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BY: NEIL GARCIA About the poem:

- The “CONVERSION” is an eye opener to the society about GENDER
About the author: INEQUALITY.
 He finished his undergraduate studies in UST in 1990. Strength of the Poem:
 Graduated magna cum laude in AB Journalism - The poem is trying to portray a life of a gay person who converted
 He continued his education in UP Diliman himself from being gay back to its original gender (male) for he was
 1995- MA Comparative Literature not accepted by his father.
 2003- Ph.D in English Studies Creative Writing Analysis of the poem:
 He is currently working in UP Diliman as a Creative Writer and - Line 1-4.
Comparative Literature professor  Tough love of his family towards the persona
 Associate for Poetry at Likhaan : UP Institute of Creative Writing - Line 5-20
PERSONA  Use of hyperbole/exaggeration to represents the intensity of events
- A voice of mouthpiece of the writer - Line 20-21.
- The character “Curled up in the deepest corner of my dead mother’s cabinet, father found
BAKLA me.”
- In Philippines: bakla (gay) Line 22-27
- Cebuano: bayot  Strong ANXIETY of the persona by how detailed he described that day
- Hiligaynon: agi
 is a person who was assigned male at birth, but usually adopted feminine Line 28-34
mannerisms and usually dress as women. - The boy details the water torture to recognize his manhood.

HISTORY: Use of descriptive language

- SPANISH (asog, bayog, bayoquin) “shamans” (babaylan) - Conforming his homosexuality
Babaylan: highly respected members of the community who functioned as Line 35-44
healers, keepers of oral histories, and spirit mediums for communicating - Demonstrate the breaking point of the boy and conforming the
ancestral and natural spirits (anito). demand of his family.
- “Lalaki ako kasi sinabi nyo”
Etymology: “BACLA” –
- Francisco Balagtas’ FLORANTE AT LAURA Line 56-65
- a temporary lack of resolve  This part shows that the country is very patriarchal and very closed
- “ BINABAE or BAYONGIN” minded when it comes to UNCONVENTIONAL GENDERS.
- Spanish colonization: fearful or weakend Line 66-78
“BA LA- BAKLA - The girl in persona’s body is still alive, perhaps still trying to reach out.
- Baybayin script - He is concealing the girl’s existence for his family.
- Represents “female” and “male”
Line 78 Adultery
- WE DIE TO RISE TO A BETTER LIFE” - voluntary sexual intercourse between a married man and someone other
than his wife or between a married woman and someone other than her
DEAD STARS husband;
Paz Márquez-Benítez
Short story writer Concubinage- cohabitation of persons not legally married.
Born: 1894, Lucena, Philippines What is ADULTERY?
Died: 1983, Manila - Adultery means the carnal relation between a married woman and a
Nationality: Philippine man who is not her husband, the latter knowing her to be married,
Education: University of the Philippines even if the marriage be subsequently declared void (RPC, Article
Parents: Maria Jurado, Gregorio Marquez 333). Each sexual intercourse constitutes a crime of adultery.
What is concubinage?
Who are the characters in the story? - Concubinage is committed by any husband who shall keep a mistress
Alfredo Salazar in the conjugal dwelling, or, shall have sexual intercourse, under
Son of Don Julian, a more than 30 years old man and a bachelor. He is scandalous circumstances, with a woman who is not his wife, or shall
engaged to Esperanza but him still fleeting to Julia Salas. cohabit with her in any other place (Article 334 of the Revised Penal
Esperanza Code or RPC).
 Wife of Alfredo Salazar. She is a homely woman, literal minded
 She is one of those fortunate women who have the gift of uniformly Proof of sexual intercourse is enough in adultery, but in concubinage,
beauty. the prosecution must prove that the sexual intercourse must be under
Julia Salas scandalous circumstances, or that the husband kept a mistress in the
 sister-in-law of Judge Del Valle. She is the other girl of Alfredo Salazar conjugal dwelling or cohabited with her in any other place.
that remains single in her entire life
Don Julian Background Knowledge:
 an old man, a father of Alfredo Salazar and Carmen. - Under Philippine Law, when a woman is guilty of adultery she
Carmen commits a crime, while for a man, the crime is not adultery but
 sister of Alfredo Salazar concubinage.
Judge Del Valle - In our country , there is one set of laws for women, and another set of
brother-in-law of Julia Salas. law for men, which shows that laws in the Philippine are patriacharcal
in nature, and seem to favor men over women.