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Job No.

CDS 153 Sheet 1 of 6 Rev

Job Title Example no. 22


Subject Sway stability
Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN
Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944
Client Made by MDH Date Jun 2003
CALCULATION SHEET SCI
Checked by ASM Date Oct 2003

22 Sway stability

22.1 Introduction
The frame shown in Figure 22.1 consists of steel beams and columns arranged on a
7 m × 7 m grid. The frame has been designed on the basis of “Simple Design”
according to BS 5950-1:2000[1] clause 2.1.2.2. Resistance to sway is provided by two
3.5 m braced bays, one on each 49 m side, as shown in Figure 22.2. In practice,
bracing would also be required parallel to the 28 m side, but this is not considered in
this example. Once constructed, the frame will be clad to form an office block, but
the stiffening effect of the cladding has not been taken into account in the analysis of
the frame. Determine whether the frame is “non-sway” or “sway sensitive” according
to BS 5950-1:2000[1] and, if necessary, calculate the amplification factor kamp.

3m

3m
12.5 m

3m
m
3 .5
28 m
m 49
3.5 m

3.5 m

Figure 22.1 Figure 22.2

22.1.1 Unfactored roof and floor loads


Roof:
Dead load wdr = 3.5 kN/m2
Imposed load wir = 1.0 kN/m2

Floor:
Dead load wdf = 3.5 kN/m2
Imposed load wif = 6.0 kN/m2

161
Example 22 Sway stability Sheet 2 of 6 Rev

22.1.2 Factored roof and floor loads


Consider the following three load combinations:
(1) 1.4 dead + 1.6 imposed
(2) 1.0 dead + 1.4 wind (dead load resisting overturning due to wind)
(3) 1.2 dead + 1.2 imposed + 1.2 wind
Gravity loads for load combination 1
Roof: wr′ = (3.5 × 1.4) + (1.0 × 1.6) = 6.5 kN/m2
Floor: wf′ = (3.5 × 1.4) + (6.0 × 1.6) = 14.5 kN/m2

Gravity loads for load combination 2


Roof: wr′ = 3.5 × 1.0 = 3.5 kN/m2
Floor: wf′ = 3.5 × 1.0 = 3.5 kN/m2

Gravity loads for load combination 3


Roof: wr′ = (3.5 × 1.2) + (1.0 × 1.2) = 5.4 kN/m2
Floor: wf′ = (3.5 × 1.2) + (6.0 × 1.2) = 11.4 kN/m2

22.1.3 Member sizes


Roof beam 305 × 127 × 37 UB in grade S275

Floor beam 406 × 178 × 60 UB in grade S275

Ground to 2nd floor columns 203 × 203 × 60 UC in grade S275

2nd floor to roof columns 203 × 203 × 46 UC in grade S275

Bracing 168.3 × 6.3 CHS in grade S275

22.2 Sway Stability


The sway stability of the structure is assessed by performing an elastic analysis on one
of the braced bays, under the action of the notional horizontal forces (NHF),
according to the rules in clause 2.4.2 of BS 5950-1:2000[1]. The notional horizontal 2.4.2.4
forces are applied as horizontal point loads at every roof and floor level and are taken
as 0.5% of the total factored dead + imposed loads for that level. In this example,
since the stability is provided by two braced bays, the notional horizontal forces
applied to one bracing system should be taken as half the value calculated for the
whole floor or roof.

The greatest notional horizontal forces occur in load combination 1 and this case
should generally be used when assessing sway stability. However, advantage may be
taken of the lower notional horizontal forces in load combinations 2 and 3, if desired.
All three combinations are considered below.

22.2.1 Load combination 1 (Dead + Imposed)


Roof level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 6.5 = 22.3 kN 2.4.2.4
Floor level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 14.5 = 49.7 kN

The result of an elastic analysis on one braced bay (bare frame only) under the action
of the notional horizontal forces is shown in Figure 22.3.

162
Example 22 Sway stability Sheet 3 of 6 Rev

Deflections
NHF Total Storey
∆ δ
22.3 kN
Roof 10.7 mm

3m 2 mm

49.7 kN
3rd floor 8.7 mm

3m 2.5 mm

203 UC 46 49.7 kN
2nd floor 6.2 mm
203 UC 60

3m 2.8 mm

49.7 kN
1st floor 3.4 mm

3.5 m 3.4 mm

Ground
3.5 m

Figure 22.3 Deflections due to NHF for load combination 1

For multi-storey frames, an approximate value of the elastic critical buckling factor λcr
is obtained from:

h 2.4.2.6
λ cr =
200 δ

where δ is the inter-storey lateral drift (relative deflection between two adjacent
storeys) and h is the storey height.

In assessing whether a frame is “non-sway” or “sway sensitive”, the smallest value of


λcr should be used. By inspection, it can be seen that the smallest λcr will either be
between ground and first floors or between the first and second floors.

3500
Ground – 1st floor: λcr = = 5.15 2.4.2.6
200 × 3.4
3000
1st floor – 2nd floor: λcr = = 5.36
200 × 2.8
Therefore, λcr = 5.15.

Note: The critical value of λcr usually occurs between the ground and first floors, due
to the fact that there is no deflection at ground level (high lateral drift between
ground and 1st floor).

Since λcr < 10, the frame is classed as “sway sensitive” for load combination 1. 2.4.2.6

163
Example 22 Sway stability Sheet 4 of 6 Rev

For clad frames in which the stiffening effect of the cladding has been ignored, the
amplifier kamp is given by:

λ cr
k amp = but kamp ≥ 1.0 2.4.2.7(1)
1.15 λ cr − 1.5

5.15
k amp = = 1.16
(1.15 × 5.15 ) − 1.5
Therefore, the forces in the bracing system must be increased by 16% for load
combination 1.

22.2.2 Load combination 2 (Dead + Wind)


Roof level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 3.5 = 12.0 kN 2.4.2.4
Floor level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 3.5 = 12.0 kN

The result of an elastic analysis on one braced bay (bare frame only) under the action
of the notional horizontal forces is shown in Figure 22.4.

Deflections
NHF Total Storey
∆ δ
12 kN
Roof 3.4 mm

3m 0.7 mm

12 kN
3rd floor 2.7 mm

3m 0.9 mm

203 UC 46 12 kN
2nd floor 1.8 mm
203 UC 60

3m 0.8 mm

12 kN
1st floor 1.0 mm

3.5 m 1.0 mm

Ground
3.5 m

Figure 22.4 Deflections due to NHF for load combination 2

3500
Ground – 1st floor: λcr = = 17.5
200 × 1.0
3000
2nd floor – 3rd floor: λcr = = 16.7
200 × 0.9
Therefore, λcr = 16.7

164
Example 22 Sway stability Sheet 5 of 6 Rev

Since λcr > 10, the frame is classed as “non-sway” and there is no need to 2.4.2.6
amplify the forces in the bracing system for load combination 2.

Note: A frame with λcr > 10 is only classed as “non-sway” if it is a clad frame that
has been analysed as a bare frame in determining λcr. Bare frames or clad
frames where the stiffness of the cladding is allowed for in determining λcr are
always classified as “sway sensitive”, irrespective of the value of λcr.

22.2.3 Load combination 3 (Dead + Wind + Imposed) 2.4.2.4


Roof level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 5.4 = 18.5kN
Floor level NHF = 0.005 × 0.5 × 28 × 49 × 11.4 = 39.1kN

The result of an elastic analysis on one braced bay (bare frame only) under the action
of the notional horizontal forces is shown in Figure 22.5.

Deflections
NHF Total Storey
∆ δ
18.5 kN
Roof 8.6 mm

3m 1.6 mm

39.1 kN
3rd floor 7.0 mm

3m 2.1 mm

203 UC 46 39.1 kN
2nd floor 4.9 mm
203 UC 60

3m 2.2 mm

39.1 kN
1st floor 2.7 mm

3.5 m 2.7 mm

Ground
3.5 m

Figure 22.5 Deflections due to NHF for load combination 3

3500
Ground – 1st floor: λcr = = 17.5 2.4.2.6
200 × 2.7
3000
1st floor – 2nd floor: λcr = = 16.7
200 × 0.9
Therefore, λcr = 6.48

Since λcr > 10, the frame is classed as “sway sensitive” for load combination 3.

165
Example 22 Sway stability Sheet 6 of 6 Rev

For clad frames in which the stiffening effect of the cladding has been ignored, the
amplifier kamp is given by:

λ cr 6.48
k amp = = = 1.09 2.4.2.7 (1)
1.15 λ cr − 1.5 (1.15 × 6.48 ) − 1.5
Therefore, the forces in the bracing system must be increased by 9% for load
combination 3.

166