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MUST TO KNOW IN MYCOLOGY

M. canis Fluoresces on Wood’s lamp


Agent of dandruff
Mycosel Medium for dermatophytes
Chloramphenicol: inhibit bacteria
Cycloheximide: inhibit fungal contaminants
Czapek’s medium Aspergillus
Germ tube Forms at 35’C (yeasts)
Candida Gram (+), oval cells w/ or w/o buds and pseudomycelia
SDA General culture media
Basic structure of Hyphae
fungi Spore
Cornmeal agar Chlamydospore
Media w/ olive oil M. furfur
Hair baiting test T. mentagrophytes
Trichophyton Infects hair, skin, and nails
T. rubrum Red color
Teardrop conidia
T. schoenleinii Favic chandelier (antler)
Coenocytic (aseptate) Phycomycetes/Zygomycetes
Ascospores S. cerevisiae
C. neoformans (+) Nigerseed/Birdseed
(+) Urease
(+) India ink
(+) Phenoloxidase
Arthrospores “TACGeo”
Trichosporon beigelii
Aureobasidium
Coccidioides
Geotrichum candidum
Blastospores Yeast
10% KOH Direct microscopic
Clearing
LPCB Lactic acid: preservative
Phenol: killing agent
Cotton blue: stains the chitin (cell wall)
Commonly used stain (fungal culture)
Swab Unsuitable for fungal culture
Suitable for bacteria and viruses only
H. capsulatum Wright’s/Giemsa stain
Aspergillus Dichotomous
C. albicans Thrush
Diaper rash
Moniliasis
In tissue: mold/yeast form
Dermatophytes Macroconidia and microconidia
Sputum Specimen for systemic mycoses

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CHO assimilation ID of yeast
Free of CHO
BHIA Dimorphic fungi
C. immitis High risk to lab personnel

Molds Filamentous
Room temperature
Yeasts Round/tissue form
37’C
Chitin Fungal cell wall
Ergosterol Fungal cell membrane
Hyphae Aerial/vegetative/substrate
Spores Reproductive
Sporangiophore Aseptate hyphae
Conidiophore Septate hyphae
Sexual spores Ascospores
Basidiospores
Oospores
Asexual spores Chlamydospores: rounding terminal hyphae or intercalary
(within)
Blastospores: budding off (yeasts)
Conidia (macro/micro): dermatophytes
Arthrospores: barrel-shaped, produced from fragmentation of
mycelium
10% KOH preparation Skin and hair
Hyphae, yeasts, spores
Dissolves tissue
Calcofluor white Fluorescent dye
Stains the chitin (cell wall)
Green
Giemsa/Wright’s stain H. capsulatum: the only fungi seen in blood smear
Periodic Acid Schiff Glycogen: purple
No glycogen: pink
Gomori silver Black
Dermatophyte test SDA + phenol red
medium
Inhibitory mold agar SDA + cycloheximide + gentamicin
Potato dextrose agar Pigment
Cornmeal Tween 80 Chlamydospore of C. albicans
agar
Rice medium (+) M. canis
(-) M. audouinii
Staib’s nigerseed agar C. neoformans (black colonies)
Urea agar (+) T. mentagrophytes
(+) C. neoformans
Cottonseed agar B. dermatitidis
Biochemical tests API20C, ID32C

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CHROMagar Candida
Germ tube test For unknown yeast
Cornmeal agar Dalmau-Plate
Mannan antigen Candida
Galactomannan Aspergillus
Fungicidal agents Target: Ergosterol
-Amphotericin B: systemic fungi (most common)
-Nystatin
-Azole (Fluconazole): fungistatic
-Griseofulvin (IV): dermatophytes
AST methods Broth microdilution method
E-test method
Genus-spp ID (molds) Microscopic exam

Superficial Mycoses Non invasive


No immune response from the host
MOT: person-to-person (garment)
-M. furfur
-P. hortai
-T. beigelii
-P. werneckii
M. furfur Ptyriasis versicolor (An-An)
Hypo/Hyperpigmentation of skin
KOH: budding yeast cells and hyphae
PAS: “Spaghetti and meatballs”
Lipophilic: require lipids for growth (SDA + olive oil)
Piedra agents Hair
P. hortai Black piedra
Dematiaceous
Ascospores (sexual)
T. beigelii White piedra
Cream colored
Arthrospores (asexual)
Phaeoannelomyces Tinea nigra
(Exophiala) werneckii Brownish spot (dark pigmentation)
Dematiaeous: moist, shiny-black and yeast-like colonies
Cutaneous mycoses Trichophyton = skin, hair, nails
Microsporum = skin, hair
Epidermophyton = skin, nails
Dermatophytes Keratinophilic
Tinea or ringworm
Endothrix:
-T. tonsurans: dandruff (Tinea capitis)
-T. violaceum
Ectothrix:
-M. gypseum
-M. canis
-T. verrucosum
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Tinea barbae Beard
Tinea capitis Scalp
Tinea corporis Body
Tinea cruris Groin
Tinea pedis Foot (Athlete’s foot)
Tinea unguium Nails
T. rubrum Red pigment
Microconidia: tear-drop shaped (side)
Macroconidia: pencil-shaped
Colony: Fluffy white w/ red color reverse
T. mentagrophytes Microconidia: grape-like (cluster)
(+) Hair penetration test: V-shaped
(+) Urease
T. tonsurans Thiamine-requiring
Black dot tinea capitis
Microconidia: Balloon-shaped
Colony: Creamy white w/ crater-like depression

T. schoenleinii Require thiamine and inositol


Cause Favus: chronic hair infection
Favic chandelier hyphae
T. verrucosum Microconidia: clavate/pyriform
Macroconidia: rat-tail/string-bean-shaped
M. canis Macroconidia: spindle-shaped, echinulate
(+) Wood’s lamp
M. gypseum Geophilic
Macroconidia: oblong (ellipsoidal) w/ blunt/rounded ends
(-) Wood’s lamp
M. audouinii Anthropophilic
Tinea capitis (old)
(NG) Rice medium
E. floccosum Macroconidia: club shaped in pairs
Dutch pants fuseaux
Tx: Dermatophytes Local antifungal creams:
-Miconazole
-Tolnaltate
Oral
-Griseofulvin
-Ketoconazole
Subcutaneous MOT: skin trauma/prick
Mycoses Habitat: soil
Biopsy, granules (PAS, H&E)
-Sporothrix schenckii
-Madura foot agents
-Chromoblastomycosis agents
-Rhinosporidium seeberi
-Loboa loboi

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S. schenckii Mold form: flowerette/daisy-like conidia
Yeast form: Cigar-shaped (asteroid) bodies
Rose Gardener’s disease
-Cord-like multiple subcutaneous nodules
Colony: White to black
Madura foot agents Maduromycosis: mycetoma
P. boydii = most common cause
Madurella
Leptosphaeria
Actinomycetes
Tissue form: Granules
Lesion: granulomatous lesions on foot w/ multiple draining sinus
tracts
P. boydii Cleistothecia
Teleomorph/sexual form
Scedosporium apiospermum: anamorph/asexual form
Chromoblastomycosis Dematiaceous fungi
agents Type of sporulation: ID of genus and species
1. Phialophora verrucosa
-Vase-like
-TOS: phialophore
2. Fonsecaea pedrosoi
-Short chain
-w/ 1’, 2’, 3’ conidia
-TOS: Acrotheca
3. Cladosporium carrionii
-Long chain (branching)
-TOS: Cladosporium
Infected tissue: Brown sclerotic bodies (Medlar bodies)
Lesion: Cauliflower-like
Colonies: Dark w/ jet black reverse
R. seeberi Size: 300 μm
Rhinosporidiosis
MOT: swimming
Polypoid masses in nose and pharynx
Tissue form: Sporangium (sac-like structures filled w/
endospores)
L. loboi Lobomycosis
Lesion: Keloid-like subcutaneous nodule involving the
extremities
Tissue form: Multiple budding cells in chain (Sampaloc-
like/Longganisa-like)
Systemic Mycoses Dimorphic
MOT: inhalation of spores (mold) – infectious
Specimen: Sputum
BSL III = require BSC class II
No person-to-person contact
Colonies: cottony white to brown
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Exoantigen test
-B. dermatitidis
-P. brasiliensis
-H. capsulatum
-C. immitis
B. dermatitidis Agent of:
-North American blastomycosis
-Chicago disease
-Gilchrist disease
Pneumonia and skin infections
Mold form: Lollipop in appearance
Yeast form: Single-budding yeast w/ broad based (double
centered) – diagnostic
Mickey mouse cap
Culture: Medium w/ cycloheximide
Tissue: KOH
Tx: Amphotericin B
P. brasiliensis Agent of:
-South American Blastomycosis
-Lutz Splendore-Almeida disease
Infects spleen, liver, lymph node, skin, lungs
Mold form: Lollipop in appearance
Yeast form: Multiple budding yeast resembling Mariner’s wheel
H. capsulatum RES parasite
Agent of Darling’s disease
“Arise of Tutankhamen’s tomb”
USA = endemic dimorphic ffungus
MOT: inhalation of spores from guanos (droppings of birds,
starlings/chickens, and bats)
Mold form: Tuberculate macroconidia
Yeast form: Yeast cells intracellular in macrophages
Culture: Medium w/ cycloheximide (BM, sputum, tissue)
H. duboisii Double cell
Figure of 8
Causes African histoplasmosis
Grows in N2
Sepedonium Tuberculate macroconidia (resembles H. capsulatum)
To differentiate: Sepedonium is monomorphic
C. immitis Agent of:
-Desert fever
-San Joaquin Valley fever
Alkaline soil
High humidity
Lab. acquired infection
Mold form: Barrel-shaped arthroconidia (200μm)
Yeast form: spherule w/ endospores
Culture: medium w/ cycloheximide (30’C)
Not processed ---(send)---> Reference lab
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Lab. Diagnosis 1. Direct examination
(Systemic mycoses) a. Histoplasma: Wright’s/Giemsa
b. Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, Coccidioides
- KOH: tissue form
- PAS
- H&E
2. Cultures
a. SDA = RT’ (mold)
b. BHIA + blood = 37’C (yeast)
3. Immunological tests
a. Coccidioidin
b. Histoplasmin
Exoantigen Test Principle: Double Diffusion
A = B. dermatitidis
HS, HL, F = C. immitis
H & M = H. capsulatum
1, 2, 3 = P. brasiliensis
Opportunistic Normal flora (Ex. Candida)
Mycoses At risk: immunocompromised person
-Candida
-Cryptococcus
-Aspergillus
C. albicans Normal flora: skin, mucous membrane, GIT
Produce yeast and hyphae in vivo
-Germ tube
-Chlamydospore
-Blastoconidia
-Pseudohyphae
-True hyphae
(+) Sucrose
EMB: feathering colonies
Diseases:
-Thrush
-Diaper rash
-Candidiasis (Old: Moniliasis): cutaneous, oropharyngeal (white
patches), esophagitis, cheilitis, onchomycosis, vulvovaginitis,
invasive infection (CNS, blood)
Predisposing factors:
-Prolong antibiotic use especially broad spectrum = disturb pH
-Pregnancy
-DM
-Malnutrition
Lab. Diagnosis:
1. (G) SDA
2. Screening test: Germ tube test
= Organisms + Serum ---(35’C for 2-3 hours)---> (+) Germ tube
3. Confirmatory test: Chlamydospore Cornmeal agar
= C. albicans  Inoculate: CMA ---(RT’ for 48-72 hours)---> (+)
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Chlamydospore
Other Candida spp C. tropicalis = infection on immunocompromised host
C. glabrata = 2nd common spp
C. krusei = hematological disorders
C. parapsilosis = endocarditis
Lab. Diagnosis Vaginal pH: 4.5
(Candida) Rule out vaginosis/Trichomoniasis = alkaline pH
Vaginal discharge = 10% KOH (Whiff’s test)
Fungal culture
(+) Germ tube test C. albicans = (+) Chlamydospores, (+) Sucrose, (G) 42’C
C. stellatoidea = (-) Chlamydospores, (-) Sucrose, (NG) 42’C
G. candidum = (+) Arthrospores
C. dubliniensis = (NG) 42’C, double conidia
Cryptococcus Found in pigeon droppings and soil
(Filobasidiella) MOT: inhalation of airborne organism
neoformans Encapsulated yeast (India ink)
Diseases:
-Meningitis
-Torulosis (Old: Cryptococcosis)
-Pneumonia
Lab. Diagnosis:
-Old: India ink preparation = CSF, pulmonary tissue
-New: Latex agglutination (Ag): capsule
-Biochemical tests:
= (+) Inositol
= (+) Urease
= (-) NO3 assimilation = yellow
= (+) Phenoloxidase = makes the colonies black
= (+) Phospholipase
-(G) Birdseed agar
= Assimilate creatinine
= Colonies: Yeastlike, mucoid, cream to brown
-Culture: SDA w/o cycloheximide
Tx: Amphotericin B, Fluconazole
Rhodotorula Resemble C. neoformans
Encapsulated
To differentiate: Rhodotorula = pink colonies, (+) Urease, (+)
NO3 assimilation
Aspergillus Bread mold
Septate hyphae
Found in nature: soil, plant, air
Vesicles: swollen conidiophores
A. flavus Aflatoxin (toxicoses) = HCC

A. fumigatus Fungus ball


Aspergilloma
A. niger Brown to black spore
Lab. Diagnosis 10% KOH
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(Aspergillus) SDA
Ag detection (serum) = Galactomannan
Zygomycosis/ Agents: Zygomycetes
Mucormycosis -Rhizopus
-Absidia
-Mucor
MOT: inhalation of airborne conidia
Infections:
-Rhinocerebral: Rhino-facial-cranial
-Lungs, GIT, skin
Lab. Diagnosis:
-Culture w/ SDA
Penicillium Brush-like conidiophores
Colony: white to bluish green, yellow/brown
Fusarium Sickle or canoe shaped, multiseptate macroconidia
Colony: Cottony white to pink or purple colony
Phaeohyphomycosis Dematiaceous fungi (Except Chromoblastomycosis agents)
-Alternaria
-Bipolaris
-Curvularia
-Dreschlera
-Exophiala
P. jiroveci (Old: P. Old: Protozoan cyst (parasite) because it has no ergosterol
carinii) New: Fungi because of DNA homology
Diseases:
-#1 cause of pneumonia in AIDS patient
-#1 opportunistic infection in AIDS patient
Lab. Diagnosis:
-Masson-Fontana silver stain
-Mucicarmine: stain for spherule

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MUST TO KNOW IN VIROLOGY
Ether-resistant Naked virus
Ether-sensitive Enveloped virus
Acid-labile Rhinovirus
Acid-stable Enterovirus
Infantile diarrhea Rotavirus
Myxoviruses H&N
Hemagglutination/ Influenza
Hemadsorption Parainfluenza
Mumps
Reye’s syndrome Chicken pox
Influenza
Bronchiolitis in RSV
children
Hepatitis Yellow fever
HBV
CMV
Reservoir of Birds
Togavirus
dsRNA Reovirus
ssDNA Parvovirus
Tzanck smear HSV
VZV
Latent infection HSV
Rubeola virus Measles
Rubella virus German measles
SSPE Measles virus
PML JC virus (polyoma)
Prion Spongiform encephalopathy
Viroid RNA (HDV)
Human Embryonic CMV
Fibroblast cell
PMKC, MDCK, Influenza
Hen’s egg
5th disease Parvovirus B19
th
6 disease HHV-6
Kaposi’s sarcoma HHV-8
Filoviridae Marburg and Ebola
Coronavirus SARS
Influenza virus Bird’s flu = H5:N1
Use cotton swabs Virus
Delay of 3 days 4’C
Delay of 4 days -70’C, not -20’C
CPE Tissue culture
33’C Rhinovirus
EM Negative stain
Gold, silver stain
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PTA
Roller drum Hold cell culture tube
Dmitri Iwanowsky Father of virology
Nucleic acid DNA or RNA
genome
Capsid Protective protein coat
Envelope Lipid derived from host cell membrane

Icosahedral DNA virus


(+) Sense RNA virus
Helical (-) Sense RNA virus
Complex Poxvirus
EM (inverted Viral morphology
microscope)
LM Inclusion bodies:
-Negri bodies: Rabies
-Councilman bodies: Yellow fever
Direct IF Viral antigen
Eggs (G) Pock formation on CAM (Chrorioallantoic
membrane)
Primary cell Passed only once
Ex. 1’ monkey kidney cells (fluvirus)
Semi-continuous Passed 50x
Ex. HDF/HEK cells
Continuous Malignant
Passed indefinitely
Ex. Hela, Hep-2
Transport medium Dry ice (4’C)
1. Stuart’s: viral transport medium
2. Leibovitz-Emory
3. Earles/Hanks balance salt solution
Viral growth Cytopathic effect
Hemadsorption (ex. flu virus)
Interference: Rubella and Enterovirus
Rounding necrosis Enterovirus
Ballooning/Giant HSV
cells
Grapelike cluster Adenovirus
Syncytium form RSV
Measles
Rubella (giant cells)
Hemadsorption Influenza
Parainfluenza
Measles
Mumps
Refractile, round Rhinovirus (33’C)
cell

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Multiplication 1. Adsorption = attachment
cycle 2. Penetration = entry
3. Uncoating = (-) capsid
4. Eclipse (Synthetic) = replication  transcription
 translation  viral CHON
5. Assembly = creation of new virus particle
6. Release
DNA Viruses “HHAPPPy”
Herpesvirus
Hepadnavirus
Adenovirus
Poxvirus
Papovavirus (Papilloma, Polyoma, Simian Vacuolating
Virus)
Parvovirus
Rule: DNA viruses All are dsDNA except: Parvovirus (ssDNA)
All are icosahedral except: Poxvirus (complex)
All multiply in the nucleus except: Poxvirus
(cytoplasm)

All are enveloped except: PAP (Naked)


-Parvovirus
-Adenovirus
-Papovavirus
Poxvirus Brick-shaped
Largest DNA virus: 225 x 300 nm
Inclusions: Guarnieri bodies
Vesicular skin lesions in host
a. Variola major = smallpox
b. Variola minor = alastrim
c. Vaccinia virus = cowpox (vaccine against smallpox)
Molluscum contagiosum = wartlike tumors
Lab. Diagnosis:
-CPE on cell culture
-Pocks on Chorioallantoic membrane
-Viral antigens in vesicle fluid = precipitin tests, IF
-Convalescent serum phase = 4-fold increase in
antibody titer
Tx: Methisazone
Parvovirus Strain B19: Cause aplastic crisis (RBC: sickle cell
anemia)
Erythema infectiosum
-5th disease
-Slapped cheeks
Hydrops fetalis: miscarriages
Lab. Diagnosis:
-(+) IgM
-PCR: viral DNA from blood specimen or amniotic
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fluid
Herpesviridae 1’ and latency infection
Alpha = HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV
Beta = CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7
Gamma = EBV, HHV-8
HSV-1 1’ infection: Gingivostomatitis
Latent infection
-Herpes labialis
-Fever blister
-Cold sore
-Keratitis
Common cause of viral encephalitis
Latency site: Trigeminal ganglion
HSV-2 Genital herpes
Neonatal herpes
Aseptic meningitis
Cervical cancer (HPV)
Latency site: Sacral ganglion
Lab. Diagnosis 1. Tzanck smear: multinucleated giant cells w/
(HSV-1 & 2) cowdry inclusion
2. Cell culture: most diagnostic
-CPE: 1-5 days
-Virus ID: IFT
3. PCR
VZV 1’ infection: Varicella/Chicken pox
Recurrent/Reactivation: Zoster/Shingles
Latency site: Dorsal root of ganglia
Association in Reye’s syndrome

Lab. Diagnosis:
1. Tzanck smear: multinucleated giant cell w/ cowdry
type A inclusion (HSV, VZV)
2. IFT: method of choice
EBV Infects B cells (CD 21)
(+) Heterophile antibodies
Agent: IM
Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Lab. Diagnosis:
-Not cultured
1. Heterophil Ab test: monospot
2. EBV specific Ab test: EBVCA IgM, EBNA
3. Hematology: Downey cells
CMV MOT: Transplacental, oral, sexual, blood, tissue
transplant
#1 congenital infection
Mononucleosis-like but (-) Heterophile Ab
“Owl’s eye” inclusion (PAP or Giemsa) = urine/tissue
Culture:
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-HDF cell = method of choice
HHV-6 Roseola infantum
6th childhood disease: skin rash
Reactivation in AIDS:
-Encephalitis
-Pneumonitis
-Chorioretinitis
HHV-7 No known disease
HHV-8 Kaposi’s sarcoma (HIV)
Polyomavirus BK virus = renal disease
JC virus = PML: Progressive Multifocal
Leukoencephalopathy
Papillomavirus Tropism for squamous epithelial cells = Warts
(fingers, sole, face)
Cervical, squamous cell, vulvar, penile cancer
Condylomata acuminate = anogenital warts
Adenovirus #1 Viral conjunctivitis
Serotypes:
1.) 3, 4, 7, 21 = acute respiratory disease
2.) 8, 19 = epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
3.) 11, 21 = hemorrhagic cystitis
4.) 40, 41 = infantile gastroenteritis
Hepadnavirus Acute and chronic hepatitis B
#1 Blood borne disease
HCC
Co-infection/superinfection w/ HDV
Lab. Diagnosis:
-ELISA
-PCR
-Markers:
a. HBsAg
b. HBeAg
c. anti-HBc
d. anti-HBs
e. anti-HBe

RNA viruses All are ssRNA except: Reovirus (dsRNA)


All are enveloped except: PCR (naked)
-Picornavirus
-Calicivirus
-Reovirus
All are nonsegmented except: ROBA (segmented)
-Reovirus
-Orthomyxovirus
-Bunyavirus
-Arenavirus
Generally helical:
-(+) sense virus (icosahedral)
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-(-) sense virus (helical)
Positive-Sense virus:
= Call (Calicivirus)
= Pico & (Picornavirus)
= Flo (Flavivirus)
= To (Togavirus)
= Come (Coronavirus)
= Right (Retrovirus)
Negative-Sense virus:
= Pairing (Paramyxovirus)
= Of (Orthomyxovirus)
= Rats at (Rhabdovirus)
= Bunny’s (Bunyavirus)
= Area (Arenavirus)
Picornaviridase Acid Resistance:
-Enterovirus: acid-resistant
-Rhinovirus: acid-stable
Site to multiply:
-Enterovirus: GIT
-Rhinovirus: Nasal
Aseptic meningitis
Poliovirus Poliomyelitis
MOT: fecal-oral, respiratory droplets
Anterior horn cells of the spinal cord
Vaccines:
1. Salk vaccine = killed/inactivated virus (injected)
2. Sabin vaccine = live attenuated virus (oral)
Coxsackie A Herpangina
Coxsackie B Pleurodynia
ECHOvirus Enteric Cytopathic Human Orphan virus
Aseptic meningitis
HAV Enterovirus 72
Rhinovirus Acid-labile (33’C)
Common cause of common colds
Orthomyxoviridae Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (N)
Antigenic changes:
a. Shift: genetic reassortment (pandemic)
b. Drift: point mutation (epidemic)

Influenza virus Flu virus


Type A: Pandemic (Ag shift and drift)
-AH1:N1 = Spanish flu/Swine flue
-AH2:N2 = Asian flu
-AH3:N2 = Hongkong flu
-AH5:N1 = Avian flu
Type B: Epidemic (Ag drift)
Type C: Stable
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Lab. Diagnosis:
1. Ag detection = IFT, ELISA
-Throat washing
-Nasopharyngeal aspirate
2. Virus isolation
-Throat swab
-Nasopharyngeal aspirate
-Medium: PMKC, MDCK, Embryonated egg
(hemadsorption)
3. Serology: Ab assay
-HAI
-IFT
-EIA
-CFT
Tx: Amantidine, Rimantidine
Prevention: Vaccine
Paramyxoviridae Hemagglutinin (H), Neuraminidase (N) and Fusion (F)
antigen
Parainfluenza Croup: Laryngotracheobronchitis
virus Specimen: NPA/W
Culture: PMK, LLC-MK2
ID: Hemadsorption, IF, EIA
Tx: Aerosolized ribavirin
No vaccine
Mumps virus Parotitis, orchitis, aseptic meningitis
(+) in saliva and urine = IFA, EIA, HAI
Culture: PMK, HEK, Embryonated egg
Measles (Rubeola) Koplik spots
virus/ 2nd infection: SSPE (Subacute sclerosing
Morbillivirus panencephalitis)
Specimen: NPS, urine
Culture: PMK (multinucleated cells)
Serology: (+) IgM Ab’s
RSV #1 Bronchiolitis in children
Specimen: NPS  DFA, EIA
Culture: PMK (syncytia), HDFC
Tx: Ribavirin
Henipavirus Nipah virus: Encephalitis = Pig  Man
Hendra virus: Respiratory disease in horses
Togaviridae Arbovirus
Alphavirus
Rubivirus
Arbovirus Arthropod borne (mosquito)
Includes:
-Flavivirus
-Bunyavirus

Flavivirus a. Dengue fever virus


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-Aedes aegypti
-Acute hemorrhagic fever
-“Saddleback fever”, “Breakbone fever”
b. St. Louis encephalitis virus = Culex
c. Yellow fever virus = Councilman bodies
d. Japanese B encephalitis virus
e. West Nile encephalitis virus
Bunyavirus California encephalitis virus
Rift Valley fever
Hantavirus: Hantaan (Korean) virus
Hemorrhagic fever w/ renal involvement
Alphaviruses Encephalitis:
-Western equine encephalitis (WEE)
-Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE)
-Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)
Rubivirus (Rubella German measles: 3-day rash
virus) “Blueberry muffin” baby
Teratogenic virus (fetal defect)
Lab. Diagnosis:
-IF
-EIA
-HA test: sensitive
Rhabdoviridae 1. Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
-Bullet-shaped
-Cause encephalitis
Lab. Diagnosis: Negri bodies (dog brain) = Seller’s
stain
2. Vesicular stomatitis
-Cattle, horse, pig
Filoviridae Filamentous
1. Marburg-Ebola virus
2. Hemorrhagic fever
Reoviridae 1. Rotavirus = Wagon wheel like (EM)
2. Orbivirus = Colorado tick fever
Coronavirus Club-shaped
SARS agent; common colds
Gastroenteritis
Lab. Diagnosis: EM, IF, EIA
Calicivirus Norwalk-like virus
Astrovirus #1 gastroenteritis (adults)
Diarrhea
Lab. Diagnosis: EM
Retrovirus Reverse transcriptase: RNA  DNA
1. Lentivirus
-HIV: AIDS
2. Oncornavirus
-HTLV-I: Human T cell Leukemia
-HTLV-II: Hairy Cell Leukemia
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Lab. Diagnosis:
a. Serology:
-ELISA (screen)
-WB (confirm)
-PCR: HIV-DNA
Arenaviridae Arena-Sandy hemorrhagic fever
1. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus
2. Junin virus = Argentina
3. Machupo virus = Bolivia
4. Lassa fever virus = Zoonotic (rats)
HAV Picornavirus (Enterovirus 72)
Infectious hepatitis
HBV Hepadnavirus
Serum hepatitis
HCV Flavivirus
Non-A, Non-B/post-transfusion hepatitis
HDV Viroid-like
Require HBV infection
HEV Calicivirus
Water-borne
HGV Flavivirus
Blood-borne hepatitis
Prion-caused 1. Scrapie = sheep/goat
diseases (Slow 2. Kuru
disease) 3. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) = man
4. Gerstmann-Straussler Scheinker syndrome (GSS)
5. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy = mad cow
disease

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