unavailability Process Plan Not
of material. According To
Given Conditions

Figure 20 Conventional Product Development Process


Thus the expected results show that due to repetition of steps the lead time of project
completion is increased and creates dissatisfaction in teams for not accepting their work
and loss of confidence.

5.5. Summary:

Since there are many product development processes amended by different organizations
according to their requirements but some of the conventional processes have defined
boundaries that limit the applicability and efficiency of the process
Chapter 6:

Conclusion and Recommendations

6.1 Conclusion

This project deals with the managerial aspects of an organization and helped guiding about
different product development techniques used in the world. Stage gate process is not
merely a roadmap for getting some project done but it is the systemic and simultaneous
flow of information, technical measures, managerial personnel involvement, and end user
preferences at every gate of the process. This project gave a glimpse of implementing
stage gate process in R&D organization where innovation is major concern for the
competitive stability in market. Stage gate provides a guideline to foster innovative
environment in the organization. The case study reveals around the development of a
single product using stage gate process but the process contains a complete package for
any kind of projects or products either they are physical product or a service or business
plan.

6.2 Recommendation:

There are many techniques and tools that can assist stage gate process for execution of
high level complex project. This work can be expanded in future by implementing a very
strong tool of quality management i-e Quality Function Deployment, to check the
feasibility of product just matched with customer and company‘s requirements.

Stage gate can be merged with other tools like Triz Assisted Stage Gate process for
accomplishment of developing business plans for companies.

Project management is vast field that can‘t be defined with any boundaries. So stage gate
can be assessed by implementing in a service organization
References

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Appendix A
Stage-Gate Process for R&D Organization
Appendix B
Analysis Report:
Mechanical Properties

Hardness, Rockwell B 79 79
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 580 MPa 84100 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield 290 MPa 42100 psi
Elongation at Break 50 % 50 % in 50 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 193 GPa 28000 ksi in tension
Charpy Impact 105 J 77.4 ft-lb V-notch
Izod Impact 129 J 95.1 ft-lb
Electrical Properties

Electrical Resistivity 7.4e-005 ohm- 7.4e-005 ohm- at 20ºC


cm cm
Magnetic Permeability 1.008 1.008 at RT

Thermal Properties

CTE, linear 20°C 16 µm/m-°C 8.89 µin/in-°F 0 - 100ºC


CTE, linear 250°C 16.2 µm/m-°C 9 µin/in-°F at 0-
315°C
(32-
600°F)
CTE, linear 500°C 17.5 µm/m-°C 9.72 µin/in-°F 0 - 540ºC
Specific Heat Capacity 0.5 J/g-°C 0.12 BTU/lb-°F from 0-
100°C
(32-
212°F)
Thermal Conductivity at Elevated 16.3 W/m-K 113 BTU-in/hr- 100ºC
Temperature ft²-°F
Melting Point 1370 - 2500 - 2550 °F
1400 °C
Solidus 1370 °C 2500 °F
Liquidus 1400 °C 2550 °F
Maximum Service Temperature, Air 870 °C 1600 °F Intermitt
ent
Service
Maximum Service Temperature, Air 925 °C 1700 °F Continuo
us Service
Appendix C
Sequence of Operations:
ROUTE SHEET OF WHOLE PART:
APPENDIX D
CNC Programming
CNC Program:
L1
Sub Program for larger diameter of upper part
N5 G01 X20 Z0 LF
N10 Z-55.10LF
N15 G00 X21 LF
N20 M17 LF
L2
Sub program for smaller diameter of upper part
N5 G01 X12 Z0 LF
N10 Z-10.10 LF
N15 G00 X21 LF
N20 M17 LF
% 786
Part program for upper part
N5 G92 S3000 LF
N10 L74 P1 LF
N15 G00 X100 Z100 D1 LF
N20 T 1 LF (Turning Tool for large dia)
N25 G96 S200 M03 F.1 X21 Z2.01 LF
N30 L95 P1 R20=1 R21=20 R22=2 R23=1 R24=0.5 R25=0.1
R26=1 R27=42 R29=31 LF
N35 L95 P1 R20=1 R24=0 R25=0 R29=21 LF
N40 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N50 T2 LF (Drilling for large diameter)
N55 G95 S400 M03 F.08 D2 X0 Z2 LF
N60 L81 P1 R01=2 R02=-45 R03=2 LF
N65 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N70 T3 LF (Threading for internal)
N75 G95 S500 M03 F.1 D3 X15 Z2 LF
N80 R20=1.44 R21=15 R22=2 R23=3 R24=0.924
R25=0.03 R26=0 R27=0 R28=10 R29=29
R30=-1 R31=15 R32=-15.1 L96 P1
N85 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N90 M00 LF (Optional stop for side change)
N95 T 1 LF (Turning small side dia)
N100 G96 S200 M03 F.15 X21 Z2 D4 LF
N105 L95 P1 R20=2 R21=12 R22=2 R23=1 R24=0.2
R25=0.1 R26=1 R27=42 R29=31 LF
N110 L95 P1 R20=2 R24=0 R25=0 R29=21LF
N115 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N120 T3 LF (threading for external)
N125 G95 S500 M03 F.1D5 X12 Z2 LF
N130 R20=1.44 R21=12 R22=2 R23=3 R24=-0.924
R25=0.03 RR26=0 R27=0 R28=10 R29=29
LF
N135 R30=1 R31=12 R32=-10.10 L96 P1 LF
N140 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N150 T2 LF (DRILLING SMALL DIA SIDE)
N155 G95 S1000 M03 F.15 X0 Z2 D6 LF
N160 L81 P1 R01=2 R02=-10.10 R03=24 LF
N165 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N170 M30 LF

Upper part
Lower part:
L11
Sub program for taper and straight diameter (External sub-program)
N05 G00X9 Z0 LF
N10 A158 A180 X20 Z -17.14 LF
N15 G00 X21 LF
N20 M 17
L12
Sub program for 9 mm hole (boring sub-program)
N05 G01 X12 Z0 LF
N10 Z-12 LF
N15 X 9 Z -17.14 LF
N20 G00 X8 LF
N25 M 17
%001
Part program of lower part for internal operation
N05 G92 S 2000 LF
N10 L74 P1 LF
N15 G00 X100 Z100 D4 LF
N20 T1 LF (outer Turning)
N25 G96 X22 Z2 S100 F.5 M03D1 LF
N30 R20=1 R21=9 R22=.5 R23=1 R24=.2 R25=.1 R26=1 R27=42 R29=31 L95 P1 LF
(roughening outer)
N35 G00 X10 Z0 LF
N40 G01 X - .8 LF (Facing)
N45 G00 Z2 LF
N50 R20=1 R24=0 R25=0 R29=21 L95 P1 LF (finishing outer)
N55 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N60 T2 LF
N65 G95 X0 Z5 S650 F.1 M03 D2 LF (centering)
N70 R01=.5 R02=-5 R03=2 L81 P1 LF
N75 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N80 T3 LF
N85 G95 X0 Z7 S450 F.1 M03 D3 LF (Drilling)
N90 R01=.5 R02=18
N95 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N100 T4 LF
N105 G95 X22 Z2 S80 F.1M03 D4 LF (part OFF)
N110 G00 Z-26 LF
N115 G01 X-1 LF
N120 G00 X22 LF
N125 Z2 LF
N130 X100 Z100 LF
N135 M02 LF
%002
Part program of lower part for internal boring and threading
N05 G92 S2000 LF
N10 L74 P1 LF
N15 G00 X100 Z100 D2 LF
N20 T1 LF
N25 G96 X8 Z2 S100 F.1 M03 D1 LF (Boring cycle)
N30 R20=2 R21=12 R22=0 R23=1 R24=.2 R25=.1 R26=1 R27=41 R29=23 L95 P1 LF
N35 R20=2 R24=0 R25=0 R29=23 L95 P1 LF (Finishing boring)
N40 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N45 T2 LF
N50 G95 X12 Z7 S700 M03 D2 LF (internal threading)
N55 R20=1.44 R21=11.972 R22=7 R23=4 R24=1.728 R25=.01 R26=0 R27=0 R28=10
LF
N60 R29=29 R30=-1 R31==11.972 R32=-12 L96 P1 LF
N65 G00 X100 Z100 LF
N70 M30 LF
Lower part.