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Forensic Sci Med Pathol (2012) 8:148–156

DOI 10.1007/s12024-011-9279-9

REVIEW

Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification


John William Berketa • Helen James •

Anthony W. Lake

Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published online: 28 September 2011


Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Abstract Forensic odontology is one of three primary From that time, forensic odontology has been a major
identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass contributor to the identification of victims in disasters.
casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five Today forensic odontology is considered to be a special-
phases—Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation ized and reliable method of identification of the deceased,
and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, interna- particularly in multiple fatality incidents [2]. Recent events
tional cooperation and standardization are essential to guar- include the Lockerbie air disaster of 1988, where 209 of the
antee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure 270 victims were identified with the aid of forensic odon-
should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation tology [3], and the 2001 World Trade Center disaster,
and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the where at least 501 victims were identified by dental com-
relief program. Issues that must be considered in the man- parison [4]. After the Bali bombings in 2002, more than
agement of the forensic odontology component of disaster 60% of victims of all nationalities were identified using
victim identification are given in ‘‘Appendix 1’’. Each stage of dental evidence [5]. In Thailand, following the Boxing Day
the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and Tsunami of 2004, of the first 1,474 deceased identified,
a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested. dental comparison was the primary identifier in 79% of
cases and a contributor in another 8% [6]. In the 2009
Keywords Forensic odontology  Disaster victim Victorian bushfire disaster there were 173 deaths with the
identification  Disaster management  Checklist majority of the victims identified by dental comparison [7].
Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers
designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty
Introduction events [8]. As dental structures are the most durable of human
tissue [9], the utilization of odontology continues to provide
In 1897, at a Charity Bazaar for the wealthy society of evidence of identification of victims subjected to the extremes
Paris, an explosion occurred in a gas lamp of a cinemato- of heat, trauma or decomposition [10, 11]. Even when victims
graph. The resultant panic and fire caused 126 deaths, with are not severely compromised, forensic odontology proves to
all but 30 bodies identified visually. The Paraguayan be rapid and cost effective relative to DNA analysis.
Consul at that time suggested that dental matching might The Interpol DVI Standing Committee recommends that
be useful and consequently most of the remaining bodies forward planning, adequate funding, international cooper-
were identified by dental comparison. Reports about this ation and standardization is essential to guarantee an
incident later became a main component of the thesis of Dr. effective response [12]. However, every multiple fatality
Oscar Amoedo (1863–1945) [1]. incident response has its own idiosyncrasies that will
require both flexibility and advance planning [13].
Throughout the world, local regions may have developed
J. W. Berketa (&)  H. James  A. W. Lake
their own forensic identification response teams in addition
Forensic Odontology Unit, University of Adelaide, Adelaide,
SA 5005, Australia to federal authorities such as the Australian Federal Police
e-mail: johnberketa@hotmail.com in Australia and the Department of Health and Human

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Forensic Sci Med Pathol (2012) 8:148–156 149

Services Disaster Mortuary Operational Response team medical radiographs and boxed exhibits for dental casts and
(DMORT) in the United States. Some private companies, appliances [13]. One of the key points in the SOP would be
like Kenyon International Emergency Services, Inc., also that for any data entry odontologists should work in pairs,
offer the services of a mortuary response [6]. DVI teams emphasizing accuracy, detail, standardization, completeness
should respect the host country’s customs and perform their and clarity and must sign off all these entries. The previous
duties within the guidelines of that country with profes- experience of odontologists involved in DVI responses is
sionalism and dignity toward the bodies. If possible, local critical as deploying inexperienced personnel to DVI situa-
disasters are best handled by locally-based professionals, as tions is no longer considered appropriate [17]. However, DVI
they are the ones who understand the local issues. missions provide excellent teaching opportunities and inter-
Dental teams are utilized in collecting and systemati- national agencies have a responsibility to teach less experi-
cally recording both antemortem and postmortem data, as enced colleagues and local staff during deployment [18]. The
well as comparing the data and reporting the evidence. less experienced odontologist must be paired with an experi-
They are therefore involved in all five phases––Scene, enced odontologist to limit error. To minimize bias no odon-
Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. To tologist should peer review their own data nor be involved in
maintain quality control, each phase should have a dental reconciliation if they have had an input at an earlier stage.
team leader who manages the daily activities of the phase
and reports to the odontology coordinator. The odontology
Scene
coordinator oversees all odontology aspects and reports to
the DVI Commander.
At the scene of a disaster, the deceased victims and body
One of the recurring problems in DVI incidents is the
parts are located, documented and imaged before retrieval,
potential for misidentification, because of the failure to
together with evidence collected which might assist in the
establish clear practice guidelines and lines of authority at
identification of those victims. The scene retrieval teams are
the earliest possible opportunity, inadequate or idiosyn-
usually police officers trained in specific DVI protocols [7].
cratic initial examinations, failure to follow protocols, and
In environments of severe incineration or trauma, it is wise
failure to ensure adequate quality assurance reviews [14].
that odontologists attend with the retrieval teams to maxi-
A Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) should be utilized
mize, document and protect the evidence. Before entering
to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health
the disaster area, odontologists must be equipped with
issues, maintain security, and form a structure to the relief
appropriate safety equipment (helmets, overalls, boots,
program. Every participant should have read and under-
rubber gloves, etc.) and follow guidelines set out by the
stood the SOP before deployment as political, jurisdic-
local scene commander [8]. Dental remains subjected to
tional, and sometimes legal issues may arise [13]. After the
incineration are often reduced to friable or fragile compo-
first week in South West Thailand in 2005 following the
nents. Protecting fragile remains at the scene and during
Tsunami disaster there were already 26 different nation’s
transportation to the mortuary is critical as destruction will
disaster personnel busy working in several sites [15]. It
result in difficulty obtaining postmortem evidence and lead
would be hard to imagine that all participants were coor-
to problems during the reconciliation (formal identification)
dinated in the most efficient way. The SOP should be
phase of the investigation [19]. A high resolution portrait
formulated to pay particular note of working environmental
image of the head and surrounding area taken before the
conditions and sources of stress, given the nature of the
body is moved may also prove extremely useful for com-
work. Adequate time must be provided for rest and recu-
parative analysis with antemortem photographs and dental
peration and working days should not be prolonged, despite
data, as well as assisting in assessment if material has been
the enormity of the task at hand and the sometimes intense
lost in transfer. A camera equipped with virtual point GPS
pressures for speedy results that are applied by families,
tracking may be advantageous. Odontologists would also be
media, and authorities [16].
able to expertly identify dental structures such as implants,
The SOP would outline any computer software program to
dental appliances, restorations and individual tooth parts
be utilized, with a glossary of terms and abbreviations
that might have been dislodged from the deceased. Ensuring
accepted for data entry. If paper files are to be produced,
that all dental evidence is recorded, collected and protected
transparent zip-lock bags can be used to hold files for each
should reduce the number of revisits to the scene [13, 19].
antemortem and postmortem case, and only one file should be
open per operator at any given time. Control of file movement
among the antemortem, postmortem, and reconciliation sec- Postmortem
tions, and between personnel, is best managed by bar-coding
to allow easy tracking and accountability. Exhibit storage The aim of the postmortem phase is the collection of
areas must also be pre-planned for oversized exhibits, such as objective, maximized, retrievable and quality controlled

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dental data and images for utilization in the reconciliation harvest a DNA sample by tooth extraction. All other data
phase. The postmortem examination should be undertaken should be recorded at the first examination.
at a secure mortuary site and the remains examined by two Standards of procedure for staff rosters, and adherence
forensic dentists to document and confirm the findings. to them by postmortem teams, is essential as mental and
Photographs and full mouth radiographs are usually taken physical stress can jeopardize the quality of data obtained.
[20]. A designated area for odontology examinations
should be allocated. If computer technology is to be used a
clean area is required for data entry and uploading images. Antemortem
Postmortem data can be directly entered into available
computer software such as DVI System InternationalÒ The aim of the antemortem phase is the maximization of
(Plassdata, Holbaek, Denmark) [21, 22] or similar software retrievable and quality controlled objective dental data,
TM
such as WinID [23] or NCIC [24]. This may save con- including images, of a suspected disaster victim, and col-
siderable time, duplication of effort and reduce the risk of lation of that data in a standardized format for use in the
transposition error, but must be balanced against the reconciliation phase.
potential conflict of use, and decreased efficiency of using The collection of dental data is undertaken by the police
a search engine [25]. The terminology and glossary of via investigators and counselors who interview surviving
terms should be strictly adhered to from the SOP to min- family members. Data on physical appearance and property
imize misinterpretation and error. All imaging, including is collated, together with photographs, DNA and fingerprint
dental radiography, should ideally be in digital format so samples, and information regarding each missing person’s
specific protocols regarding chain of evidence and data dentists and dental appliances [26]. It has been reported
storage requirements are met [20]. Digital radiographs that police teams are not always aware of where dental and
would exclude the errors that could occur in chemical medical records could be located and what other data may
developing, fixing, improper mounting and scanning. Por- assist in collating dental evidence [25]. As well as the
table, hand-held, lightweight, battery-powered X-ray written original dental records, any existing radiographs,
machines such as the Nomad (Aribex, East Orem, USA) is referrals, accounts, stone models and photographs need to
useful in the mortuary for dental radiographs [13]. This be collected from the dentist. The name of the dental health
avoids a large number of operational problems associated insurer of the missing person and their insurance number is
with a mains type of irradiating device, which is heavy and important, as are items from their home including mouth-
awkward in a wet and dirty environment. Proper radiation guards, toothbrushes, dentures, nightguards, splints and
hygiene standards, however, must be documented in the orthodontic appliances. These items can be an excellent
SOP and followed in practice. source of DNA and recent photographs could be utilized in
The equipment for examination should include dental superimposition or facial comparison. Information in the
mirrors, probes, cheek retractors for dentition photography, primary dental records from the general dental practitioner
toothbrushes and alcohol for debris removal, spreaders, and can lead to further information from dental specialists and
tweezers. All examination instruments must be sterilized medical or allied health practitioners. As antemortem
after use or safely discarded to minimize the potential for dental data may come from several different sources this
DNA cross-contamination. Handles of operating lights data should not be indiscriminately thrown together, since
should be barrier covered and the lights themselves ceiling- information from a particular origin may need to be vali-
suspended to avoid contamination and clutter. dated. [13]. It is important that the antemortem dental team
Odontologists examining the deceased should be aware members liaise with the police investigators to maximize
that sensitivity is needed for different national, cultural and the data collection.
ethical issues, with any dissection being performed only Odontologists working in pairs should carefully docu-
when necessary using predetermined SOPs. Any dental ment all antemortem dental information, taking particular
structures that are removed must be labelled, photographed care in relation to the dates the information was charted. The
and returned to the body immediately [26]. dental teams interpret and transcribe the records onto a
Following the visual, photographic and radiographic yellow Interpol form, using FDI notation, if utilizing the
examinations all data from the deceased should be collated, DVI System InternationalÒ [21] or the Universal notation if
including integration of information documented during using the WINID software [27, 28]. Standardization of data
the scene phase, and reviewed with an age estimation transcription is essential for consistency. Unfortunately,
recorded if possible. The examination should be signed and many dentists’ records are of poor quality due to poor
a running sheet (journal) entry added. Dental revisits at the handwriting, abbreviations and nomenclature discrepancies
postmortem phase should be only to match putative ante- [10]. Contacting the original dentist to clarify the details is
mortem radiographic or photographic angulations, or to sometimes helpful. As there are various charting systems

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Forensic Sci Med Pathol (2012) 8:148–156 151

around the world it is important to be familiar with these manageable groups. Radiographs of bony shapes and
systems as antemortem data may be provided from coun- sinuses may also contribute to the comparison. Dental
tries with different nomenclatures. As accuracy is para- implants, although mass produced, may hint at where the
mount, discrepancies should be discussed and if there is victim lived if no antemortem information is available,
doubt the matter should be referred to the antemortem team especially if a batch number [31–33] is present.
leader for adjudication. A positive comparison report presented to a Reconcili-
Care must be taken in the interpretation of radiographs. ation Board needs a format that is clear, unbiased, stan-
Antemortem intraoral radiographs may be either incor- dardized and impartial and should present, including any
rectly mounted (e.g. one or more films mounted back-to- limitations, the evidence for the conclusions reached. It
front) or mislabeled (e.g. label mounted on back of film) must be in commonly used lay terms, without technical
[20]. Digitized images may have been photographed or jargon. The use of a standardized PowerpointÒ (Microsoft)
scanned incorrectly, leading to reversed image data [29]. template presentation can be a useful means of achieving
When all the data is transcribed quality control protocols this outcome.
need to be in place for an independent assessor to check Once presented the data and reports require suitable
that all data input processes have been completed. As indexed archiving in a secure, safe, retrievable storage centre.
previously mentioned with postmortem rostering, protocols
are required to maintain minimal physical and mental stress
to avoid jeopardizing the quality of data obtained.
Debrief

Reconciliation The aim of the debrief stage is to review all aspects of the
DVI so that lessons may be learnt to improve protocols for
The aim of odontologists in the reconciliation phase is to future events. Reports from all phases of the odontology
compare postmortem findings with antemortem informa- section should be presented by the various team leaders to
tion objectively, form a report on likely matches, and the odontology coordinator. This should include matters
present these findings to a Reconciliation Board. relating to staff rosters, Occupational Health Safety and
The software DVI System InternationalÒ is particularly Welfare matters, case flow management, security, reporting
useful as a tool to compare a large number of records practices, areas of concern to individuals, quality assurance
across a number of DVI specialist data boundaries. How- and quality control aspects, referencing methodology and
ever, a final decision on any dental comparison should be future training needs.
made by a team of at least two odontologists rather than a Issues that must be considered in the management of the
computer. During a dental comparison minor discrepancies forensic odontology component of disaster victim identi-
are commonly found between the antemortem and post- fication are given in ‘‘Appendix 1’’. Each stage of the
mortem findings and these discrepancies need to be disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and
explainable [26]. Objective evidence of a match occurs a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested. A freeware
most often using radiographic comparison or anatomical module management program, DVI Records Register,
concordance between postmortem and antemortem dental covers many aspects of DVI quality management and is
casts. Radiographs may allow various restorative and freely available if requested [34].
anatomical concordant points to be identified. The number In any mass fatality incident involving large numbers of
of concordant points is not as important as the quality of individuals there will be tremendous challenges faced by
those features, which can be highly individualistic. If the forensic odontologist. Mental and physical stress may
available restorative dental data are limited either due to lead to errors being made. In the past a large amount of
lack of treatment or lack of recorded information, the use time has been spent in examining and sampling bodies and
of photo comparison can assist the Reconciliation Board by parts that may have been examined multiple times––a very
adding some weight to the other evidence. However, time-consuming and costly process. It has been suggested
identification based solely on photographs is notoriously by Byard and Winskog that a way to highlight the effec-
unreliable and should be avoided [8]. Superimposition of tiveness of a DVI exercise would be to focus on the number
dental structures using computer software such as AdobeÒ of cases/specimens that had to be re-examined to correct
PhotoshopÒ has been used to assist identification or as a failures in procedures. [35]. Effectively enforced Standard
filter by exclusion [30] but validation studies are still Operating Procedures, forward planning, adequate funding,
lacking in this area. Similarly, age estimation may assist international cooperation, and standardization, are essential
in reducing the list of possible matches to acceptable to guarantee an effective response to any DVI incident.

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Key points h External personnel requirements and arrangements


(accommodation, travel, salary, accreditation, meals, priorities,
1. Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers special areas of expertise)
designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass Supplies
casualty events. h Equipment (general)––computer networking, program/s to use
2. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases–– h Equipment specific to each Phase
Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and h Materials to order for odontology (ready for allocation to
modules)
Debrief.
Protocols
3. Forward planning, adequate funding, international
h General DVI protocols
cooperation and standardization are essential to guar-
h Internal odontology protocols––overall, individual modules
antee an effective response.
h Coordination with DVI areas outside odontology
4. A Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) should be
h Coordination between odontology modules
utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and
h Letterhead format and usage
health issues, maintain security and form a structure to
h Periodic leader meetings––format and frequency
the relief program.
h Security and media contact
Meeting of odontology team leaders and phase coordinators
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict h Scene dental team leader and DVI scene coordinator
of interest. o Briefing : location, identified hazards, victim transportation,
procedure for attendance
h Postmortem dental team leader coordinator and postmortem DVI
coordinator
Appendix 1: Odontology checklist o Postmortem records management protocol––paperwork to and
from mortuary
o Computer data entry and image management protocols
Notification of the forensic odontology coordinator by DVI o Memo requirements to and from postmortem coordinator
commander h Antemortem dental team leader and antemortem DVI coordinator
h What type of disaster has occurred? o Antemortem data collection protocol––local, interstate, abroad;
h Are odontology services needed? from dentists and non dentists e.g. health insurance funds
h Identify DVI protocols operating for dental involvement o Memo requirements to and from antemortem coordinator for
assistance
h Obtain DVI management personnel details (names, contacts,
roles) h Reconciliation dental team leader and reconciliation DVI
coordinator
h Approximate estimate of odontology personnel required and
sourcing o Define reconciliation records management protocol––to and
from records storage
h Identify odontology working location/s––scene/AM/PM/Recon
and OWHS status o Memo requirements to and from reconciliation coordinator
h Initial assessment of required equipment and materials- o Reconciliation protocol for identifications
availability and sourcing Meeting of odontology module members
h Initiate staff contract details- accommodation, travel, meals, h General briefing
roster periods, accreditation requirements, security, remuneration h Chain of command
h Arrange odontology DVI work place inspections prior the h Security and media and external contact protocols
odontology Team Leaders meeting
h Arrange roster details and workstation allocations
h Notify Team Leaders of the DVI situation
h Notice board
h Inform odontology members (by email and phone) of possible
h Incidents to be reported to the module team leader and recorded,
involvement. Request possible availability and prepare for a
including data collection, data input, OHS&W, security and other
management meeting.
Quality Assurance matters
h If needed, advise the National Forensic Odontology Society of the
h Define feedback on problem solving and reporting
situation regarding possible assistance
h Mandatory all members work in pairs AT ALL TIMES
h Discusses employment contract protocol for odontology staff with
Team Leaders based on initial DVI commander-odontology h Set up of work areas
coordinator discussions h Orientation of new staff on arrival
Odontology coordinator meeting with odontology team leaders Module set up at DVI locations
Location Scene module
h Each module’s site h Organise backpacks with water, sunscreen, personal protective
Staffing equipment (PPE), Scene log book, running sheets, 4-colour pens,
camera
h Modules’ staffing requirements and availability (rosters, external
personnel) h Organise Nomad, X-ray film or digital capture device

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h Organise stabilizing material e.g. superglue, bubble wrap, head h Discuss need for further debrief later and availability of services if
and hand bags, containers for tooth/jaw parts required re OHS&W
Postmortem module h Arrange protocol for the return of file register (antemortem and
h Set up dental team leader desk (with computer, MS Office, reconciliation), security passes, computer access and any other
database and CDR program, internet, x-ray program, virus and items
security programs and printer) Odontology coordinator initial checklist
h Set up storage for disposables––glasses, towels, gloves, masks, General h Command structure
x-ray solutions, stationary, forms
h General DVI protocol
h Set up area for storage of equipment with security lock
h Odontology standard operating procedures
h Set up ‘‘clean area’’ bench requirements (Nomad/other x-ray
machine, Interpol F1, F2 pink forms, Postmortem log, running h Data entry standardization (DVI sys codes)
sheets, 4-colour pens, camera, writing area, operating area h Staff DVI codes
computer Working h Work area and furniture,
h Set up ‘‘dirty area’’ for instruments and instrument cleaning environment h Equipment and consumables,
solutions
h Location of central DVI files
h Set up examination area and suitable lighting
h Services available and reliability
h Set up x-ray exposure and development areas
File h Paper format and data collection protocol
h Set up a noticeboard management h Security––area/data/files
h Establish area security
h Data flow
h Set up dress and wash areas and secure clothing storage
h Data (originals, materials) access
Antemortem module
h Running sheets and format
h Set up dental team leader desk and chair with phone and computer
h File format-interpol, originals
(MS Office, database, CDR, internet, Photoshop, Adobe Acrobat
Reader, virus and security programs) h Computer software and standardization
of codes
h Set up desks and chairs (2 odontologists per desk) with computers
(network, MS Office, Photoshop, Adobe Acrobat reader, data h Update protocol across DVI
programs, security and virus programs). h Data processing defined steps––standardized
h Set up Phone team tables with phone, computer (network, MS Staff h Meeting, identification passes, confidentiality
Office, Adobe Acrobat reader, data programs, security and virus agreements—
programs) h Training (computer software, methodology
h Set up cupboards, printer, photocopier, document shredder employed), orientation and accreditation level
h Supply 1x ‘‘In’’, 1x ‘‘Active’’, 1x ‘‘Out’’ tray per work area. (Two required
odontologists to work together on each case data collation and h Odontology module protocol instruction
input and 1 on phone calls, ancillary duties and Quality Control) h Registration (dental board, radiation licence,
h Provide a notice board indemnity insurance)
h Establish area security h Time sheets and location
Reconciliation module h Roster structure- rotation, daily
h Set up team leader desk with phone and computer (network, MS h OHSW protocol
Office, database and CDR program, internet, Photoshop, virus and h Off-roster socializing
security programs)
h Pairing
h Set up desks (2 odontologists per desk) with computers (network,
MS Office, Photoshop, Adobe Acrobat reader, data programs, Reporting h Daily reporting requirement––to whom/meeting
security and virus programs) and reporting format
h 1x ‘‘In’’, 1x ‘‘Active ‘‘and 1x ‘‘Out’’ trays per work station h OHSW
h Stationary cupboard h Quality control protocols––audits,
feedback
h Photocopier, shredder, phone
h End of rotation––staff/team leader change
h Set up records security filing cabinet over protocol and reporting
h Provide a notice board h Progress reports––to staff re DVI progress,
h Establish area security to DVI commander re odontology progress
Staff management h Breakdown in process reporting protocol
h Arrange security passes and computer access h Available staff facilities
h Orientation and training (Nomad/database/protocol) h Changing staff duties/duty relocation e.g
h Record personnel details AM/PM [ Search, comparison [ Recon
h Check all files allocated are transferred h Quality control––current staff experience and
training and standardization (level of
h Transfer unfinished actions
supervision)
h Discuss any problems during rostered period of note

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Disaster name: DVI commander: Phase coordinators:


Date: Name: Scene Name Contact
Disaster location: Contact details:
Post Mortem

Ante Mortem

Reconciliation

h Access requirements
h OHS&W
h Staff facilities Accommodation
Transport
Meals
Power/drinking water/shower and toilet
Laundry
Psychological counselling
Roster duration requirements
h Communications Internal/external, internet/SKYPE
h Records management system s
h Standard operating procedures
Scene review h OH&S status
h Current management status
h Current odontology involvement and protocols in place
h Assessed extra odontology requirements
h Odontology staff required to meet site needs
h Odontology based equipment and materials needed Immediate and lower priority
h Time-lines involved
Postmortem review h OH&S status
h Current management status
h Current odontology involvement and protocols in place
h Assessed extra odontology requirements Immediate and lower priority
h Odontology staff required to meet site needs Immediate and long term
h Odontology based equipment and materials needed Immediate and lower priority
Power/lights/water/communications reliability
General mortuary furniture
Examination instruments
X-ray facilities
Sterilization and cleaning facilities
Clean area office (QC) furniture and stationary
Time-lines involved
General comments
Antemortem review h OH&S status
h Management status
h Current odontology involvement and protocols in place
h Assessed extra odontology requirements
h Odontology staff required to meet site needs Immediate and long term
h Odontology based equipment and materials needed Immediate and lower priority
Site:
Room furniture:
Computer hardware, software, servicing:

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Power, light reliability:


Office equipment:
Stationary:
Time-lines involved
Comments
Reconciliation review h OH&S status
h Management status
h Current odontology involvement and protocols in place
h Assessed extra odontology requirements
h Odontology staff required to meet site needs Immediate and long term
h Odontology based equipment and materials needed Immediate and lower priority
Site:
Room furniture:
Computer hardware, software, servicing:
Power, light reliability:
Office equipment:
Stationary:
h Time-lines involved
h Comments

Debrief preparation
h Time management
h Staff management
h Quality control
h OHS&W
h Recommendations for future

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