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India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic
conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent
phenomena. About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40
million hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the
area is susceptible to drought. In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their
lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year.

At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural disasters. Even as substantial
scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and property due to disasters has not
decreased. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted. It was in this background
that the United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives and
property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, especially in
developing countries.

The super cyclone in Odissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001
underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific,
engineering, financial and social processes, the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral
approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.

Over the past couple of years, the Government of India have brought about a paradigm shift in the
approach to disaster management. The new approach proceeds from the conviction that
development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the development process.
Another corner stone of the approach is that mitigation has to be multi-disciplinary spanning across
all sectors of development. The new policy also emanates from the belief that investments in
mitigation are much more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.

Disaste a age e t o upies a i po ta t pla e i this ou t s poli framework as it is the

poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities/disasters.

What is Disaster?
The term disaster owes its origin to the French word Desastre o i atio of t o o ds des
meaning BAD a d aste ea i g STAR the term refers to Bad or Evil Star. A disaster can be defined
as A serious disruption in the functioning of the community or a society causing wide spread
material, economic, social or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to
cope using its own resources .
A disaster is a result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or
measures to reduce the potential chances of risk.

What is Hazard?
Hazard a e defi ed as a da ge ous o ditio o e e t, that th eat o ha e the pote tial fo
causing injury to life or damage to p ope t o the e i o e t. The o d haza d o es its o igi to
the word hazard in old French a d az-zahr in Arabic meaning chance or luck.

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When does a hazard lead to a disaster?

A disaster occurs when the impact of a hazard on a section of society is such that the people are
unable to cope with the event, causing death, injury, loss of property and/or economic losses.
If an earthquake strikes a desert, it may not result any loss of life or damage to property. But the
earthquake that struck Bhuj (Gujarat) in 2001,killed more than 10,000 people. So it was considered
to be a Disaster.

Hazards can be grouped into natural, manmade and Socio-natural.

a. Natural Hazards: are hazards which are caused because of natural phenomena (hazards with
meteorological, geological or even biological origin).
Cyclones, tsunamis, earthquake and volcanic eruption which are exclusively of natural origin.
b. Manmade hazards: are hazards which are due to human negligence or human ignorance.
Manmade hazards are associated with industries or energy generation facilities and include
Leakage of toxic waste, pollution, dam failure, wars or civil strife etc
c. Socio-natural Hazards: Their causes are both natural and manmade.
Floods, Landslides, floods, drought, fires.

For example, flooding may be caused because of heavy rains, landslide or blocking of drains with
human waste.

Types Hazards
1 Earthquake 4. Landslide
Geological Hazards 2 Tsunami 5. Dam burst
3 Volcanic eruption 6. Mine Fire
1. Tropical Cyclone 6. Cloudburst
2. Tornado and Hurricane 7. Landslide
Water & Climatic Hazards 3. Floods 8. Heat & Cold wave
4. Drought 9. Snow Avalanche
5. Hailstorm 10. Sea erosion
1. Environmental pollutions 3. Desertification
Environmental Hazards 2. Deforestation 4. Pest infestation

1. Human/Animal epidemics 3. Food poisoning

Biological 2. Pest attacks 4. Weapons of
mass destruction
Chemical, Industrial and 1. Chemical disasters 3. Oil spills/fires
Nuclear Accidents 2. Industrial disasters 4. Nuclear

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1. Boat / Road / Train Accidents 3. Building collapse

Air crash /Rural / Urban fires 4. Electric Accidents
Accident related Bomb / serial bomb blasts 5. Festival related Disasters
2. Forest fires 6. Mine flooding

 Hazards are always prevalent, but the hazard becomes a disaster only when there is greater
vulnerability and less of capacity to cope with it. In other words the frequency or likelihood of
a hazard and the vulnerability of the community increases the risk of being severely affected.

What is Vulnerability?
Vul e a ilit a e defi ed as The e te t to hi h a o u it st u tu e, se i es o
geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account
of thei atu e, o st u tio a d p o i it to haza dous te ai s o a disaste p o e a ea.

Categories of Vulnerabilities
a. Physical Vulnerability
b. Socio-economic Vulnerability

a. Physical Vulnerability
It includes notions of who and what may be damaged or destroyed by natural hazard such as
earth-quakes or floods. It is based on the physical conditions of people and elements at risk, such as
buildings, infrastructure etc; and their proximity, location and nature of the hazard. It also relates to
the technical capability of buildings and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a
hazard event. Unchecked growth of settlements in unsafe areas exposes the people to the hazard. In
case of an earthquake or landslide the ground may fail and the houses on the top may topple or slide
and affect the settlements at the lower level even if they are designed well for earthquake forces.

b. Socio-economic Vulnerability
The degree to which a population is affected by a hazard will not merely lie in the physical
components of vulnerability but also on the socio-economic conditions. The socio economic
condition of the people also determines the intensity of the impact. For example, people who are
poor and living in the sea coast don't have the money to construct strong concrete houses. They are
generally at risk and loss their shelters whenever there is strong wind or cyclone. Because of their
poverty they are not able to rebuild their houses.

What is Capacity?
Capa it a e defi ed as esou es, ea s a d st e gths hi h e ist i households a d
communities and which enable them to cope with, withstand, prepare for, prevent, mitigate or
ui kl e o e f o a disaste . People s apa it a also e take i to account.

Categories of Capacities
a. Physical Capacity
b. Socio-economic Capacity

a. Physical Capacity
People whose houses have been destroyed by the cyclone or crops have been destroyed by the
flood can salvage things from their homes and from their farms. Some family members have skills,
which enable them to find employment if they mitigate, either temporarily or permanently.

b. Socio-economic Capacity

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In most of the disasters, people suffer their greatest losses in the physical and material realm.
Rich people have the capacity to recover soon because of their wealth. In fact, they are seldom hit
by disasters because they live in safe areas and their houses are built with stronger materials.
However, even when everything is destroyed they have the capacity to cope up with it.

What is Risk?
‘isk is a easu e of the e pe ted losses due to a haza d e e t o u i g i a gi e a ea o e a
specific time period. Risk is a function of the probability of particular hazardous event and the losses
each would cause . The le el of isk depe ds o :
1. Nature of the hazard
2. Vulnerability of the elements which are affected
3. Economic value of those elements.
A community/locality is said to be at risk when it is exposed to hazards and is likely to be
adversely affected by its impact. Whenever we discuss ' disaster management it is basically disaster
risk management. Disaster risk management includes all measures which reduce disaster related
losses of life, property or assets by either reducing the hazard or vulnerability of the elements at risk.
Mechanism of Disaster Risk reduction can take place in the following ways:
1. Preparedness:
This protective process embraces measures which enable government communities and
individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. Preparedness
includes the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the
maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel. It may also embrace search and rescue
measures as well as evacuation plans for areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster.
Preparedness therefore encompasses those measures taken before a disaster event which are
aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical services, and damage when the disaster occurs.
2. Mitigation:
Mitigation embraces measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard and the vulnerable
conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Therefore mitigation activities can
be focused on the hazard itself or the elements exposed to the threat. Examples of mitigation
measures which are hazard specific include water management in drought prone areas, relocating
people away from the hazard prone areas and by .strengthening structures to reduce damage when
a hazard occurs
In addition to these physical measures, mitigation should also aim at reducing the economic and
social vulnerabilities of potential disasters.
Disaster Management Cycle
Disaster Risk Management includes sum total of all activities, programmes and measures which
can be taken up before during and after a disaster with the purpose to avoid a disaster, reduce its
impact or recover from its losses. The three key stages of activities that are taken up within disaster
risk management are:

a) Before a disaster (pre-disaster): Activities taken to reduce human and property losses caused
by a potential hazard. For example carrying out awareness campaigns, strengthening the
existing weak structures, preparation of the disaster management plans at household and
community level etc. Such risk reduction measures taken under this stage are termed as
mitigation and preparedness activities.
b) During a disaster (disaster occurrence): Initiatives taken to ensure that the needs and
provisions of victims are met and suffering is minimized. Activities taken under this stage are
called emergency response activities.

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c) After a disaster (post-disaster): Initiatives taken in response to a disaster with a purpose to

achieve early recovery and rehabilitation of affected communities, immediately after a disaster
strikes. These are called as response and recovery activities.

Cause and Effect of Disasters

India is vulnerable to extreme weather events. Over the decade of the 1990s, both the number
and severity of such events have increased. Weather events can be classified as extreme in the basis
of various factors such as the impact, the socioeconomic losses, environmental degradation and long
term damages etc.
With more than 70% of I dia s populatio el i g o ag i ulture directly or indirectly, the
impact of extreme weather on human life and other living beings is critical.

According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), data major natural disasters/
extremes that occurred around the world during the period 1963-2002, indicates, that floods and
droughts cause the maximum damage.

The Global Context

Disasters are as old as human history but the dramatic increase and the damage caused by
them in the recent past have become a cause of concern. Over the past decade, the number of
natural and manmade disasters have increased considerably. From 1994 to 1998, reported disasters
average was 428 per year but from 1999 to 2003, this figure went up to an average of 707 disaster
events per year showing an increase of about 60 per cent over the previous years. The biggest rise
was in countries of low human development, which suffered an increase of 142 percent.
Drought and famine have proved to be the deadliest disasters globally, followed by flood/
technological disaster, earthquake, winds-form, extreme temperature and others. Global economic
loss related to disaster events average around US $880 billion per year.

Indian Scenario
The scenario in India is no different from the global context. The super cyclone of Orissa (1999),
the Gujarat earthquake (2001) and the recent Tsunami (2004) affected millions across the country
leaving behind a trail of heavy loss of life, property and livelihood.

Major Disasters in India Since 1970

Sl.No. Disaster Impact
1. 29 October 1971, Orissa: CYCLONE Cyclone and tidal waves killed 10,000 people
2. 19 November, 1977, Andhra Cyclone and tidal waves killed 20,000 people
Pradesh: CYCLONE
3 29th and 30th October 1999, Orissa: Cyclone and tidal waves killed 9,000 and 18 million
CYCLONE people were affected.
4. 20th October 1991 An earthquake of magnitude 6.6 killed 723 people.
5. 30th September 1993 Latur(M.H.): Approximately 8000 people died and there was a
Earthquake heavy loss to infrastructure
6. 22 May 1997 Jabalpur (M.P.): 39 people dead
7 26th January, 2001, Bhuj Earthquake- More than 10,000 people dead and heavy loss to
Gujarat infrastructure

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8 July 1991, Assam- Landslide 300 people killed. Heavy loss to roads and
9. August 1993, Nagaland- Landslide 500 killed and more than 200 houses destroyed and
about 5 Km Road damaged.
10. 1978 Floods in North East India 3,800 people killed and heavy loss to property.

11. 1994 Floods in Assam, Arunachal More than 2000 people killed and
Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Thousands of people affected.
Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar
Pradesh, Goa, Kerala and Gujarat.


Sl.No. Name of Event Year State & Area Fatalities
North Eastern India
with epicenter near
1. Sikkim Earthquake 2011 ----
Nepal Border and

2. Cloudburst 2010 Leh, Ladakh in J&K

252 Districts in 10
3. Drought 2009 -----

Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Orissa,
4. Floods 2009 300 people died
Kerala, Delhi,

527 deaths, 19,323 livestock

perished, 2,23,000 houses
5. Kosi Floods 2008 North Bihar
damaged, 3.3 million persons

6. Cyclone Nisha 2008 Tamil Nadu 204 deaths

1094 deaths
7. 2005 Maharashtra State 167 injured
54 missing

Mostly Pakistan, 1400 deaths in Kashmir

8. Kashmir 2005
Partially Kashmir (86,000 deaths in total)

Coastline of Tamil 10,749 deaths

Nadu, Kerala, Andhra 5,640 persons missing
9. Tsunami 2004
Pradesh, Pondicherry 2.79 million people affected
and Andaman and 11,827 hectares of crops

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Nicobar Islands of damaged

India 300,000 fisher folk lost their

Rapar, Bhuj, Bhachau,

13,805 deaths
10. Gujarat Earthquake 2001 Anjar, Ahmedabad and
6.3 million people affected
Surat in Gujarat State

Orissa Super
11. 1999 Orissa Over 10,000 deaths

1,000 people died, 5,80,000

12. Cyclone 1996 Andhra Pradesh housed destroyed, Rs. 20.26
billion estimated damage

Latur, Marathwada 7,928 people died

13. Latur Earthquake 1993
region of Maharashtra 30,000 injured

967 people died, 435,000 acres

14. Cyclone 1990 Andhra Pradesh
of land affected

967 people died, 435,000 acres

15. Cyclone 1990 Andhra Pradesh
of land affected

16. Drought 1987 15 States 300 million people affected

10,000 deaths
hundreds of thousands
17. Cyclone 1977 Andhra Pradesh
40,000 cattle deaths

Large part of the

18. Drought 1972 200 million people affected

In India,
o 59% of the land mass is susceptible to Earthquakes,
o 12% of the total geographical area is prone to floods,
o 8% of the total landmass is prone to cyclones,
o 70% of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought.

Apart from this the hilly regions are vulnerable to avalanches/landslides /hailstorms/
cloudbursts. Apart from the natural hazards, we also affected with Man-made/Human induced
Worldwide view of damage caused by Natural disasters around the world is as follows:
o Floods : 32%
o Tropical cyclones : 30%
o Droughts : 22%
o Earthquakes : 10%

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o Other disasters : 6%
29th October is National Day for Disaster Reduction.


1. 58% to Earthquakes
2. 12% to Floods
3. 8% To Cyclones
4. 68% of the land under cultivation is prone to drought
5. The entire coastal area, particularly the East Coast is vulnerable to Tsunamis.


Andhra Pradesh is exposed to cyclones, storm surges, floods and droughts. A moderate to severe
intensity cyclone can be expected to make landfall every two in three years. About 44% of the state
is vulnerable to tropical storms and related hazards.
Two of the deadliest cyclones of this century, with fatalities of about 10,000 people in each case,
took place in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh during October 1971 and November 1977 respectively. The
super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 caused large scale damage to life and property.
Along the Andhra Coast, the section between Nizampatnam and Machilipatnam is the most
prone to storm surges. Vulnerability to storm surges is not uniform along Indian coasts. The
following segments of the east coast of India are most vulnerable to high surges. Andhra Pradesh
coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam.
The states bordering the Arabian Sea on the west coast are not completely safe either, as Kerala
Gujarat - and to a lesser extent Maharashtra - are also prone to cyclones. With a frequency of four
cyclones per year, one of which usually becomes severe, the Bay of Bengal accounts for seven
percent of the annual tropical cyclone activity worldwide.
Despite this relatively low percentage, the level of human and property loss that cyclones cause
around the Buy is very high. Once the cyclones enter the mainland, they give way to heavy rains
which often translate into floods, as it was the case with the damaging cyclone-induced floods in the
Godavari delta, in August of 1986.
Many drought prone areas adjacent to coastal districts in eastern maritime states are thus
vulnerable to flash floods originated by the torrential rains induced by the cyclonic depression. In
addition to cyclones and its related hazards, monsoon depressions over the north and central areas
of the Bay of Bengal move until reaching north and central India, including portions of Andhra
Pradesh, bringing heavy to very heavy rains and causing floods in the inland rivers between June and
In Andhra traditionally, the flood problem had been confined to the flooding of smaller divers.
But the drainage problem in the coastal delta zones has worsened, multiplying the destructive
potential of cyclones and increasing flood hazards. A critical factor is maintenance of irrigation
systems. On several occasions, deaths have been caused by breaches in tanks and canals as well as
over-flooding caused by silting and growth of weeds.
Effect of Repeated Disasters:
Andhra Pradesh is battered by every kind of natural disaster: cyclones, floods, earthquakes and
drought. The coastal region suffers repeated cyclones and floods. The 1977 cyclone and tidal wave,
which resulted in great loss of life, attracted the attention of the central and state Governments of
India and the international donor communities, as did those of 1979, 1990 and 1996. The floods in
the Godavari and Krishna Rivers caused havoc in the East and West Godavari and Krishna Districts.
Earthquakes in the recent past have occurred along and off the Andhra Pradesh coast and in
regions in the Godavari river valley. Mild tremors have also hit the capital city of Hyderabad, for
example in September 2000.

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“o ial a d e o o i life of AP s populatio is haracterized by recurring natural disasters. The

state is exposed to cyclones, storm surges, floods, and droughts. According to the available disaster
inventories, AP is the state that has suffered the most from the adverse effects of severe cyclones. It
has ee esti ated that a out pe e t of AP s total te ito is ul e a le to t opi al sto s a d
related hazards, while its coastal belt is likely to be the most vulnerable region in India to these
natural phenomena, Khammam District, in Telangana, is affected by monsoon floods, along with five
districts in Coastal AP. Four districts in Rayalaseema and five in Telangana experience drought.
Along the coastline, the section between Nizampatanam and Machilipatnam is the most prone to
storm surges. The fertile delta areas of the Godavari and the Krishna rivers, which contribute
substantially to the state s economic prosperity, face flood and drainage problems, and more so in
the aftermath of cyclones.
More than sixty cyclones have affected AP this century. The incidence of cyclones seems to
have increased in the past decades, to the extent that severe cyclones have become a common
e e t o u i g e e t o to th ee ea s, epeatedl a d se e el affe ti g the state s e o o
while challenging its financial and institutional resources. The deadliest cyclone in the last twenty
years took place in November 1977 killing about 10,000 people. More recently, the May 1990
cyclone, with a death toll close to 1,000 people. Between 1977 and 1992, about 13,000 lives and
338,000 cattle were lost due to cyclones and floods, and nearly 3.3 million houses damaged.
The Godavari and the Krishna rivers have well defined stable courses, and their natural and
manmade banks have usually been capable of carrying flood discharges, with the exception of their
delta areas. Traditionally, the flood problem in AP had' been confined on the spilling of smaller rivers
and the submersion of marginal areas surrounding Kolleru Lake, However, the drainage problem in
the delta zones of the coastal districts have worsened, thereby multiplying the destructive potential
of cyclones and increasing flood hazards.


The discussion on various terminologies has helped us in having a basic understanding of
disaster management. However, each hazard has its own characteristics. To understand the
significance and implications of various types of hazards we must have a basic understanding about
the nature, causes and effects of each hazard type and the mitigation measures that need to be
taken up. In this chapter, we would discuss the following hazards namely:
1. Earthquake,
2. Tsunami,
3. Landslide,
4. Flood,
5. Cyclone and
6. Drought.

Earthquake is one of the most destructive natural hazard. They may occur at any time of the
year, day or night, with sudden impact and little warning. They can destroy buildings and
infrastructure in seconds, killing or injuring the inhabitants. Earthquakes not only destroy the entire
habitation but may de-stabilize the government economy and social structure of the country. But
what is an earthquake? It is the sudden shaking of the earth crust. The impact of an earthquake is
sudden and there is hardly any warning, making it impossible to predict.

Causes of Earthquake:
 The ea th s ust is a rocky layer of varying thickness ranging from a depth of about 10 km
under the sea to 65 km under the continents. The crust is not one piece but consists of
portions called plates which vary in size from a few hundred to thousands of kms. The

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theory of plate tectonics holds that the plates ride up on the more mobile mantle, and are
driven by some yet unconfirmed mechanisms, perhaps thermal convection currents. When
these plates contact each other, stress arises in the crust.

These stresses can e lassified a o di g to the t pe of o e e t alo g the plate s ou da ies:

 pulling away from each other
 pushing against one another and
 sliding sideways relative to each other

All these movements are associated with earthquakes.

The areas of stress at plate boundaries which release accumulated energy by slipping or
rupturing a e k o as faults . The theory of elasti ity says that the crust is continuously stressed
by the movement of the tectonic plates. It eventually reaches a point of maximum supportable
strain. A rupture then occurs along the fault and the rock rebounds under its own elastic stresses
until the strain is relieved. The fault rupture generates vibration called seismic. Globally, earthquakes
result in a loss of about 50,000 lives, every year. Earthquakes over 5.5 magnitudes on the Richter
scale are progressively damaging to property and human life. However, there are many other factors
that influence the damage pattern. Massive earthquakes generally occur near the junction of two
tectonic plates, e.g., along the Himalayan range, where the Indian plate goes below Eurasian plates
is very prone to earthquakes. Some of the most intense earthquakes of the world have occurred in
India. Fortunately, none of these have occurred in any of the major cities.
According to latest seismic zoning map brought out by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS),
over 65% of the country is prone to earthquake of intensity, Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MSK)
VII or more.
India has been divided into four seismic zones according to the maximum intensity of
earthquake expected. Of these, zone V is the most active which comprises of whole of Northeast
India, the northern portion of Bihar, Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Gujarat and Andaman &
Nicobar islands.
India has highly populous cities and the constructions in these cities are not earthquake
resistant. Regulatory mechanisms are weak thus any earthquake striking in one of these cities would
turn into a major disaster. Six major earthquakes have struck different parts of India over a span of
the last 15 years.
The-entire Himalayan Region is considered to be vulnerable to high intensity earthquakes of a
magnitude exceeding 8.0 on the Richter Scale and in a relatively short of about 50 years, four such
major earthquakes have occurred in the region: Shillong:1897 (M8.7); Kangra: 1905 (M.8.0): Bihar-
Nepal:1934(M8.3); and Assam-Tibet:1950(M8.6).
Scientific publications have warned that very severe earthquakes are likely to occur anytime in
the Himalayan Region, which could adversely affect the lives of several million people in India. Some
significant earthquakes in India are listed in the Table.

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Major Earth quakes in india

Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude Deaths Comments Magnitude

August 21, 13:41 Kangra, Himachal tremors in
33.1°N 76.4°E 0 5.0
2014 IST Pradesh Himachal,
felt in Delhi

Aftershock of
March 21, 19:55 Andaman and Nicobar 6.7
7.6°N 94.4°E 0 5.2
2014 IST Islands magnitude

Aftershock of
March 21, 19:40 Andaman and Nicobar 6.7
7.9°N 94.0°E 0 5.3
2014 IST Islands magnitude

March 21, 18:41 Andaman and Nicobar earthquake
7.6°N 94.4°E 0 6.7
2014 IST Islands in Andaman

December 23:41
Jammu and Kashmir 36.7°N 77.4°E 0 4.7
5, 2013 IST

Tremors felt
December 18:35 in Gangtok,
Northern West Bengal 26.1°N 89.5°E 0 4.7
4, 2013 IST Patna and
Cooch Behar

November 03:45
New Delhi 28.4°N 77.4°E 0 swarm in 2.8
12, 2013 IST
Indian capital

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Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude Deaths Comments Magnitude

November 01:56
New Delhi 28.4°N 77.4°E 0 swarm in 2.5
12, 2013 IST
Indian capital

November 01:41
New Delhi 28.4°N 77.4°E 0 swarm in 3.3
12, 2013 IST
Indian capital

November 00:41
New Delhi 28.4°N 77.5°E 0 swarm in 3.1
12, 2013 IST
Indian capital

October 3, 11:30
Gangtok, Sikkim 26.1°N 88.7°E 0 5.2
2013 IST

Tremors felt
across North
May 1, 12:27
Jammu and Kashmir [2] 33.1°N 75.8°E 2 India 5.8
2013 IST

April 16, 14:04

Dibrugarh, Assam [3] 28.87°N 95.12°E 0 4.6
2013 IST

Mild tremors
April 10, 17:10
New Delhi 28.6°N 77.4°E 0 felt in Indian 3.4
2013 IST

May 17, 19:09
New Delhi 28.6°N 77.2°E 0 jolts Delhi, 3.5
2012 IST
tremors felt
in Rohtak,
Agra and

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Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude Deaths Comments Magnitude


in Delhi,
May 2, 04:12
New Delhi 28.3°N 77.3°E 0 tremors felt 3.5
2012 IST
in Sonepat,
Agra and

Aftershock of
April 30, 06:44 Andaman and Nicobar 6.2
8.6°N 94.0°E 0 5.2
2012 IST Islands magnitude

Aftershock of
April 25, 22:45 Andaman and Nicobar 6.2
9.1°N 94.0°E 0 5.3
2012 IST Islands magnitude

Aftershock of
April 25, 17:53 Andaman and Nicobar 6.2
7.9°N 93.4°E 0 5.7
2012 IST Islands magnitude

Aftershock of
April 25, 10:57 Andaman and Nicobar 6.2
9.1°N 94.1°E 0 5.5
2012 IST Islands magnitude

April 25, 08:45 Andaman and Nicobar
9.9°N 94.0°E 0 in Andaman 6.2
2012 IST Islands
and Niocbar

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Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude Deaths Comments Magnitude

April 14, 11:30 earthquake
Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 17.4°N 73.8°E 0 4.0
2012 IST in Mumbai in
two hours

April 14, 09:20 Vadodara
Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 23.0°N 73.1°E 0 4.1
2012 IST and Rajkot

Tremors felt
April 14, 09:20
Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 23.4°N 72.9°E 0 across 4.6
2012 IST

jolts Delhi,
March 13, 03:45
New Delhi 28.6°N 77.0°E 0 eight days 3.6
2012 IST
after a 5.2-

tremors in
March 5, 13:09:00 Delhi, CBSE
New Delhi 28.8°N 76.7°E 5 5.2
2012 IST Physics
board exam

Gangtok, Sikkim
September 18:10 earthquake
see 2011 Sikkim 27.723°N 88.064°E 118 6.9
18, 2011 IST in NE India,
tremors felt
in Delhi,

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Dates Time Location Latitude Longitude Deaths Comments Magnitude

Lucknow and

Aftershock of
September 18:23 6.9
Gangtok, Sikkim 27.72N 88.07E 5.7
18, 2011 IST magnitude

in Delhi on
September 23:28 the day of
New Delhi 28.3°N 77.1°E 0 4.2
7, 2011 IST the 2011
Delhi High

August 10, 01:21
Andaman Islands 14.1°N 92.8°E 26 Warning 7.7
2009 IST

Geological Survey of India prepares Maps of the Earthquake Prone areas. Australia is considered as
Continent without earthquakes.

The term Tsunami has been derived from a Japanese term Tsunami ea i g ha o and
tsu a i ea i g a es ,. Tsunamis are popularly called tidal waves but they actually have nothing
to do with the tides. These waves which often affect distant shores, originate by rapid displacement
of water from the lake or the sea either by seismic activity. Landslides, volcanic eruptions or large
meteoroid impacts. Whatever the cause may be sea water is displaced with a violent motion and
s ells up, ulti atel su gi g o e la d ith g eat dest u ti e po e . The effe ts of a tsunami can be
unnoticeable or even destructive.

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Causes of a Tsunami
 The geological movements that cause tsunamis are produced in three major ways. The most
common of those are fault movements on the sea floor, accompanies by an earth-quake.
The second most common cause of the tsunami is a landslide either occurring under water
or originating above the sea and then plunging into the water. The largest tsunami ever
produced by a landslide was in Lituya Bay, Alaska in 1958. The massive rock slide produced a
wave that reached a high water mark of 50-150 meters above the shoreline.
 The third major cause of tsunami is volcanic activity. The flank of a volcano located near the
shore or under water may be uplifted or depressed similar to the action of a fault, or the
volcano may actually explode. In 1883 the violent explosion of the famous volcano Krakatoa
in Indonesia, produced tsunami measuring 40 meters which crushed upon Java and Sumatra.
Over 36,000 people lost their lives in this tyrant waves.
 Tsunami differs from ordinary ocean waves which are produced by wind blowing over water.
The tsunamis travel much faster than ordinary waves. Compared to normal wave speed of
100 kilometers per hour, tsunami in the deep water of the ocean may travel the speed of a
et airplane- 800 kms per hour and yet in spite of their speed tsunami increases the water
height only 30-45cm and often passes unnoticed by ships at sea.
 Contrary to the popular belief, the tsunami is not a single giant wave. It is possible for a
tsunami to consist of ten or mo e a es hi h is the te ed as tsu a i a e trai . The
waves follow each other 5 to 90 minutes apart.
 Tsunami normally causes flooding as a huge wall of water enters the main land.
There are two distinct types of tsunami warning: International tsunami warning systems and
Regional warning systems. Tsunamis have occurred in all the oceans and in the Mediterranean Sea,
but the great majority of them have occurred in the Pacific Ocean. Since scientists cannot exactly
predict earthquakes, they also cannot exactly predict when a tsunami will be generated.

International Tsunami Warning Systems

Shortly after the Hiloi Tsunami (1946) the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS) was
developed with its operational center at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) near Honolulu,
Hawaii. The PTWC is able to alert countries several hours before the tsunami strikes.

Regional Warning System

Usually use seismic data about nearby earthquakes to determine if there is a possible local
threat of a tsunami. Such systems are capable enough o provide warnings to the general public in
less than 15 minutes.
 In India the Survey of India maintains a tide gauge network along the coast of India. The
gauges are located in major ports. The day to day maintenance of the gauge is carried with
the assistance form authorities of the ports.
 Apart from the tide guage, tsunami can be detected with the help of radars. The 2004 Indian
Ocean tsunami, recorded data from four radars and recorded the height of tsunami waves
two hours after the earthquake it should be noted that the satellites observation of the
Indian Ocean tsunami would not have been of any use.
 Local tsunami events or those less than 30 minutes from the source cause the majority of
damage. The force of the water can raze everything in its path. It is normally the flooding
affect of the tsunami that causes major destruction to the human settlements, roads and
infrastructure thereby disrupting the normal functioning of the society.
 Withdrawal of the tsunami causes major damage. As the waves withdraw towards the ocean
they sweep out the foundations of the buildings, the beaches get destroyed and the houses

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carried out to sea. Damage to ports and airports may prevent importation of needed food
and medical supplies. Apart from the physical damage, there is a huge impact on the public
health system. Deaths mainly occur because of drowning as water inundates homes. Many
people get washed away or crushed by the giant waves and some are crushed by the debris,
 Availability of drinking water has always been a major problem in areas affected by a
disaster. Sewage pipes may be damaged causing major sewage disposal problems. Open
wells and other ground water may be contaminated by salt water and debris and sewage.
Flooding in the locality may lead to crop loss, loss of livelihood like boats and nets,
environmental degradation etc.
Even though India has not faced frequent Tsunamis but there is a need to identify the areas that
are generally affected by Tsunamis. The whole of the Indian coastal belt is prone to Tsunami.
Indian National Centre For Ocean Information Services (INCOIS): Hyderabad. INCOIS has a data
warehouse of ocean related information gathered from various institutions in India, which are
involved in Marine Data Collection, Ocean Observation and Ocean / Atmosphereic Sciences. It was
dedicated to the Nations on 2007 October 15. INCOIS will then translate it into deliverable products
to a range of users 'Fishing community, State Fishery Department Officers, Planning Commission,
Ports and Harbours, Shipping Industry, Navy, Coast Guards, NHO Central Pollution Control Board,
MHR - Ministry of Human Resources and etc.
International Connectivity
Indian Initiative for the Dual-use Early Warning System covers the two known Tsunamigenic
Zones that affect Indian Ocean region. It is an end-to-end system that is scientifically and technically
sound. It is comprehensive and covers the required observations, modeling, data communication,
warning centre, capacity building.
The table shows incidents of tsunamis that have affected our country.

Date Location Impact

02-04-1762 Arakan Coast, Myanmar Sufficient data not available

16-06-1819 Ran of Kachchh, Gujarat Sufficient data not available

31-10-1847 Great Nicobar Island Sufficient data not available

Entire east coast of India and Andaman &

31-12-1881 An earthquake of 7.9 in the Richter
Nicobar islands; 1 m tsunamis was recorded
scale in Car Nicobar island.
at Chennai.

26-08-1883 Explosion of the Krakatoa volcano in East coast of India was affected;
Indonesian 2 m tsunamis were recorded at Chennai

An 8.1 Richter scale earthquake in the East coast of India was affected; but no
26-06- 1941 Andaman archipelago. estimates of height of the tsunami is

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An 8,1 Richter scale earthquake at a West coast of India from north to Karwar
27-11-1945 distance of about 100 km south of was affected; 12 m tsunami was felt at
Karachi Kandla

Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Tamil Nadu, The East coast of India was affected. The
Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and waves measured around 10 m high killing
26-12-2004 Nicobar Islands, India; Sri Lanka; more than 10,000 precious lives.
Thailand, Malaysia ; Kenya, Tanzania It is named as Boxing Day Tsunami

Indonesia with Magnitude on Richter

25-10-2010 scale is 7.7

11.03.2011 An 8.9 Richter Scale Earthquake at a Tsunami is named as Tohaku Tsunami.

distance of about 100 kilometers Death Toll around 10,000
North of the Sendai Province – Japan


Andhra Pradesh with coastline of 972 KMs is the second largest in the country next only to
Gujarat State and the longest on the East Coast of India. These coastal people are the most
vulnerable to the ravages of nature, particularly of cyclonic storms and tidal waves.
On the morning of 26.12.2004 Tsunami tidal waves ranging from 2 to 5 meters high lashed the
Andhra Pradesh coast. The major brunt of the tidal waves was along the coast of Nellore, Prakasam,
Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari, and West Godavari Districts. Many people on the beaches as well as
close to the coast were washed away and otherwise affected. The tidal waters entered the villages
along the coast inundating large number of villages. In all 380 coastal villages with a population of
2,11,670 were affected by this calamity. Overall damage across the state was estimated to be Rs.
317.16 Crores. The largest damages was in fisheries, housing and other infrastructure. Agriculture
sector also suffered damages but not severe.

What is the term Cyclone?
Cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure surrounded by high atmospheric pressure
resulting in swirling atmospheric disturbance accompanied by powerful winds blowing in
anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in the clockwise direction in the Southern
Hemisphere. They occur mainly in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Cyclones are
called by various names in different parts of the world.

General Characteristics:
1. Strong winds
2. Exceptional rain
3. Storm surge
Different Names
 Thyphoons : Pacific Ocean (west of the dateline)
 Hurricanes: North Atlantic Ocean, the South Pacific Ocean
 Tropical cyclones: Southwest Pacific Ocean, Southeast Indian Ocean
 Willie-Willie: Australia
 Tornado: South America

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The Development of a Cyclone:

1. Initial stage: A warm sea temperature in excess of 26 degree centigrade to a depth of 60 m
which provides abundant water vapour in the air by evaporation.
2. High relative humidity (degree to which the air is saturated by water
vapor) of the atmosphere to a height of about 7000 meters facilitates condensation of water
vapor into droplets and clouds, releases heat energy and induces drop in pressure.
3. Atmospheric instability (an above average decrease of temperature with altitude)
encourages considerable vertical cumulus cloud convection when condensation of rising air
4. A location of at least 4-5 latitude degrees from the Equator allow the influence of the force
due to the ea th s otatio Co iolis fo e to take effe t i i ducing cyclonic wind circulation
around low pressure centers.
5. Mature Stage: The bands spiral inwards and form a dense highly active central cloud core
hi h aps a ou d a elati el al zo e. This is alled the eye” of a cyclone. The a dot
surrounded by thick clouds. The outer circumference of the thick cloud is called the eye
all .
6. Weakening or Decay Stage: A tropical cyclone begins to weaken as soon as its source of
warm moist air is abruptly cut off. This is possible when the cyclone hits the land, on the
cyclone moves to a higher altitude or when there is the interference of another low
 Depending on their track on the warm tropical sea and proximity to land a cyclone may last
for less than 24 hours to more than 3 weeks, on an average the life cycle of a cyclone is
takes six days. The longest cyclone is typhoon John rich lasted for 31 days (August to
September 1994 in the northeast and northwest Pacific basins).

Indian Cyclones
The 7516.6 km long Indian coastline is the ea th s ost lo e battered stretch of the world.
Around 8 per cent of the total land area in India is prone to cyclones. About two-third of the
cyclones that occur in the Indian coastline occur in the Bay of Bengal. The states which are generally
affected in the east coast are West Bengal. Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and on the west
coast Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala
 Low pressure and the development can be detected hours or days before it causes damage.
The satellites track the movement of these cyclones based on which the people are
evacuated from areas likely to be affected. It is difficult to predict the accuracy. Accurate
landfall predictions can give only a few hours notice to threatened population.
 India has one of the best cyclone warning systems in the world. The India Meteorological
Department (IMD) is the nodal department for wind detection, tracking and forecasting
cyclones. Cyclone tracking is done through INSAT satellite Cyclone warning is disseminated
by several means such as satellite based disaster warning systems, radio, television,
telephone, fax, high priority telegram, public announcements and bulletins in press .
Elements at Risk: Strong winds, torrential rains and flooding cause a huge loss to life and
property. The 1999 Super Cyclone of Orissa killed more than 10,000 precious lives with
women and children greatly affected. Apart from loss to life there is a huge loss to
infrastructures like houses built of mud, older buildings with weak walls, bridges,
settlements in low lying areas.

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Typical Adverse Effect

1. Damage to infrastructure and housing in particular fragile constructions. They are generally
followed by heavy rains and floods and, in flat coastal areas by storm sure / riding on tidal
waves and inundating the land over long distances of even up 15 Kilometer inland.
2. Physical damage - structures will be damaged or destroyed, by the wind force, flooding and
storm surge. Light pitched roofs of most structures especially the ones fitted on to industrial
buildings will suffer severe damage.
3. Causalities and public health - caused by flooding and flying elements, contamination of
water supplies may lead to viral outbreaks, diarrhea, and malaria.
4. Water supplies - Ground and pipe water supply may get contaminated by flood waters.
5. Crops and food supplies - high winds and rains ruin the standing crop and food stock lying in
low lying areas. Plantation type crops such as banana and coconut are extremely vulnerable.
Salt from the sea water may get deposited on the agricultural land and increase the salinity.
The loss of the crop may lead to acute food shortage.
6. Communication - Severe disruption in the communication links as the wind may bring down
the electricity and communication towers, telephone poles, telephone lines, antennas and
satellite disk and broadcasting services.
Indian Meteorological Department

The criteria below has been formulated by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which
classifies the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea on the basis of capacity
to damage, which is adopted by the WMO.
Type of Disturbances Wind Speed in Km/h Wind Speed in Knots

Low Pressure Less than 31 Less than 17

Depression 31-49 17-27

Deep Depression 49-61 27-33

Cyclonic Storm 61-88 33-47

Severe Cyclonic Storm 88-117 47-63

Super Cyclone More than 221 More than 120

Note: (Major Cyclones)

o 19th Nov, 1977 Diviseema Cyclone, A.P. with a speed of 250 kmph, death toll around
o 29th October 1999, Super Cyclone in Odisha, C lo e s Speed 260 kmph destroyed
around 20 Lakh houses. Death toll was around 10000.
o 15th Nov, 2007 – C lo e “i d i Ba gladesh, C lo e s “peed k ph
o Katarina Cyclone in America
o Nargis Cyclone in Myanmar
o Thane Cyclone in 2011, struck the coast of Nellore (A.P)

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Flood is a state of high water level along a river channel or on the coast that leads to inundation
of land, which is not usually submerged. Floods may happen gradually and also may take hours or
even happen suddenly without any warning due to breach in the embankment, spill over, heavy
rains etc.
 Flood destructions have always brought miseries to numerous people, especially in rural
areas. Flood results in the outbreak of serious epidemics, specially malaria and cholera.
Simultaneously scarcity of water also arises. It has a drastic effect on agricultural produce.
Sometimes, water remains standing over large areas for long span of time hampering the
Rabi crops.
 India is one of the most flood prone countries in the world. The principal reasons for flood lie
in the very nature of natural ecological systems in this country, namely, the monsoon, the
highly silted river systems and the sleep and highly erodible mountains, particularly, those of
the Himalayan ranges.
 The average rainfall in India is 115 cm with significant variation across the country. The
annual rainfall along the western coast and Western Ghats, Khasi hills and over most of the
Brahmaputra valley amounts to more than 250 cm. most of the floods occur during the
monsoon period and are usually associated with tropical storms or depressions, active
monsoon conditions and break monsoon situations.
 23 of the 35 states and union territories in the country are subject to floods and 40 million
hectares of land, roughly one-eighth of the ou t s geog aphical area, is prone to floods.

Types of floods:
Flash floods
Floods which occur within six hours of the beginning of heavy rainfall, and are usually
associated with cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring, rapid localized warnings and
immediate response to reduce damage. Wireless network and telephone connections are used
to monitor flood conditions in case of flash floods, warnings for timely evacuation may not
always be possible.

1. Heavy rainfall
2. Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces the water carrying capacity of the river/stream
3. Blocking the drains lead to flooding of the area.
4. Landslides blocking the flow of the stream
5. Construction of dams and reservoirs.
6. In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down pour along with
storm surge leads to flooding.

Typical Adverse Effects

The most important consequence of floods is the loss of life and property. Structures like
houses, bridges, roads etc. get damaged by the gushing water, landslides triggered on account of
water landslides triggered on account of water getting saturated, boats and fishing nets get
damaged. There is huge loss to life and livestock caused by drowning . Lack of proper drinking water
facilities, contamination of water (well, ground water, piped water supply) leads to outbreak of
epidemics diarrhea, viral infection malaria and many other infectious diseases.
Flooding also leads to a large area of agricultural land getting inundated as a result there is a
huge crop loss. This results in shortage of food, and animal fodder. Floods may also affect the soil

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characteristics. The land may be rendered infertile due to erosion of top layer or may turn saline if
sea water floods the area.
Flood forecasting and warning has been highly developed in the past two decades. With the
advancement of technology such as satellite and remote sensing equipments flood waves can be
tracked as the water and level rises. Except for flash floods there is usually a reasonable warning
period. Heavy precipitation will give sufficient warning of the coming river flood.
High tides with high winds may indicate flooding in the coastal areas. Evacuation is possible with
suitable monitoring and warning. Warning is issued by the Central Water Commission (CWC)
irrigation and Flood Control Department and Water Resources Department. CWC maintains close
liaison with the administrative and state engineering agencies, local civil authorities to communicate
advance warning for appropriate mitigation and preparedness measures.
Significant Floods in India

 Assam has been suffering floods regularly since 1998.

 Flooding in Mumbai in July 2005 left over 700 dead. Some areas went under 5 m of water.
 The 2008 Indian floods affected most of India throughout 2008.
 In October 2009, flooding occurred across many parts of South India. It was one of the worst
flood in the area in the last 100 years, killing at least 299 people and making 500,000 homeless.
 The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 in Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, a region of the
northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. At least 193 people are reported to have
died, five of whom were foreign tourists, after a cloudburst and heavy overnight rains triggered
flash floods and mudslides. A further 200 people were reported missing and thousands more
were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and
 The 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand which destroyed many things and landslides caused
by heavy rainfall.
• 2014 South India floods in Vishakapatnam which destroyed many things and landslides caused
by heavy rainfall and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused
extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
 In September 2014, the Jammu & Kashmir region witnessed disastrous floods across majority of
its districts caused by torrential rainfall. The Indian administrated Jammu and Kashmir, as well
as Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan and Punjab in Pakistan, were affected by these floods. By
September 24, 2014, nearly 284 people in India and 280 people in Pakistan had died due to the
 16th June, 2013, Floods in Uttarkhand death toll upto 5500
 Aug, 2014 Floods in U.P, Bihar, Assam and West Bengal

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What is Drought?
Drought is either absence or deficiency of rainfall from its normal pattern in a region for an
extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society. It is interplay between demand
that people place on natural supply of water and natural event that provides the water in a given
geographical region.
The primary cause of any drought is deficiency of rainfall and in particular, the timing,
distribution and intensity of this deficiency in relation to existing reserves. A prolonged period of
relatively dry weather leading to drought is a widely recognized climate anomaly. Drought can be
devastating as water supplies dry up, crops fail to grow, animals die, and malnutrition and ill health
become widespread. The environmental effects of drought, including Stalinization of soil and
groundwater decline, increased pollution of freshwater ecosystems and regional extinction of animal
 In India around 68 percent of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees. Of the
e ti e a ea pe e t e ei es ai falls et ee " a d hi h is o side s
drought prone while 33 percent which receives rainfalls between less than 750mm is
considered to be chronically drought prone.
 The state of Kerala which receives more than 300 cm of rainfall every year is declared
drought affected as it is insufficient to have two good crops. The more the imbalance in
supply the higher is the drought.
1. It is a slow on -set disaster and it is difficult to demarcate the time of its onset and the
2. Any unusual dry period, which results in a shortage of useful water.
3. Drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate. Climate is expected to show some
aberrations and drought is just a part of it.
4. Drought can occur by improper distribution of rain in time and space, and not just by
its amount.
5. Drought is negative balance between precipitation and water use
(through evaporation, transpiration by plants, domestic and industrial uses etc) in a
geographical region.
6. Though drought is a natural disaster, its effects are made worst in developing
countries by over population, over grazing, deforestation, soil, erosion, excessive use
of ground and surface water for growing crops loss of biodiversity.

Types of Droughts
Meteorological Drought
It is simple absence/deficit of rainfall from the normal. It is the least form of drought and is
often identified by sunny days and hot weather.

Hydrological Drought
Hydrological drought often leads to reduction of natural stream flows or ground water levels,
plus stored water supplies. The main impact is on water resource systems.

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Agricultural drought
This form of drought occurs when moisture level in soil is insufficient to maintain average crop
yields. Initial consequences are in the reduced seasonal output of crops and other related
 An extreme agricultural drought can lead to a famine, which is a prolonged shortage of food
in a restricted region causing widespread disease and death from starvation.
Socio-economic drought
Socio-economic drought correlates the supply and demand of goods and services with the three
above-mentioned types of drought. When the supply of some goods or services such as water and
electricity are weather dependant then drought may cause shortages in supply of these economic

Meteorological Drought

Hydrological Drought

Agricultural Drought

Socio - Economic Drought

Drought Mathematics
According to the Indian meteorological Department (IMD)
1. Onset of drought: Deficiency of a particular year's rainfall exceeding 25% of normal.
2. Moderate drought: Deficit of rainfall between 26-50% of normal.
3. Severe drought: Deficit of rainfall more than 50% of normal.

Typical adverse effects

 Drought different from any other natural disaster, does not cause any structural damages.
As the meteorological drought turns into hydrological drought, the impacts start appearing
first agriculture which is moist dependant on the soil moisture irrigated areas are affected
much later than the rainfed areas.
 However, regions surrounding perennial rivers tend to continue normal life even when
drought conditions are prevailing around. The impacts slowly spread into social fabric as the
availability of drinking water diminishes, reduction in energy production, ground water
depletion, food shortage, health reduction and loss of life, increased poverty, reduced
quality of life and social unrest leading to migration.

Distribution Pattern
1. Around 68% of I dia s total a ea is d ought p o e
2. 50 million people are annually affected by drought
3. In 2001 more than eight states suffered the impact of severe drought
4. In 2003 most parts of Rajasthan experienced the fourth consecutive year of drought.
The following are the Institutions set up to develop and do research on drought prone areas.
 CAZRI (Jodhpur, Rajasthan) Central Arid Zone Research Institute
 ICRISAT (Hyderabad) International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics.

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Disasters can also be manmade, for instance, rail, road or air accidents are manmade disasters.
The threat of serious disaster looms large from the possible use of weapons such as nuclear bombs
or the atom bomb that was dropped over Japan during World War II. These weapons are commonly
called Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), which lead to the breakdown and collapse of social,
political and economic systems that sustain communities. Inevitably agriculture and food production
are major casualties.
 Man-made disasters cost the most in terms of human suffering, loss of life and long term
da age to a ou t s e o o a d p odu ti e apa it .

Types of Manmade Disasters

1. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): WMD can be broadly classified into three categories - as
those that facilitate nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.
Example 1
With the advancement of scientific research in the world, several countries have acquired
the technology to produce Nuclear Arms, which are more destructive and harmful than the
atom bomb used more than half a century ago. There is also a risk of accidental exposure to
harmful radiation from the several nuclear reactors that are used for generation of power.
Theft of nuclear material can enable the creation of crude bombs commonly known as dirty
o s which can be used by anti-social elements like terrorists.
Example 2
On August 6, 1945, an American B- o e , the E ola Ga d opped a , – pound
atomic weapon over the city of Hiroshima, two thousand feet above the ground, the bomb,
du ed Little Boy” detonated, instantly leveling almost 90% of the city. The destruction
was incredible. More than 10 square kilometers of the city were instantly and completely
devastated; a City center was literally vaporized. The ensuring fireball spread and engulfed
many more kilometers of the City in fire. 66,000 people were killed, and 69,000 injured.
On August 9, another plane dropped a larger bomb, code- a ed Fat man o e Nagasaki.
Local geography spared Nagasaki from the near total devastation suffered by Hiroshima; but
one third of the city was destroyed, it killed 39,000 persons, injuring 25,000 more.
Example 3
An accident taking place in any nuclear facility of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the nuclear
reactor or in a facility, using radioactive sources, leading to a large-scale release of
radioactivity in the environment.

2. Chemical Disasters
 Chemical Disasters are caused by industrial accidents, irresponsible handling of hazardous
chemicals, or by their deliberate use for destruction.
 Poisonous gases can cause wide spread devastation because of their nature: they spread
easily, and affect large areas. Chemical WMD are relatively easy to manufacture using simple
chemical processes, and chemical agents are easily available. Further, they are difficult to
detect since chemical WMD are colourless and odourless.
E.g.: The Bhopal Gas Tragedy: The Bhopal Gas Tragedy is a catastrophe that has no parallel
in industrial history. In the early hours of December 3, 1984 a rolling wind carried a
poisonous gray cloud past the Union Carbide Plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. 40 tons of
Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) spread throughput the sleeping city. An estimated 2500 people
died, people whose hopes and dreams were ironically bound with the technology and
affluence the plant symbolized. About 300,000 suffered from agonizing injuries from "the
disastrous effects of the massive poisoning.

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 Residents awoke to clouds of suffocating gas and began a desperate flight through the dark
streets. No alarm ever sounded a warning and no evacuation plan was prepared. When
victims arrived at hospitals breathless and blind, doctors did not know how to treat them
since emergency information on antidotes was not available.

Sources of Chemical Disasters

1. Chemical accidents may originate in manufacturing and formulation installations including
during commissioning and process operations; maintenance and disposal.
2. Material handling and storage in manufacturing facilities, and isolated storages; warehouses
and godowns including tank farms in ports and docks and fuel depots.
3. Transportation (road, rail, air, water, and pipelines).

Causative Factors
1. Fire.
2. Explosion.
3. Toxic release.
4. Poisoning
5. Combinations of the above.

Natural Calamities
The Indian subcontinent is highly prone to natural disasters, which can also trigger chemical
disasters. Damage to phosphoric acid sludge containment during the Odissa super cyclone in 1999
and the release of Aciylonitrile at Kandla Port, during an earthquake in 2001, are some of the recent

Impact of Chemical Disasters

In addition to loss of life, the major consequences of chemical disasters include impact on
livestock, flora/fauna, the environment (air, soil, water) and losses to industry as shown in Chemical
accidents may be categorized as a major accident or a disaster depending upon the number of
casualties, injuries, damage to the property or environment.

Major Chemical Accidents in India

1. The Bhopal Gas Disaster in 1984. a fire in an oil well in Andhra Pradesh 2003.
2. A vapour cloud explosion in the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Refinery (HPCL),
Vishakhapatnam (1997).
3. An explosion in the Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) Gas Cracker Complex,
Nagothane, Maharashtra (1990). Over 20 major chemical accidents have been reported in
Maharashtra units during 2002-06.
3. Biological Disasters
Biologi al eapo s a e efe ed to as a poor a s u lear o e ause the a e eas to
manufacture, can be deployed without sophisticated delivery systems, and have the ability to kill or
injure hundreds of thousands of people.
 Simple devices such as crop dusting airplanes or small perfume atomizers are effective
delivery systems for biological agents.
 In contrast to chemical, conventional and nuclear weapons that generate immediate effects,
biological agents are generally associated with a delay in the onset of illness (hours to days).
 Moreover, illnesses from biological weapons are not likely to be recognized in their initial
stages. With highly transmissible agents (e.g., plague and smallpox), the time delay in

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recognition can result in widespread secondary exposure to others, including doctors and
health staff.
Biological disasters of natural origin are largely the result of the entry of a virulent organism into
a congregation of susceptible people living in a manner suited to the spread of the infection. In
crowded areas, anthrax spreads by spore dispersal in the air, small pox. Spread by aerosols, typhus
and plague spread through lice, fleas, rodents, etc. Disasters have occurred when environmental
factors were conductive, e.g., Black Death occurred when conditions were favourable for increase in
the number of rats, and cholera attained a pandemic form when the causative agent entered urban
areas which had inadequate sanitation facilities. Similarly, post World War I, the movement of
population led to the rapid spread of the Spanish influenza virus.
Malaria and tuberculosis are examples of such infections which, in the long run, are as important
as the more visible florid epidemics. The extension of human activity and its contact with a hitherto
localized microbial environment introduces novel pathogens. The spread of Nipah, Hendra, Ebola,
Marburg and Lassa fever viruses are examples of this phenomenon. In the case of HIV, a sporadically
occurring phenomenon - that of transmission of the virus from chimpanzee to man - became a
pandemic when it began to be sexually transmitted, and has since become the largest epidemic in
Human conflict resulting in large-scale population movement, breakdown of social structures
and contact with alien groups has always generated a large number of infections. Until very recently,
the number of casualties due to infections far exceeded losses due to arms.
In the 20th century, the use of bio-weapons became more scientific as technology for the
cultivation of pathogens and vaccinology developed a biowarfare programme to use bacteria to
infect or contaminate livestock and feed. There are also accusations of German bio-attacks on Italy
(cholera) and Russia (Plague). After World War I, many nations undertook the development of bio-
Significant research efforts were also made by both sides in World War II. Human apthogens like
Bacillllus anthracis, Botulinum toxin, Fracisella tularensis, Brucella suis, etc., and crop pathogens like
Rice Blast, Rye Stem Rust, etc., were developed into bio-weapons.

Impact of Biological Disasters

 Dispersal experiments have been attempted using non-pathogenic Bacillus globigii, which
has physical characteristics similar to Bacillus anthrax.
 A 100 gms of Anthrax released over a major city may cause up to 3 million casualties

4.Accidental Disasters
The term stampede is applied to a sudden rush of a crowd of people, usually resulting in many
injuries and death from suffocation and trampling.

On January 14, 2011: At Sabarimala , Kerala-104 people dead and 50 were injured

Nuclear Disasters
Nuclear emergency / Disaster is caused due to an extraordinary release of radioactive material
or radiation either in the operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear events like explosion of a
Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or explosion of a nuclear

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Date Place Event

In an incident during refueling of FBTR, structural deformation

4 may 1987 Kalpakkam, happened in some of the fuel assemblies. There was no release of
Tamilanadu radioactivity. The reactor remained shut down for about two
years for restoration which involved development of special
tools, inspection and removal of affected fuel assemblies.

Road Accidents
The rapid expansion of road transport has brought with it the challenge of addressing adverse
factors such as the increase in road accidents. Road accidents are a human tragedy. It involves high
human suffering and monetary costs in terms of premature deaths, injuries, loss of productivity etc.,
most deaths and injuries due to road accidents are invisible to society. They are a hidden epidemic.
In India, motor vehicles including two wheelers are growing at a faster rate than the economic and
population growth.

Number of accidents, persons killed & injured as per road classification (2008)

Road National State highways Other roads

classification highways
No. of Accidents 137995 (28.47) 123972 (25.58) 222737 (45.95)

Rail Accidents
Based on the definition of the Disaster Management Act 2005, Ministry of Railways has adopted
the following definition on Railway Disaster: "Railway Disaster is a serious train accident or an
untoward event of grave nature, either on railway premises or arising out of railway activity, due to
natural or human-made causes, that may lead to loss of many lives and / or grievous injuries to a
large number of people, and / or severe disruption of traffic etc., necessitation large scale help from
other government / non -government and private organizations.
Air Accidents
Air accidents are by and large of four types: mid air collisions, forced landings, crash due to
technical snags and air-crash in mountainous terrain due to poor visibility. While air accidents can
occur at any time and at any place, areas within about 30 - 40 kms., radius of airports are most
vulnerable. Experience shows that a majority of air accidents occur either during take-off or landing
near major airports where flight paths get congested. In addition, air accidents also take place at
remote inaccessible places like forests, hilly and mountainous regions, high seas, etc.
Causes of air accidents are either human failure of pilots, air traffic controllers or technical
failures of on board, landing instruments. In rare cases, it may also be the result of terrorist
Mine Disasters
Mines Act, 1965 defines Disaster as an act accident (unexpected event) causing loss of more
than 10 lives. A mining accident is an accident that occurs in the process of mining minerals.
The act defines an accident involving loss of lives less than 10 as major accident. Thousands of
miners die from mining accidents each year, especially in the process of coal mining and hard rock
mining. One of the greatest mining disasters in Indian mines occurred on 27 December 1975 due to
water in rush from old abandoned incline working to a deep shaft mine working of Chasnallah
Colliery leading to death of 375 miners.
The types of mining disasters:

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 Side fall (slope failure) disaster in opencast mines.

 Roof and side falls in underground mines.
 Collapse of mine pillars
 Air blast
 Failure of rope haulage


Community preparedness
Community preparedness is vital for mitigating earthquake impact. The most effective way to
sa e ou e e i a slightest shaki g is 'D‘OP COVE‘ AND HOLD
The Bureau of Indian Standards has published building codes and guidelines for safe
construction of buildings against earthquakes. Before the buildings are constructed the building
plans have to be checked by the Municipality according to the laid down by laws. Many existing
lifeline buildings such as hospitals, schools and fire stations may not be built with earthquake safety
measures. There earthquake safety needs to be upgraded by retrofitting techniques.
 Public education is educating the public on causes and characteristics of an earthquake and
preparedness measures, it can be created through sensitization and training programme for
community, architects, engineers, builders, masons, teachers, government functionaries
teachers and students.
 Engineered structures: Buildings need to be designed and constructed as per the building by
laws to withstand ground shaking. Architectural and engineering inputs need to be put
together to improve building design and construction practices. The soil type needs to be
analyzed before construction. Building structures on soft soil should be avoided. Buildings on
soft soil are more likely to get damaged even if the magnitude of the earthquake is not
 While it is of course not possible to prevent a tsunami, in certain tsunami prone countries
some measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused on shore.
 Japan has implemented an extensive programme of building tsunami wall of up to 4.5 m
(13.5 ft) high in front of populated coastal areas. Other localities have built flood gates and
channels to redirect the water from incoming tsunamis. However, their effectiveness has
been questioned, as tsunamis are often higher than the barriers.
 For instance, the tsunami which hit the island of Hokkaido on July 12, 1993 created waves as
much as 30 m (100 ft) tall - as high as a 10-storey building. The port town of Aonae on
Hokkaido was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over
the wall and destroyed all the wood framed structures in the area. The wall may have
succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami but it did not prevent
major destruction and loss of life.

Site Planning and Land Management

 Within the broader framework of a comprehensive plan, site planning determines the
location, configuration and density of development on particular sites and is, therefore, an
important tool in reducing tsunami risk.
 The designation and zoning of tsunami hazard areas for such open-space uses as agriculture,
parks and recreation, or natural hazard areas is recommended as the first land use planning
strategy. This strategy is designed to keep development at a minimum in hazard areas.

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 In areas where it is not feasible to restrict land to open-space uses, other land use planning
measures can be used. These include strategically controlling the type of development and
uses allowed in hazard areas, and avoiding high-value and high occupancy uses to the
greatest degree possible.
Engineering structures- Most of the habitation of the fishing community is seen in the
coastal areas. The houses constructed, by them are mainly of light weight materials without
any engineering inputs. Therefore there is an urgent need to educate the community about
the good construction practices that they should adopt.
Site selection - Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred feet of the
coastline as these areas are more likely to experience damage from tsunamis.
 Construct the structure on a higher ground level with respect to mean sea level. Elevate
coastal homes - Most tsunami waves are less than 3 meters in height Elevating house will
help reduce damage to property from most tsunamis.
 Construction of water breakers to reduce the velocity of waves.
 Use of water and corrosion resistant materials for construction.
 Construction of community halls at higher locations, which can act as shelters at the time of
a disaster.
 Flood management - Flooding will result from a tsunami. Tsunami waves will flood the
coastal areas. Flood mitigation measures could be incorporated.

Coastal belt plantation: Green belt plantation along the coastal line in a scientific inter-weaving
pattern can reduce the effect of the hazard. Providing a cover through green belt sustains less
 Forests act as a wide buffer zone against strong winds and flash floods. Without the forest
the cyclone travel freely inland. The lack of protective forest cover allows water to inundate
large areas and cause destruction. With the loss of the forest cover each consecutive cyclone
can penetrate further inland.
Hazard mapping - Meteorological records of the wind speed and the directions give the
probability of the winds in the region Cyclones can be predicted several days in advance.

 Mapping of the flood prone areas is a primary step involved in reducing the risk of the
region. Historical records gave the indication of the flood inundation areas and the period of
occurrence and the extent of the coverage.
 Warning can be issued looking into the earlier marked heights of the water levels in case of
potential threat. In the coastal areas the tide levels and the land characteristics will
determine the submergence areas. Flood hazard mapping will give the proper indication of
water flow during floods.
 Land use control will reduce danger of life and property when waters inundate the flood
plains and the coastal areas. The number of causalities is related to the population in the
area at risk in areas where people already have built their settlements.
 Measures should be taken to relocate to better sites as to reduce vulnerability. No major
development should be permitted in the areas which are subjected to high flooding.
 Important facilities like hospitals, schools should be built in safe areas. In urban areas water
holding areas can be created like ponds, lakes or low-lying areas.
 Construction of engineered structures in the flood plains and strengthening of structures to
withstand flood forces and seepage. The buildings should be constructed on an elevated
area. If necessary build on stilts or platform.

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 Flood Control aims to reduce flood damage. This plan be done by decreasing the amount of
runoff with the help of reforestation (to increase absorption could be a mitigation strategy in
certain areas), protection of vegetation, clearing of debris from streams and other water
holding areas, conservation of ponds and lakes etc.
 Flood Diversion includes levees, embankments, dams and channel improvement. Dams can
store water and can release water at a manageable rate. But failure of dams in earthquakes
and operation of releasing the water can cause floods in the lower areas.
 Flood Proofing reduces the risk of damage.

Public Awareness and education
If the community is aware of the do s and do t s then half of the problem is solved. This
includes awareness on the availability of safe drinking water, water conservation techniques
agricultural drought management strategies like crop contingency plans, construction of rain water
harvesting structure. Awareness can be generated by the print, electronic and folk media.

Drought Monitoring
It is continuous observation of the rainfall situation, availability of water in the reservoirs, lakes,
rivers etc and comparing with the existing water needs in various sectors of the society.

 Water supply augmentation and conservation through rainwater harvesting in houses and
farmers fields increases the content of water available. Water harvesting by either allowing
the runoff water from all the fields to a common point or allowing it infiltrate into the soil
where it has fallen increase water availability for sustained agricultural production.
 Expansion of irrigation facilities reduces the drought vulnerability. Land use based on its
capability helps in optimum use of land and water and can avoid the under demand created
due to their misuse.
 Livelihood planning identifies those livelihoods which are least affected by the drought.
Some of such livelihoods include increased off-farm employment opportunities, collection of
non-timber forest produce from the community forests, raising goats, carpentry etc.
Drought planning: The basic goal of drought planning is to improve the effectiveness of
preparedness and response efforts by enhancing monitoring mitigation and response
 Planning would help in effective coordination among state and national agencies in dealing
with the drought. Components of drought plan include establishing drought taskforce which
is a team of specialists who can advise the government in taking decision to deal with
drought situation, establishing coordination mechanism among various agencies which deal
with the droughts, providing crop insurance schemes to the farmers to cope with the drought
related crop loses, and public awareness generation.

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The process involving the activities that help us to face disasters effectively is commonly known
as D.M. It covers, a range of activities designed to maintain control over disasters, emergency
situations and do provide a frame work for helping people to avoid, reduce the effects of, or recover
from impact of a disaster.

Phases of Disaster Management

1. Disaster Strikes
(Ex. Cyclonic Storm)
2. Emergency Response and relief
3. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
4. Mitigation
5. Preparedness

Institutional Framework
Evolution of Disaster Management in India
Disaster management in India has evolved from an activity-based reactive setup to a proactive
institutionalized structure; from single faculty domain to a multi-stakeholder setup; and from a
relief- ased app oa h to a multi-dimensional pro-active holistic approach for redu i g risk .

Emergence of Institutional Arrangement in India

A permanent and institutionalized setup began in the decade of 1990s with set up of a disaster
management cell under the Ministry of Agriculture, following the declaration of the decade of 1990
as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) by the UN General Assembly.
Following series of disasters such as Latur earthquake (1993), and Malpal Landslide (1994), Orissa
Super Cyclone (1999) and Bhuj Earthquake (2001), a high powered Committee under the
Chairmanship of Mr. J.C. Pant, Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture was constituted for drawing up a
systematic, comprehensive and holistic approach towards disasters. There was a shift in policy from
an approach of relief through financial aid to a holistic one for addressing disaster management.
Consequently, the disaster management division was shifted under the Ministry of Home Affairs in

Organization and Structure of Disaster Management

The Disaster Management Division is headed by Joint Secretary (DM) in MHA, who is assisted by
three Directors, under Secretaries, Section Officers, Technical Officer, Senior Economic Investigator
consultants and other supporting staff. The upper echelon of the structure consists of Secretary
(Border Management), Home Secretary, Minister of State in charge and the Home Minister.

Disaster Management Framework

Shifting from relief and response mode, disaster management in India started to address the .
issues of early warning systems, forecasting and monitoring setup for various weather related
hazards. A structure for flow of information, in the form of warnings, alerts and updates about the
oncoming hazard, also emerged within this framework. A multi-stakeholder High powered group
was setup by involving representatives from different ministries and departments.
Some of these ministries were also designated as the nodal authorities for specific disasters.
Following a High Powered for establishment of a separate institutional structure for addressing
disasters and enactment of a suitable law for institutionalizing disaster management in the country,
a multi-level links between these ministries and the disaster management framework have emerged.

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Present Structure for Disaster Management in India

The institutional structure for disaster management in India is in a state of transition. The new
setup, following the implementation of the Act, is evolving; while the previous structure also
continues. Thus, the two structures co-exist at present. The National Disaster Management
Authority has been established at the centre, and the SDMA at state and district authorities at
district level are gradually being formalized. In addition to this, the National Crisis Management
Committee, part of the earlier setup, also functions at the Centre. The nodal ministries, as identifies
for different disaster types of function under the overall guidance of the Ministry of Home Affairs
(nodal ministry for disaster management). This makes the stakeholders interact at different levels
within the disaster management framework.

Within this transitional and evolving setup, two distinct features of the institutional structure
for disaster management may be noticed. Firstly, the structure is hierarchical and functions at four
levels - centre, state, district and local. In both the setups - one that existed prior to the
implementation of the Act, and other that is being formalized post-implementation of the Act, there
have existed institutionalized structures at the centre, state, district and local levels. Each preceding
level guides the activities and decision making at the next level in hierarchy. Secondly, it is a multi-
stakeholder setup, i.e., the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries, government
departments and administrative bodies.

Disaster Management Act, 2005

 This Act provides for the effective management of disaster and for matters connected
therewith or incidental thereto. It provides institutional .mechanisms for drawing up and
monitoring the implementation of the disaster management. The Act also ensures measures
by the various wings of the Government for prevention and mitigation of disasters and
prompt response to any disaster situation.
 The Act provides for setting up of a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under
the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs)
under the Chairmanship of the Chief Ministers, District Disaster Management Authorities
(DDMAs) under the Chairmanship of Collectors/District Magistrates/Deputy
Commissioners. The Act further provides for the constitution of different Executive
Committees at national and state levels.
 Under its aegis, the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) for capacity building
and National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for response purpose have been set up. It also
mandates the concerned Ministries and Departments to draw up their own plans in
accordance with the National Plan. The Act further contains the provisions for financial
mechanisms such as creation of funds for response; National Disaster Mitigation Fund and
similar funds at the state and district levels for the purpose of disaster management. The Act
also provides specific roles to local bodies in disaster management.
 Further the enactment of 73rd and 74th Amendments to the constitution, and emergence of
local self-government, both rural and urban as important tiers of governance, the role of
local authorities becomes very important. The DM Act, 2005 also envisages specific roles to
be played by the local bodies in disaster management.

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Legal - Institutional Framework

1. Lay down policies on disaster management;
2. Approve the National Plan;
3. Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in
accordance with the National Plan;
4. Lay down guidelines to be followed by STATE Authorities in drawing up the State plan;
5. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the
Government of India for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster
or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects;
6. Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for disaster
7. Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation;
8. Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined
by the Central Government;
9. Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness
and capacity building for dealing with the threatening disaster situation or disaster as it
may consider necessary;
10. Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of
Disaster Management

A legal institutional framework developed based on the provision of the Act across the country, in
vertical and horizontal hierarchical and in the federal setup of country for appreciation of response
mechanism which has been put in place.
National Level Institutions

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was initially constituted on May 30, 2005
under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister vide an executive order. Following enactment of the
Disaster Management Act, 2005, the NDMA was formally constituted in accordance with Section-3(l)
of the Act on 27th September, 2006 with Prime Minister as its Chairperson and nine other members,
and one such member to be designated as Vice- Chairperson.

Mandate of NDMA
The NDMA has been mandated with laying down policies on disaster management and
guidelines which would be followed by different Ministries, Departments of the Government of India
and State Government in taking measures for disasters risk reduction. It has also to laid down
guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plans and to take such
measures for the management of disasters, Details of these responsibilities are given as under:-

National Executive Committee (NEC)

A National Executive Committee is constituted under Section 8 of DM Act, 2005 to assist
the National Authority in the performance of its functions. NEC consists of Home Secretary as
its Chairperson, ex-officio, with other Secretaries to the Government of India in the Ministries
or Departments having administrative control of the agriculture, atomic energy, defence,
drinking water supply, environment and forest, finance (expenditure), health, power, rural
development science and technology, space, telecommunication, urban development, water
resources. The Chief of Integrated Defence Staff of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, ex-officio, is
also its Members.

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NEC has been given the responsibility to act as the-coordinating and monitoring body for.
disaster management, to prepare a National Plan, monitor the implementation of National
Policy etc. vide section 10 of the DM Act.

State Level Institutions

State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
The DM Act, 2005 provides for constitution of SDMAs and DDMAs in all the states and UTs.
As per the information received from the states and UTs, except Gujarat and Daman & Diu, all
the rest have constituted SDMAs under the DM Act, 2005. Gujarat has constituted its SDMA
under its Gujarat 3tate Disaster Management Act, 2003. Daman & Diu have also established
DMAs prior to enactment of DM Act 2005.

State Executive Committee (SEC)

The Act envisages establishment of State Executive Committee under section 20 of the Act,
to be headed by Chief Secretary of the state Government with four other Secretaries of such
departments as the state Government may think fit. It has the responsibility for coordinating and
monitoring the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan as
provided under section 22 of the Act.

District Level Institutions

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
 Section 25 of the DM Act provides for constitution of DDMA for every district of a state. The
District Magistrate/District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the Authority as
Chairperson besides an elected representative of the local authority as Co-Chairperson
except in the tribal areas where the Chief Executive Member of the District Council of
Autonomous District is designated as Co-Chairperson. Further in district,
 where the Zilla Parishath exists, its Chairperson shall be the Co-Chairperson of DDMA, Other
members of this authority include the CEO of the District Authority, Superintendent of
Police, Chief Medical Officer of the District and other two district level officers are
designated by the state Government.
 The District Authority responsible for planning, coordination and implementation of disaster
management and to take such measures for disaster management as provided in the
guidelines. The District Authority also has the power to examine the construction in any area
in the district to enforce the safety standards and also to arrange for relief measures and
respond to the disaster at the district level.

Nation Institutional Framework for Metropolitan Cities

In the larger cities (say, with population exceeding 2.5 million), the recommendation of the
second Administrative Reforms Commission has suggested that the Mayor, assisted by the
Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation and the Police Commissioner to be directly responsible
for Crisis Management. It has now been accepted by the Government.

National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) - Background

In the backdrop of the International decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), a National
Centre for Disaster Management was established at the Indian Institute for Public Administration
(IIPA) in 1995. The Centre was upgraded and designated as the National Institute of Disaster
management (NIDM) on 16th October 2003. it has now achieved the status of a statutory
organization under the Disaster Management Act, 2005. Section 42 of Chapter VII of the Disaster
Management Act, 2005 entrusts the Institute with numerous responsibilities, namely to develop

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training modules, undertake research and documentation in disaster management, organize training
programmes, undertake and organize study courses, conferences, lectures and seminars to promote
and institutionalize disaster management, undertake ahd provide for publication of journals,
research papers and books.

Management Structure
The Union Home Minister is the President of the Institute, it was constituted on 23rd February,
2007 and has a general body of forty two members comprising of secretaries of various ministries,
departments of the Union Government and heads of national level scientific, research and technical
 In terms of Section 42(4) of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 vide order dated 3 rd May,
2007, the Government also constituted a 14 member Governing Body.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

Constitution and role of NDRF
The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has been constituted under Section 44 of the DM
Act, 2005 by up-gradation / conversion of eight standard battalions of Central Para Military Forces
i.e., Two battalions each from Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Central
Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) to build them up as, a
specialist force to respond to disaster or disaster like situations.
The eight battalions (1 battalion comprised of nearly 1000 person) of NDRF consist of 144
specialized teams trained in various types of natural, manmade and non-natural disasters.
72 of such teams are designed to cater to the Chemcial, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear
(CBRN) calamities besides natural calamities. Each NDRF battalion consists of 11.49 personnel
organized in 18 teams comprising of 45 personnel, who are being equipped and trained for
rendering effective response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster, both natural and
manmade. All these eight battalions are being trained in natural disasters while four of them are
being additionally trained for handling CBRN disasters.

Based on vulnerability profile of different regions of the country, these specialist battalions have
been presently stationed at the following eight places:

1. Bhatinda
2. Greater1 Noida
3. Guwahati
4. Vadodara
5. Pune
6. Kolkata
7. Chennai
8. Bhuvneshwar

Two new battalions to be raised by Sashtra Seema Bal (SSB) will be located at:
1. Patna
2. Vijayawada.

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List of Worst Natural Disasters the History of India

1770 Great Bengal Famine

The Great Bengal Famine was a large famine in Bengal during the British rule in the period of 1769-
1773. Bengal famine was caused the deaths of 10 million people in Bengal, Bihar and some parts of

1839 Coringa Cyclone

The Coringa Cyclone was one of the 10 big disasters that shook India,struck at a tiny village of
Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh. The Great Coringa Cyclone killed around 20,000 people in the
ancient city of Coringa.

1894 Third Plague Pandemic

The major plague pandemic came to British India in 1896, killing more than 12 million people in India
and China alone. Third Plague Pandemic was initially seen in port cities such as Bombay and Kolkata
then spread to small towns and rural areas of many regions of India.

1979 Lahaul Valley Avalanche

Lahaul Spiti valley receives heavy snowfall during the winter season, causes Avalanches. The LaHaul
Valley disaster in March of 1979 buried 200 people under 20 feet of snow, the only avalanche in the
Himalayas and one of the 10 deadliest Avalanches in History of world.

1998 Malpa Landslide

Heavy rainfall caused, Malpa landslide was one of worst landslides in India, at village Malpa in
Pithoragarh of Uttarkhand. Around 380 people were killed when massive landslides washed the
entire village along with Hindu pilgrims of Kailash Mansarovar yatra.

1999 Odisha Cyclone

The 1999 Odisha cyclone also known as super cyclone 05B was the most deadliest tropical cyclone
in the Indian Ocean and most destructive Indian storm since 1971. It caused almost deaths of 15,000
people and made heavy to extreme damage.

2001 Gujarat Earthquake

The massive earthquake o u ed o I dia s st ‘epu li Da o Ja ua , at Bha hau

Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat. Gujarat earthquakehad a magnitude of between 7.6 and 7.7 and
killed around 20,000 people.

2002 Indian HeatWave

I dia s heat a e i at south egio killed o e tha people, Most of the deaths
occurred in state of Andhra Pradesh. The heat was so intense that birds fell from the sky, ponds and
rivers dried up.

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2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The Indian Ocean earthquake and Tsunami occurred in 2004 at the west coast of Sumatra, killing
over 230,000 people in fourteen countries. Indian Ocean Tsunami was one of the deadliest natural
disasters in history of India.

2007 Bihar Floods

The 2007- 2008 Bihar flood are listed as the worst hit flood in the living memory of Bihar in last 30
years. Biha is I dia s ost flood-prone State, a recurring disaster appears annual basis and destroys
thousands of human lives apart from livestock and assets worth millions.

2005 Mumbai Catastrophes

The 2005 Maharashtra floods was occurred just one month after the June 2005 Gujarat
floods, Mumbai the capital city was most badly affected and witnessed one of
its worst catastrophes in the history of India, killing at least 5,000 people.

2010 Eastern Indian Storm

The Eastern Indian storm was a severe storm struck parts of eastern Indian states,spanning for 30–
40 minutes. At least 91 people died in Indian statesand Over 91,000 dwellings were destroyed and
partially damaged.

2013 Maharashtra Drought

Maha asht a state as affe ted the egio s worst drought in 40 years,worst-hit areas are Jalna,
Jalgaon and Dhule are also affected by the famine. Millions of people in Maharashtra are at serious
risk of hunger after two years of low rainfall in the region.

2013 Uttarakhand Flash Floods

On June 2013 Uttarakhand received heavy rainfall,massive Landslides due to the large flashfloods,
it suffered maximum damage of houses and structures, killing more than 1000 people, sources
claimed the death toll could be rise up to 5000. Uttarakhand Flash Floods is the most disastrous
floods in the history of India.

2014 India–Pakistan floods

In September 2014, the Jammu & Kashmir region witnessed disastrous floods across majority of its
districts caused by torrential rainfall. The Indian administrated Jammu and Kashmir, as well as Azad
Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan and Punjab in Pakistan, were affected by these floods. By September 24,
2014, nearly 284 people in India and 280 people in Pakistan had died due to the floods.

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