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The Japanese Alphabet.

The Japanese alphabet is usually referred to as kana, specifically hiragana and katakana. While the Hiragana consists of 48 syllables,
it is a phonetic alphabet where each alphabetic combination represents just a single sound. Thus any Japanese word can be written in
a way that can be read without having to remember how the word is pronounced. So the Japanese kana are much simpler, the way
something is written is the way it sounds. There is also Kanji, a Japanese system of writing based on borrowed or slightly modified
Chinese characters.

Hiragana Syllables
The table below shows the 48 Hiragana syllables:

a あ ka か sa さ ta た na な ha は ma ま ya や ra ら wa わ n ん
i い ki き shi し chi ち ni に hi ひ mi み ri り wi ゐ
u う ku く su す tsu つ nu ぬ fu ふ mu む yu ゆ ru る
e え ke け se せ te て ne ね he へ me め re れ we ゑ
o お ko こ so そ to と no の ho ほ mo も yo よ ro ろ wo を

Maybe you have noticed that many sounds are missing, that’s why Japanese added some additional sounds using diacritics or
combinations of syllables, the table below shows the additional sounds in
Hiragana:

ga が za ざ da だ ba ば pa ぱ
gi ぎ ji じ ji ぢ bi び pi ぴ
gu ぐ zu ず zu づ bu ぶ pu ぷ
ge げ ze ぜ de で be べ pe ぺ
go ご zo ぞ do ど bo ぼ po ぽ

kya きゃ sha しゃ cha ちゃ hya ひゃ pya ぴゃ rya りゃ


kyu きゅ shu しゅ chu ちゅ hyu ひゅ pyu ぴゅ ryu りゅ
kyo きょ sho しょ cho ちょ hyo ひょ pyo ぴょ ryo りょ

gya ぎゃ ja じゃ nya にゃ bya びゃ mya みゃ (ja) ぢゃ


gya ぎゅ ju じゅ nyu にゅ byu びゅ my みゅ (ju) ぢゅ
gyo ぎょ jo じょ nyo にょ byo びょ myo みょ (jo) ぢょ
Katakana Syllables
Katakana are most often used for transcription of words in foreign languages, used to represent sounds, technical and scientific terms.
Katakana’s main feature is short straight strokes and angular corners, that’s why Katakana is considered the simplest of the Japanese
scripts.

a ア ka カ sa サ ta タ na ナ ha ハ ma マ ya ヤ ra ラ wa ワ n ン
i イ ki キ shi シ chi チ ni ニ hi ヒ mi ミ ri リ (wi) ヰ
u ウ ku ク su ス tsu ツ nu ヌ fu フ mu ム yu ユ ru ル
e エ ke ケ se セ te テ ne ネ he ヘ me メ re レ (we) ヱ
o オ ko コ so ソ to ト no ノ ho ホ mo モ yo ヨ ro ロ (w)o ヲ
ga ガ za ザ da ダ ba バ pa パ
gi ギ ji ジ ji ヂ bi ビ pi ピ
gu グ zu ズ zu ヅ bu ブ pu プ
ge ゲ ze ゼ de デ be ベ pe ペ
go ゴ zo ゾ do ド bo ボ po ポ

kya キャ sha シャ cha チャ hya ヒャ pya ピャ rya リャ


kyu キュ shu シュ chu チュ hyu ヒュ pyu ピュ ryu リュ
kyo キョ sho ショ cho チョ hyo ヒョ pyo ピョ ryo リョ
gya ギャ ja ジャ nya ニャ bya ビャ mya ミャ (ja) ヂャ
gya ギュ ju ジュ nyu ニュ byu ビュ my ミュ (ju) ヂュ
gyo ギョ jo ジョ nyo ニョ byo ビョ myo ミョ (jo) ヂョ

For a modern Katakana there was a necessity to add some sounds, below is a list of additions to the katakana, used mainly to
represent sounds from other languages:

ye イェ va (ヷ) va ヴァ she シェ ti ティ tsa ツァ fa ファ


wi ウィ vi (ヸ) vi ヴィ je ジェ tu トゥ tsi ツィ fi フィ
we ウェ vu ヴ ve ヴェ che チェ tyu テュ tse ツェ fe フェ
wo ウォ ve (ヹ) vo ヴォ di ディ tso ツォ fo フォ
vo (ヺ) vya ヴャ du ドゥ fyu フュ
vyu ヴュ dyu デュ
vyo ヴョ

Kanji Characters
Kanji are used together with three other systems to write modern Japanese, Kanji which is a Japanese system of writing based on
borrowed or slightly modified Chinese characters is used to write parts of the language such as nouns, adjective stems and verb stems.
For Kanji characters refers to the Chinese characters.