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AN INNOVATIVE DESIGN APPROACH OF INTERLOCK SUPERVISION RELAY

FOR SAFETY POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

P.K. Pattanaik
Dy. Manager (Elect.)
E & MR Divn. GRIDCO
BURLA, ORISSA

1. Synopsis:-

Isolator and breaker are the two important equipments in the grid sub-station, which play the
vital role for correct and smooth operation of power flow in a circuit. In major sub-stations, these
equipments are operated on remote switches at control room. Some cases for automatic and SCADA
controlled sub-stations these are controlled at the Central Control Stations (CCS). To avoid improper
switching operations, interlocks are provided in the system among the isolators and breakers which are
involved during power flow in the circuit.

This paper deals with the various interlock schemes to maintain a safety approach of grid
operations. A novel approach of an innovative design of a relay, called Interlock Supervision Relay
(ISR), has also been described. This ISR is a microprocessor-based relay, which studies the status of the
interlocks being simulated with contacts and logics of operations. According to the status (ON/OFF
Condition) of the related equipments in the network, this relay supervises the system and allows the
permissive output for correct and smooth operation of the equipments.

2. Introduction: -

Interlock between the equipments is always explained as the conditional operation of the
components in the system. Suppose an isolator is to be operated in series to the breaker in the system,
then this isolator must not be operated when circuit breaker is in closed condition i.e. the power
interruption or reconnection should not be done through isolator. Because this equipment is considered as
a switch, that operated in air medium. Switching action in air medium may result severe spark/arc and
damage to the equipment with interruption of power supply to the consumers.

In major sub-stations, the operators are equally trained to handle smooth operation of correct
power flow path in the circuit. But occurrence of human errors can not be totally avoided. So, for safety to
the equipment and to the operating personnel, interlock schemes are required to be introduced in every
system.

3. Design of ISR (Interlock Supervision Relay)

3.1 General used Bus Systems

According to the system of power flow in the circuit general used Bar Systems are as follows.
1. Single Bus system ( Fig. 1 )
2. Ring Bus system ( fig. 2 )
3. Main and transformer Bus system ( Fig. 3 )
4. Double Bus Bar Arrangement ( Fig. 4 )
5. Double Bus and transformer Bus Bar Arrangement ( Fig. 5 )
DIFFERENT BUS SYSTEMS GENERALLY USED

L1

B1 52B1 B2 52B2
29M

52L

29L

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

29M 29M1

52L 52B 52B

29L

29T 29M2

Fig. 3

29L1

29B 52L Fig. 4

29 L2
Index –

Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig 3


29 M – Main Isolator L1 – Line Isolator 29 M - Main Isolator
29 L – Line Isolator B1 – Bus Isolator 1 29 L – Line Isolator
52 L - Line Breaker B2 – Bus Isolator 2 29 T – Transfer Bus Isolator
52B1 – Ring Bus Breaker 1 52 L - Line Breaker
52 B - Bus Coupler Breaker

Fig 4.
29 M1 – Main Bus1 Isolator 29 L1 – Line Isolator 1 29 B – By Pass Isolator
29 M2 – Main Bus2 Isolator 29 L2 – Line Isolator 2 52L , 52 B – Line, B/C Breaker
Bus 1

29 A B1 29 TBC-A

52B

B2

29 B 29 TBC-B

Bus 2

Transfer Bus

52 L 52 TBC

29 D 29 C 29 TBC-C

Fig 5

Fig 5.

29 A – Main Bus1 Isolator 52 L – Line Breaker 29 TBCA – Bus1Transfer B/C Isolator


29 B – Main Bus2 Isolator B1 – B/ C Isolator 1 29 TBCB – Bus2Transfer B/C Isolator
29 C –Transfer Bus Isolator B2 – B/ C Isolator 2 29 TBCC – TB/C Isolator Transfer Isolator
29D - Line Isolator 52 B –B/C Breaker 52 TBC – Transfer B/C Breaker

For the available and generally used Bus Bar Systems as mentioned above, the interlock
arrangements among the equipments are taken by the multiplication of various auxiliary contacts of the
related components (Breakers, Isolators). To maintain the suitable interlock designs, such schemes
involve the Hardware concepts that include the circuits of having physical bunch of cables, number of
contacts and number of auxiliary relays. However these schemes do not become reliable in long run.
Because these contacts change their position due to the mechanical operation of the equipments and do
not work properly after few days of operations. Moreover the complexity of cable connection and contact
multiplication relays involve high cost of design. The other possible problematic area with these schemes
is to trace the faults in the circuit.

EXAMPLE: - Consider the case of a typical Double Bus and Transformer Bus Bar Arrangement
(Fig. 5). The interlock schemes of every feeder equipments (Isolators) are explained below.

Interlock for 29A Interlock for 29B

2 9 1 9

2 10 1 10
Interlock for 29C
N IT 9 11 5 12

9 11 1 6

2 7
Interlock for 29D

5 9
Number Notation in the circuit for Interlock Scheme

1- 29A 2-29B 3-29C 4-29D 5-29E


6-29 TBC-A 7- 29TBC-B 8- 29TBC-C 9- 52L 10-52B
11-52TBC 12- TBC Multiplication Relay. NIT – Trip Transfer Switch

Isolators Equipments Involved Remarks


For interlock
Main Bus Isolator (29A) 52L, 29B, 52B To allow the specific Bus System for
Power flow
Main Bus Isolator (29B) 52L, 29A, 52B 1. To allow the specific Bus System for
Power flow
Transfer Bus Isolator 29A, 29B, 29C, 29D, 29TBC-A, 1. To use only one feeder through bus
(29C) 29TBC-B, 52L, 52TBC TBC
Trip Transfer Switch. All other 2. * To avoid direct flow of load current
Transfer Bus Isolators in the without protection.
system 3. To Provide all possible path of power
flow
Line isolator (29D) 52L, 29E To maintain all possible path of power
flow
29 A – Main Bus1 Isolator 29 TBCA – Bus1Transfer B/C Isolator
29 B – Main Bus2 Isolator 29 TBCB – Bus2Transfer B/C Isolator
29 C –Transfer Bus Isolator 29 TBCC – TB/C Isolator Transfer Isolator
29D - Line Isolator 52 B –B/C Breaker
52 L – Line Breaker 52 TBC – Transfer B/C Breaker
* Suppose transfer bus isolator (29 C) of any Transformer/Main incomer feeder is closed, along
with another transfer bus isolator of any distributing feeder, then power flow will result directly without
the involvement of any breaker in the system. This system results no protection in the system. So, this
kind of operation is required to be avoided.
From the above described scheme it is seen that to maintain the suitable interlock design, a large
number of contacts are required to be taken in the circuit ,which becomes difficult many a times to
maintain in operational condition of the schemes. The described example is for only one number of
feeder. Similarly for other feeders, again the contacts from corresponding equipments are required to be
laid to the scheme which increases the complexity of the system.
3.2 Basic Concepts of ISR

Now-a-days in Grid sub-station, the operation of EHT/HT isolators and breakers are controlled
with remote switches. Considering the safety in operations, use of interlock scheme in the system has
become quite essential. But the schemes that involved with the hardware concepts as like cited in the
example do not become suitable in real practice.

So to avoid the above difficulties Interlock Supervision Relay (ISR) of microprocessor based
being simulated with contacts and logic operation has been designed to study the operation and status of
the interlocks. By considering the status of the interlocks and the status logic of the related equipments in
the network, this relay supervises the system and extends the permissive output signals for correct and
smooth operation of the equipments.

For performing an operation of any isolator / breaker / contact switch etc., logical conditions are
required to be maintained. These conditions can also be called the constraints/conditions of interlocks.

3.3 Conditions of Interlocks:

1. Protection systems must be allowed to open circuit breakers for clearing faults. Only one
switching operation should be performed at a time. The most recent status of all switches must be
available. The current and voltage ratings of lines, transformers and other equipment should not be
exceeded.
2. An isolator must not make or break load or fault current but its cooperation should be permitted
if a shunt path (across it) has been established. An isolator adjoining a circuit breaker should be operated
only if the circuit breaker is open. A load break switch must not be operated to interrupt fault current.
3. A circuit breaker must not be opened if it interrupts the flow of power unless it is so intended.
For parallel lines, the opening of a circuit breaker must not cause overloading of the circuits remaining in
operation. A circuit breaker must not be closed while the isolators, in the circuit it controls, are in motion.
4. Two live circuits should not be connected without synchronizing. No live line or equipment
should be earthed. Two transformers should not be operated in parallel unless their tap settings are
identical.
5. When alternative switching sequences are possible, the shortest sequence should be selected.

3.4 Basic design

For the development of any interlock schemes the following factors are taken into account.

1. Involvement of equipments for the condition of power flow.


2. Availability of auxiliary contacts of those equipments.
3. Requirement of power contacts and ordinary contacts.
4. Feasibility of the system.

By considering the above factors, the available contacts are brought to the relay and simulated for
the software design, as per the requirement of the systems. To design the scheme only single pair of N/O
and N/C contact from the involved equipments in the total system is brought for the relay design instead
of the multi number of contacts. The logic equations as per the scheme are written for the software design.
For any operation of the equipment, the relay studies the logic of the operation circuit and extends the
permissive out put contact for the operation.
TYPICAL LOGIC CIRCUIT FOR ISOLATORS (29A,29B,29C, 29D )

29 B ( N/C ) A
N
52 L (N/C ) D O 29 A
R
29 B ( N/O )
A
N
52 BC (N/O ) D

29 A ( N/C ) A
N
D O 29 B
R
A
29 A ( N/O ) N
D

A
52 TBC (N/C ) N
D
O
52 L (N/O ) R
A
52 TBC (N/O ) N
D
A
N
A
29 TBC-A (N/O ) D
N
D O
R
A
29 TBC-B (N/O )
N
D
29 E (N/C)
A
A
TBC-Relay Panel (N/C ) N N 29 C
D
D
NIT Switch

A
N 29D
D
3.4.1 Logic Control Equation

Logic Control equations perform the following tasks

1. Define what conditions assert the out put contacts


2. Define which elements and conditions trigger event reports.
3. Select the contact status supervisions
4. Select for the intermittent logics for subsequent applications
5. Select self supervision status.

3.4.2 Overview of Logic Control Equations

Fixed Logic & Event Report,


DISPLAY
Relay Elements Self Supervision
EXT. UNIT
Others

IN 1 Input Function Out put OUT 1


Assignment Functio
ns
IN 20 OUT n

Intermittent
Logic
Equations

The relay has I/O board with 20 inputs (IN 1 – IN 20). These Inputs are assigned according to the
available and requirement of the scheme. Then for designing the out put functions, different operators
(LOGIC GATE CIRCUITS) that available in the relay elements are used for correct sequential logic
equations. The Intermittent Logic Equations combining with other relay elements are also used for the
critical circuits. Finally out put permissive contacts are extended for the correct operation of the
equipments (ISOLATORS). Self supervision of the relay elements, contacts and other associated circuits
are done by the pre- defined logic equations. For the case of any abnormality in the self supervision
circuits, warning command is extended to the display unit with detail faults in the circuit. According to
the intensity of the fault, some times signal is extended to block the relay operations. Similarly for every
operation of the equipment, event logger circuit helps to log the events for future analysis of the
operations.

Advantages of the ISR

1. Single relay can be utilized for the total system that avoids the complexity of the bunch of
cables and auxiliary relays.
2. It is a programmable relay, so according to the logic and requirement of the system the relay
can be programmed.
3. Schemes other than Interlock, like Synchronism, Parallelization of the equipments etc.. can
also be programmed by this relay
4. Because of the pre-supervision facility in the relay the fault tracing/status of the equipment
becomes easy to obtain for any operation.
5. This relay has the facility of logging the events of operations which becomes helpful for post
analysis.
6. This relay has also the facility of data storage, data transmissions etc..
7. The cost of the relay is also very economic in comparison to the hardware schemes as
described before.
8. It is smaller in size and occupies lesser space in the panel
9. Automatic supervision of the logic and status of the circuits reduces the time of operations.
10. It becomes quite helpful for smooth and correct operation of the Electrical Equipments.

Important Note: - The detail logic circuits and special features of this ISR have not been mentioned in
this paper. The concept of the relay has only been explained.

Conclusion:-
Interlock Scheme is considered as a safety tool for every power flow system. So, every
organization should adopt this scheme for its system. Because of the Interlock Scheme the human error at
the time of equipment operation can be avoided. Moreover operators become conscious for doing the
operation

PROFILE OF THE AUTHOR


PRASANTA KUMAR PATTANAIK, 40 YR, MALE
GRADUATED IN ELECTRICAL ENGG. IN THE YEAR 1987 AND ELECTRONICS IN
1990. COMPLETED THE COURSE “COMMET” FROM NIIT. COMPLETED PGDIM
FROM IGNOU, NEW DELHI AND CONTINUING MBA IN OPERATION MANAGEMENT
FROM IGNOU, NEW DELHI.

PRESENTLY WORKING AS DEPUTY. MANAGER (ELECT) IN GRIDCO, E & MR


DIVISION, BURLA SAMBALPUR- ORISSA.

HAVING 15 YRS. OF TECHNICAL EXPERIENCE IN THE FIELD TESTING,


COMMISSIONING AND DESIGNING OF DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
SCHEMES AND SYSTEM EQUIPMENTS. DURING THESE PERIOD ABOUT 25
TECHNICAL PAPERS HAVE BEEN PRESENTED/ PUBLISHED IN DIFFERENT
NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL SEMINARS/JOURNALS.