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Khruang sai
- is an orchestra that combines some of the percussion of wind instruments of the piphat
with a straitened string section
- is used for indoor performances and for the accompaniment of stick-puppet theater


a. SAW DUANG - is a two-stringed instrument used in traditional Thai

music. The sound is produced by the bow made from horsetail hair which
goes between the strings made from silk. The bow has to be tilted to switch
from one string to another. Saw duang is light and played vertically on the
lap. It creates a bright tone unlike the Saw u which produces a mellow

b. SALAW - is a folk musical instrument of the Northern Thai

Region. The sound box is made of half of a coconut shell, similar to
the Saw U of the Central Region. The sound box is covered with a
thin sheet of wood instead of leather. The bow is made of hard wood,
about 70 centimeters long. The strings of the bow are made of
horsetail hair or small nylon strings. When playing the instrument,
the bow is separated from the body of the Salaw. Normally the
Salaw has 2 strings made of metal wire. There are 2 tuning pegs
which are slanted inserted into the neck. The body and the neck of the Salaw are usually carved
with decorative motifs.


of hardwood in a stylized crocodile shape and is
approximately 20 cm high and 130–132 cm long.
The "head" portion is 52 cm long, 28 cm wide
and 9–12 cm deep; the "tail" portion 81 cm long
and 11.5 cm wide. It has eleven (jhakhe) or
twelve (krapeu) raised frets made of bamboo,
ivory, bone or wood, graduated between 2 and
3.5 cm in height, which are affixed to
the fretboard with wax or glue. Its highest two
strings are made of silk yarn, catgut or nylon
while the lowest is made of metal.
d. KHLUI - is probably the first wind instrument which the Thai devised
themselves although the shape of the instrument is very similar to Indian
flute. The khlui is also similar to the Japanese flute. In the old days,
the khlui was made of a long length of one variety of bamboo, cut so that
there would be a "node 1" from the lower end. This node, however, was
pierced so that there was an open shaft throughout the entire length of the

e. THON - is usually paired with the Rammana, a small, higher pitched frame drum. are hand
drums played as a pair in Thai classical music. It consists of two drums: the thon , a goblet
drum with a ceramic or wooden body and the rammana, a small frame drum. They are used usually
in the khruang sai ensemble. The thon gives a low pitch and the rammana gives a high pitch.

f. KHIM - is a stringed musical

instrument derived from the Persian Santur.
It is similar to the Hammered Dulcimer
or Cimbalom. This khim was introduced
to Cambodia, Laos and Thailand from China
, where a similar (though, since the late 20th
century, usually larger) instrument is
called yangqin It is played with two flexible
bamboo sticks with soft leather at the tips to
produce a soft tone. This instrument can be
played by either sitting down on the floor
with the khim on the floor, or by sitting on a
chair or standing while the khim is on a
stand. The khim produces a bright and expressive sound when played. It is made of wood,
with brass strings that are laid across the instrument.