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LABORATORY MANUAL

LMGEO204

CARTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

Name of the Student: …………………………………………………………………………


Registration Number: ……………………………… Roll No.: ….........................................
Section: ……………………………………………… Group: ………………………………

School of Social Sciences and Languages


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE STUDENTS

The geography resource centre (18-604) has been specifically designed to cater to the academic
needs of B.A., B.A. (Hons.), M.A. (Geography) students. It consists of suitable maps, Cartographic
tools, Topographical Sheets, Globes, GPS, Weather Stations equipment/apparatus covering
diverse topics.

Guidelines for the students:

 Student should be up to date on the theoretical aspect of the practical before its
conduction.
 Student should read the lab manual comprehensively, before joining each practical class.

Dress code (if any): Comfortable formal dress

Compulsory things to be carried by the students in lab:


 Lab manual, HB lead pencil, Eraser, sketch/pencil colours, Practical file, Worksheet of
the practical to be performed.

Safety Guidelines:
 Sit comfortably with your practical file, equipment/ material etc.
 Avoid rush on the tables.

Do’s:
 Read lab manual carefully.
 Note readings/observations in specified worksheets only.
 All the test and experiments turned in for grades must be done independently, using the
individual’s own words, ideas, figures, data and tables.
 Compile worksheets of all practical in a serial order in a file.
 Bring complete file for every lab class.
 Respect the lab schedules by following timetable schedule.
 Put bags, phones, eatables etc. outside the labs at specified places.

Don’ts:
 Don’t come to the lab class with loose worksheets.
 Don’t create indiscipline in the lab class.
 Don’t sit idle in the lab.
 Don’t remove books, binders, or other lab materials from the lab.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. No. Title of the Experiment Page No.

Method of graphical construction of Plain


1. 4-6
Scale

Graphical construction of Polar


2. 7-9
Zenithal stereographic projection.

3. Bonne's Projection 10-12

4. Contour and Layer tints 13-15

5. Climograph and Hythergraph 16-18

6. Lorenz Curve 19-22

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Experiment No. 1

Graphical construction of Plain Scale.

Equipment required: Pencils, Scale, Stencils, Colours, paper etc.

Learning Objectives:

1. The students will be able to understand the method of graphical construction of Plain Scale.
2. The students will able to differentiate between different types of maps.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


A plain scale consists of a line divided into suitable number of equal units. The first unit is
subdivided into smaller parts.
The zero should be placed at the end of the 1st main unit .unit
From the zero mark, the units should be numbered to the right and the sub-divisions to the left.
The units and the subdivisions should be labelled clearly.
The R.F. should be mentioned below the scale.

Problem: Draw a scale 1 cm = 1m to read decimeters, to measure maximum distance of 6


m. Show on it a distance of 4 m and 6 dm.

Construction:-
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑀𝑎𝑝
a) Calculate R.F. =
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑
So,
R.F. = 1cm/ 1m = 1/100.

Therefore, Length of scale = R.F. X Max. distance


= 1/100 X 600 cm = 6 cms
b) Draw a line 6 cm long and divide it in 6 equal parts. Each part will represent larger division
unit.
c) Sub divide the first part which will represent second unit or fraction of first unit.
d) Place (0) at the end of first unit. Number the units on right side of Zero and subdivisions on
left-hand side of Zero. Take height of scale 5 to 10 mm for getting a look of scale.
e) After construction of scale mention its RF and name of scale as shown.
f) Show the distance 4 meters 6 decimeters on it as shown.

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Learning Outcomes:

1. The students will able to calculate R.F.


2. The students will able to draw plain scale.

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GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S.No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

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Experiment no. 2

Construction of Polar Zenithal Stereographic projection

Equipment Required: Pencil, Pens, Stencils, Scale, color, etc.

Learning Objectives:

1. To enable the student to know about Polar Zenithal Stereographic projection.


2. To enable them to construct the projection.
3. To enable them to aware about significance of this projection.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


The projection is equivalent to the polar aspect of the Stereographic projection on a spheroid.
The central point is either the North Pole or the South Pole. This is the only polar aspect planar
projection that is conformal. The Polar Stereographic projection is used for all regions not
included in the UTM
Coordinate System, regions north of 84° N and south of 80° S. Use UPS for these regions.
Projection method: Planar perspective projection, where one pole is viewed from the other pole.
Lines of latitude are concentric circles. The distance between circles increases with distance from
the central pole.
Point of tangency: A single point, either the north pole or the south pole. If the plane is secant
instead of tangent, the point of global contact is a line of latitude.
Properties: Shape: conformal; accurate representation of local shapes.
Area: the farther from the pole, the greater the areal scale.
Direction: true direction from the pole. Local angles are true everywhere.
Distance: the scale increases with distance from the center. If a standard parallel is chosen rather
than one of the poles, this latitude represents the true scale, and the scale nearer the pole is
reduced,
Limitations: Normally not extended more than 90° from the central pole because of increased
scale and area distortion.
Uses and applications: Polar regions (conformal).

Problem: Draw a stereographic polar Zenithal projection for Northern hemisphere on a


scale 1:200,000,000 and graticule interval 15°

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Learning Outcomes:

1. Students will be able to draw this projection.


2. They will become familiar to significance of this projection.

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GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S.No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

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Experiment no. 3

Construction of Bonne’s projection.

Equipment Required: Pencils, Pen, Stencils, and Scale etc.

Learning Objectives:
1. To enable the students to know about Bonne’s projection.
2. To enable them to construct Bonne’s projection.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


This projection is also a modified version of the simple conic projection. It has only one standard
parallel but each parallel is truly divided. It is an equal area projection.
The method of finding out the radius of the standard parallel is almost the same as in the ease of
the simple conic projection. All the parallels are equi-spaced and drawn as arcs of concentric
circles from a common centre. The central meridian cuts all the parallels at right angles and the
standard parallel cuts all meridians at right angles.
The length of the parallels is true with reference to the globe. The distance between any two given
parallels along the central meridian is true and constant. It must, however, be noted that no other
parallel or meridian except the standard parallel and central meridian intersect each other at right
angles. As a result the shape is distorted as one moves away from the standard parallel and the
central meridian.

Problem: Prepare graticule using Bonne’s projection for North America in the 1:25 million scale
with an interval of 10°.

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Learning Outcomes:
1. Students will be able to draw Bonne’s projection.
2. They will become familiar to significance of this projection

~ 11 ~
GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S. No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

~ 12 ~
Experiment No. 4

To draw the Contours and Tints.

Equipment Required: Scale, Pencils, Pens, Topo-sheet, and Stencils etc.

Learning Objectives:

1. To enable the students to know about Contours and Tints.


2. To make the students familiar with use Contours and Tints.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


Contour Lines Contour lines show relief and elevation on a standard topographic map. A contour
line represents an imaginary line on the ground, above or below sea level. All points on a contour
line are at the same elevation. Contour lines never cross one another. Standard colors or contour
lines are brown in colour.

 Index. Starting at zero elevation, or mean sea level, every fifth contour line is always an
index contour line, regardless of the contour interval. Mapmakers show index contour lines
as a heavily drawn line with its elevation given somewhere along it, except where the
contour interval is too small to print the elevation.
 Intermediate. The contour lines that fall between the index lines are the intermediate
contour lines. These lines are more finely drawn and they do not show the elevation
number.

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 Supplementary. These contour lines resemble dashes. They show sudden changes in
elevation of at least one-half the contour interval for that map. If the map uses
supplementary contour lines, do not count them as regular contour lines.

Layer Tinting: Hypsometric tinting (also called layer tinting, elevation tinting, elevation coloring
or hypsometric coloring) is used to enhance elevation zones so map readers can better see
differences in relief. In more easy terms it can described as “coloring between the lines” where the
lines are contours (lines of equal elevation) or isobaths (lines of equal depth below the surface of
a body of water). Hypsometric tints are often laid transparently over a hill-shaded surface.

The colors selected for the tints are assumed to relate to the ground cover typically found at various
elevations in the area being mapped. The highest elevation zone might be white, for snow-capped
peaks, the next brown for treeless areas above the tree line, then light green for sparse vegetation
on the upper slopes and a darker green for the verdant valleys.

Problem: Draw contour line from the given Toposheets and make layer tinting map.

Learning Outcomes:

1. Students will be able to know about Contours and Tints.


2. Students will be able to draw Contours and Tints.

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GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S.No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

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Experiment no. 5

To draw the Climograph and Hythergraph

Equipment Required: Sheets, Pencils, Scale, Stencils, Colours, Tracing paper etc.

Learning Objectives:

i) Students will be able to know about and draw the Climograph and Hythergraph.
ii) Students will be able to use Climograph and Hythergraph.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


A climograph also called climograph is a climatic graph in which data pertaining to two climatic
elements of a place are plotted against each other. There are different types of climographs. In
some climographs mean monthly temperature is plotted against average monthly rainfall; in others
monthly wet-bulb temperature is plotted against monthly dry-bulb temperature, the length of
growing season in hours per month against effective monthly rainfall, monthly wet-bulb
temperature against monthly relative humidity and so on. They are drawn for comparing climates
of different places or areas.

For drawing a climograph, one can measure the temperature along the Y-axis of a graph and
relative humidity along the X-axis. The temperature and relative humidity for a given month can
be plotted as a point on such a graph. Thus in all twelve points in all can be plotted on the graph
for the twelve months of the year. Connecting these points by straight lines starting from January
to December and back to January produces a twelve-sided diagram. Such a twelve-sided diagram
is called a climograph. Some authorities reserve the term climograph to refer to such a diagram
showing the mean monthly temperature and rainfall.

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Hythergraph shows the mean monthly wet bulb temperature and relative humidity. Hythergraph
was developed for the first time by G. Taylor. Taylor also highlighted the climatic effect of various
combinations of wet bulb temperature and relative humidity.
Accordingly the N.E., N.W. S.W. and S.E. comers of the graph are marked scorching (low
humidity and high temperature), Muggy (temperature and humidity both high), Raw (low
temperature and high humidity) and keen (humidity and temperature, both low). By studying the
location of the climograph of a station in relation to these four corners, one can have a general idea
about the climate of that place. This facilitates comparison between climates of different stations.
Hythergraphs and climographs can be used as located symbols on maps also.

Learning Outcomes:

i) Students will be able to draw and use Climograph.


ii) Students will be able to draw and use Hythergraph.

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GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S.No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

~ 18 ~
Experiment no. 5

Lorenz Curve

Equipment Required: Toposheet, Pencil, Pens, Stencils, Scale, Tracing Sheet, Colour, etc.

Learning Objectives:

1. To enable the students to know about Lorenz curve.


2. To enable them to know about measures of dispersion.
3. To enable them to make use of Lorenz curve.

Theory/Principle/Background of the topic:


The Lorenz Curve is a graphical method used to display the concentration of activities within an
area (e.g. the degree of industrial specialization within an urban area). Fieldwork data may be used
but it is more common to use secondary sources (e.g. census data, etc). This technique is
particularly useful as it provides a good visual comparison of any observed differences and from
it a precise index (Gini Coefficient) can be calculated.

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The further away the Lorenz Curve is from the "line of perfect equality" (diagonal), the more
diverse is the sample and the more unevenly the values are spread out . This is very useful to
estimate how wealth is distributed among a population: if a country's Lorenz Curve is distant from
the line of perfect equality, it means a small % of the population controls most of the wealth and
that the country's income distribution is uneven.
Picture
In a perfectly equal country, 60% of the population should earn 60% of the country's wealth, but
in this example:

60% of the population of country X earns 20% of the country's wealth


60% of the popuation of country Y earns 15 of the country's wealth

This means that the income distribution in country Y is more unequal than in country X

To draw a Lorenz Curve, follow these steps:

1. Gather the data (e.g. census data from two cities)


2. For each set of data, rank the categories and order them by rank in a table
3. Convert each value in a % of the total
4. Calculate the running totals (ie cumulative %, by adding the % of one line to the ones
before)
5. Graph ranks (horizontal) against cumulative % (vertical)
6. Draw the "even distribution line" running from (rank = 0, % = 0) to (rank = max, % =
100%), which represents the line if all the categories were the same size.

Example: comparison of employment between city block #1 and city block #2


Employment survey in city block #1: Employment survey in city block #2:
Frequency Cumulative Frequency Cumulative
Number Number
Occupation Rank (= % of Frequency Occupation Rank (= % of Frequency
employed employed
total) % total) %

Office Waiters 19 1 26.3 26.3


195 1 60% 60%
workers Managers 18 2 25% 51.3%
Retail Office
34 2 10.5% 70.5% 14 3 19.4% 70.7%
workers workers
Waiters 25 3 7.6% 78.1% CEOs 6 4 8.3% 79.0%
Teachers 23 4 7.1% 85.2% Doctors 5 5 6.9% 85.9%
Public Retail
28 5 5.5% 90.7% 5 6 5.5% 91.4%
Employees workers
Managers 16 6 4.8% 95.5% Public
3 7 4.2% 95.6%
Doctors 7 7 2.1% 97.6% employees
Unemployed 6 8 1.8% 99.4% Unemployed 2 8 2.9% 98.5%
CEOs 1 9 0.6% 100% Teachers 1 9 1.5% 100%

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Graphic interpretation:The Lorenz Curve for the city block #2 (red) is closer to the Even
Distribution Line (blue) than for city block #1 (green): this means that various types of jobs are
more evenly distributed in city block #2, while more people tend to do the same kind of work in
city block #1 (e.g. 60% of them hold the type of work found at rank #1, ie office workers).

However, in both cases, we find that there appears to be a significant deviation from the "ideal"
line of even distribution, which means that in both cases, there isn't much diversity in the types of
jobs found in both blocks: just two types of jobs employ 50% (city block #2) to 70% (city block
#1) of all people, while other types of jobs are much less represented.

Learning Outcomes:

1. Students will be able to make sheets for Lorenz curve.


2. They will be made familiar with different methods to calculate measures of dispersion and
draw Lorenz curve.

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GEOGRAPHY LAB WORKSHEET

Date of Performance: Registration Number:

Title of the experiment:

Objectives:

Material used

Instructions for the Students

Conduction of practical

Evaluation:

Learning Outcomes (what I


have learnt):

To be filled in by Faculty:

S.No Parameter Marks obtained Max. Marks

1 Procedural 10
understanding
2 Performance 10
3 Learning outcomes 10
Signature of the Faculty Total marks obtained
Member:

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