Af te r 1 ^{s}^{t} Le ct ur e Q.1 _{4}_{6} 100 cards are numbered from 1 to 100. The probability that the randomly chosen card has a digit 5 is:
[Hint:
(A)
0.01
(B) 0.09
from 50 to 60, 10 fives and 9 other fives
(C*) 0.19
total 19
(C) ]
(D) 0.18
Q.2
_{4}
A quadratic equation is chosen from the set of all the quadratic equations which are unchanged by squaring their roots. The chance that the chosen equation has equal roots is :
(A*) 1/2
(B) 1/3
(C) 1/4
(D) 2/3
Q.3
_{1}_{0}
If the letters of the word "MISSISSIPPI" are written down at random in a row, the probability that no two S's occur together is :
(A)
1/3
(B*) 7/33
(C) 6/13
(D) 5/7
Q.4
_{2}_{9}
[Hint:
A sample space consists of 3 sample points with associated probabilities given as 2p, p ^{2} , 4p ñ 1 then
(A*) p =
_{1}_{1} _{}_{3}
(B)
_{1}_{0} _{}_{3}
p ^{2} + 2p + 4p ñ 1 = 1 (exhaustive)
p ^{2} + 6p ñ 2 = 0
(A) ]
(C)
1
_{4}
< p <
1
_{2}
(D) none
Q.5 _{3}_{9}
A committee of 5 is to be chosen from a group of 9 people. The probability that a certain married couple will either serve together or not at all is :
(A)
1/2
(B) 5/9
(C*) 4/9
(D) 2/3
[Hint :
7 C C
7
3
5 ]
9
C 5
Q.6 _{5}_{3}
[Hint:
There are only two women among 20 persons taking part in a pleasure trip. The 20 persons are divided into two groups, each group consisting of 10 persons. Then the probability that the two women will be in the same group is :
(A*) 9/19
(B) 9/38
(C) 9/35
(D) none
n(S) = number of ways in which 20 people can be divided into two equal groups
20!
^{=} 10!10! 2! n(A) = 18 people can be divided into groups of 10 and 8
18!
^{=} 10! 8!
18!
10!10! 2
10.9.2
9
^{P}^{(}^{E}^{)} ^{=} 10! 8! ^{.}
20!
=
20.19
19
Ans ]
Q.7
A bag contain 5 white, 7 black, and 4 red balls, find the chance that three balls drawn at random are all
white.
[Ans. 1/56]
Bansal Classes
[1]
Q.8
If four coins are tossed, find the chance that there should be two heads and two tails. [Ans. 3/8]
Q.9
Thirteen persons take their places at a round table, show that it is five to one against two particular persons sitting together.
Q.10
Q.11
In shuffling a pack of cards, four are accidentally dropped, find the chance that the missing cards should
be one from each suit.
[Ans.
(13)
2
52 C
4
=
2197
20825 ]
A has 3 shares in a lottery containing 3 prizes and 9 blanks, B has 2 shares in a lottery containing 2 prizes
and 6 blanks. Compare their chances of success.
[Ans. 952 to 715]
Q.12
There are three works, one consisting of 3 volumes, one of 4 and the other of one volume. They are placed
3
on a shelf at random, prove that the chance that volumes of the same works are all together is _{1}_{4}_{0} .
Q.13
Q.14
Q.15
Q.16
The letter forming the word Clifton are placed at random in a row. What is the chance that the two
vowels come together?
[Ans. 2/7] 

[Ans. 3/5] 

n(n 

1) 


_{n}_{)}_{(}_{m} 
_{n}_{1}_{)} ] 

[Ans. 2/3] 
Three bolts and three nuts are put in a box. If two parts are chosen at random, find the probability that
one is a bolt and one is a nut.
There are 'm' rupees and 'n' ten nP's, placed at random in a line. Find the chance of the extreme coins
being both ten nP's.
[Ans. _{(}_{m}
A fair die is tossed. If the number is odd, find the probability that it is prime.
Q.17
Three fair coins are tossed. If both heads and tails appear, determine the probability that exactly one
head appears.
[Ans. 1/2]
Q.18
3 boys and 3 girls sit in a row. Find the probability that (i) the 3 girls sit together. (ii) the boys are girls sit
in alternative seats.
[Ans. 1/5, 1/10]
Q.19
A coin is biased so that heads is three times as likely to appear as tails. Find P (H) and P (T). [Ans. 3/4, 1/4]
Q.20
In a hand at "whist" what is the chance that the 4 kings are held by a specified player?
[Ans.
4
C
4
48
C
9
52
C
13
]
Bansal Classes
[2]
Q.1
After 2 ^{n}^{d} Lecture
Given two independent events A, B such that P (A) = 0.3, P (B) = 0.6. Determine
(i)
P (A and B)
(iv) P (neither A nor B)
(ii) P (A and not B)
(v) P (A or B)
(iii) P (not A and B)
[Ans. (i) 0.18, (ii) 0.12, (iii) 0.42, (iv) 0.28, (v) 0.72]
Q.2
A card is drawn at random from a well shuffled deck of cards. Find the probability that the card is a
(i)
king or a red card
(iv) king or an ace
(ii) club or a diamond
(v) spade or a club
(iii) king or a queen
(vi) neither a heart nor a king.
7
[Ans. (i) _{1}_{3} , (ii)
1
_{2}
2
2
, (iii) _{1}_{3} , (iv) _{1}_{3} , (v)
1
9
_{2} , (vi) _{1}_{3} ]
Q.3
Q.4
[Sol.
Q.5
A coin is tossed and a die is thrown. Find the probability that the outcome will be a head or a number
greater than 4.
[Ans.
2
_{3} ]
~
Let A and B be events such that _{P}_{(}_{A}_{)}
= 4/5, P(B) = 1/3, P(A/B) = 1/6, then
(a)
P(A B) ;
(b)
P(A B)
;
(c) P(B/A) ;
(d) Are A and B independent?
[Ans. (a) 1/18, (b) 43/90, (c) 5/18, (d) NO]
(a)
P(A/B) =
P(A
B)
1
P(B)
6
P(A B) =
P(B)
1
=
6
18
Ans.]
(b)
P(A B) =
1
1
1
18 30 5
43
^{+}
5
3
ñ
18
=
90
=
90
Ans.
Ans.
(c)
P(B/A) =
P(B A)
1
5
5
_{P}_{(}_{A}_{)}
=
18
1
=
18
Ans.
Ans.
(d)
P(A) P(B) =
1
5
1
3
= 15 P(A B). A & B are not independent
]
If A and B are two events such that P (A) =
1
4
,
P (B) =
1
2
and P (A and B) =
1
8
, find
(i)
P (A or
B),
(ii) P (not A and
not B)
5
3
[Ans. (i) _{8} , (ii) _{8}
]
Q.6 _{1}_{6}_{8} A 5 digit number is formed by using the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 without repetition. The probability that the
[Hint:
number is divisible by 6 is :
(A)
8 %
(B)
17 %
Number should be divisible by 2 and 3.
n(S) = 5 5!
reject 3,
;
n (A) : reject '0' = 2 4!
4! + 2 3 3!
Total n(A) = 3 4! + 6 3! = 18 3!
^{}
^{p} ^{=}
18 3!
5 5!
= 18%
Bansal Classes
]
(C*)
18 %
(D)
36 %
[3]
Q.7
_{5}_{4}
An experiment results in four possible out comes S _{1} , S _{2} , S _{3} & S _{4} with probabilities p _{1} , p _{2} , p _{3} & p _{4}
respectively. Which one of the following probability assignment is possbile.
[Assume S _{1} S _{2} S _{3} S _{4} are mutually exclusive]
(A) 
p _{1} = 
0.25 , 
p _{2} 
= 
0.35 , 
p _{3} = 0.10 , 
p _{4} = 0.05 

(B) 
p _{1} = 
0.40 , 
p _{2} 
= 
0.20 , 
p _{3} = 0.60 , 
p _{4} = 0.20 

(C) 
p _{1} = 0.30 , 
p _{2} 
= 0.60 , 
p _{3} = 0.10 , 
p _{4} = 0.10 

(D*) p _{1} = 0.20 , 
p _{2} = 0.30 , 
p _{3} = 0.40 , 
p _{4} = 0.10 

Q.8 
_{8}_{8} 
In throwing 3 dice, the probability that atleast 2 of the three numbers obtained are same is 

(A) 
1/2 
(B) 1/3 
(C*) 4/9 
(D) none 

[Hint :P(E) = 1 ñ P(all different) = 1 ñ (6/6) (5/6) (4/6) = 1 ñ (120/216) = 4/9 ] 

Q.9 _{1}_{7}_{3} There are 4 defective items in a lot consisting of 10 items. From this lot we select 5 items at random. The 

probability that there will be 2 defective items among them is 

1 

10 

(A) 
_{2} 
(B) _{5} 
(C) 
_{2}_{1} 
(D*) _{2}_{1} 

[Hint: 


[12 ^{t}^{h} (26122004)] 

4 
C 
2 

6 C 
3 
10 

p = 
10 
= 

(D) ] 

C 5 21 Q.10 _{1}_{3}_{4} From a pack of 52 playing cards, face cards and tens are removed and kept aside then a card is drawn 

at random from the ramaining cards. If 

A : The event that the card drawn is an ace 

H : The event that the card drawn is a heart 

S : The event that the card drawn is a spade 

then which of the following holds ? 

(A*) 9 P(A) = 4 P(H) 
(B) P(S) = 4P (A H) 

(C) 
3 P(H) = 4 P(A S) 
(D) P(H) = 12 P(A S) 
[Hint:
; P(A H) =
1
36
;
1 1
P(A S) =
36
; P (A S) =
3
]
Q.11 _{2}_{2}_{0} 6 married couples are standing in a room. If 4 people are chosen at random, then the chance that exactly
one married couple is among the 4 is :
[Hint:
(A*)
16
_{3}_{3}
(B)
8
_{3}_{3}
n(S) = ^{1}^{2} C _{4} = 55 9
n(A) = ^{6} C _{1} . ^{5} C _{2} . 2 ^{2}
= 6 10 4
P(E) =
610
4
2.2.4
16
55
9
11.3
33
Ans]
(C)



33 
Bansal Classes
[4]
Q.12 _{4}_{5} The chance that a 13 card combination from a pack of 52 playing cards is dealt to a player in a game of
bridge, in which 9 cards are of the same suit, is
Bansal Classes
[Ans. P(E)= _{3}_{6} , P(F)= _{3}_{6} , P(E F) =
36 ; Not independent]
[5]
Q.19
A natural number x is randomly selected from the set of first 100 natural numbers. Find the probability
that it satisfies the inequality.
x +
100
_{x}
> 50
55
11
[Ans: _{1}_{0}_{0}
=
20 ^{]}
Note:
{1, 2, 48, 49, 50,
........
,100 }
wrong Ans given bystudents
1
27
53
50
,
50
,
100
Q.20
3 students A and B and C are in a swimming race. A and B have the same probability of winning and each
is twice as likely to win as C. Find the probability that B or C wins. Assume no two reach the winning
[Sol.
Q.21
point simultaneously.
P(C) = p ; P(A) = 2p ; P(B) = 2p
5p = 1 p = 1/5
P(B or C) = P(B) + P(C) =
2
5
1
5
3
5
]
A box contains 7 tickets, numbered from 1 to 7 inclusive. If 3 tickets are drawn from the box, one at a
time, determine the probability that they are alternatively either oddevenodd or evenoddeven.
Q.22
[Ans.
p =
4 3 3
3 4 2
6
=
7 6 5
210
=
2
7
]
5 different marbles are placed in 5 different boxes randomly. Find the probability that exactly two boxes
remain empty. Given each box can hold any number of marbles.
[Sol.
n(S) = 5 ^{5}
;
For computing favourable outcomes.
2 boxes which are to remain empty, can be selected in ^{5} C _{2} ways and 5 marbles can be placed in the
remaining 3 boxes in groups of 221 or 311 in
3!
5!
5!
2!2!2!
32! !
= 150 ways
n (A) = ^{5} C _{2} 150
Hence
P(E)
= ^{5} C _{2}
150
5 ^{5}
=
60
125
=
12
_{2}_{5}
Ans.]
Q.23 _{1}_{3}_{2} South African cricket captain lost the toss of a coin 13 times out of 14. The chance of this happening was
[Hint:
7 1
(A*)
2
13
(B)
2
13
(C)
13 13
2
14
(D)
2
13
L and W can be filled at 14 places in 2 ^{1}^{4} ways.
n(S) = 2 ^{1}^{4} .
Now 13 L's and 1W can be arranged at 14 places in 14 ways.
Q.24
Hence n(A) = 14
p =
14
2
14
=
7
2
13
]
[1482005, 13 ^{t}^{h} ]
There are ten prizes, five A's, three B's and two C's, placed in identical sealed envelopes for the top ten
contestants in a mathematics contest. The prizes are awarded by allowing winners to select an envelope
at random from those remaining. When the 8 ^{t}^{h} contestant goes to select the prize, the probability that the
remaining three prizes are one A, one B and one C, is
[Hint:
(A*) 1/4
n(S) = ^{1}^{0} C _{7} = 120
(B) 1/3
n(A) = ^{5} C _{4} ^{3} C _{2} ^{2} C _{1}
P(E) =
5 3 2
1
=
120
4
Ans. ]
Bansal Classes
(C) 1/12
(D) 1/10
[08012006, 12 & 13]
[6]
Af te r 3 ^{r}^{d} Le ct ur e
Q.1 _{3}_{3}
Whenever horses a, b, c race together, their respective probabilities of winning the race are 0.3, 0.5 and
0.2 respectively. If they race three times the probability that ìthe same horse wins all the three racesî and
the probablity that a, b, c each wins one race, are respectively
[Sol.
(A*)
8
50 ^{;}
9
_{5}_{0}
(B)
16
100 ^{,}
3
100
^{(}^{C}^{)}
12
50
^{;}
15 10
_{5}_{0} (D)
50
^{;}
8
50
P(a) = 0.3 ; P(b) = 0.5 ; P(c) = 0.2
a, b, c are exhaustive
P(same horse wins all the three races) = P(aaa or bbb or ccc)
= (0.3) ^{3} + (0.5) ^{3} + (0.2) ^{3}
=
27
125
8
160
4
=
1000
1000 25
P(each horse wins exactly one race)
= P(abc or acb or bca or bac or cab or cba) = 0.3 0.5 0.2 6 = 0.18 =
9
50 ]
Q.2 _{6}_{3}
[Sol.
Let A & B be two events. Suppose P(A) = 0.4 , P(B) = p & P(A B) = 0.7. The value of p for which
A & B are independent is :
(A)
1/3
(B) 1/4
(C*) 1/2
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) ñ P(A) P(B)
0.7 = 0.4 + p ñ 0.4p
0.6p = 0.3
p =
1
2
]
(D) 1/5
Q.3
_{7}_{8}
A & B are two independent events such that P(A) = 0.7, P( _{B}_{)} = a & P(A B) = 0.8, then, a =
(A)
5/7
(B*) 2/7
(C)
1
(D) none
Q.4
_{7}_{2}
A
pair
of numbers is picked
up
randomly (without replacement) from
the
set
{1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19}. The probability that the number 11 was picked given that the sum of
the numbers was even, is nearly :
(A)
0.1
(B) 0.125
(C*) 0.24
(D) 0.18
[Hint :PA B =
(
PA
B
)
7
C
1
7
()
PB
=
8
C1
2
=
29
;
A : 11 is picked , B : sum is even ]
Q.5 _{4}_{2}
For a biased die the probabilities for the diffferent faces to turn up are given below :
Faces :
Probabilities :
1
0.10
2
0.32
3
0.21
4
0.15
5
0.05
6
0.17
The die is tossed & you are told that either face one or face two has turned up. Then the probability that
it is face one is :
(A)
1/6
(B) 1/10
(C) 5/49
[Hint :P(A/A B) =
PA
(A
B)
()
PA
010
.
]
PA
=
=
() (
PA
PB )
010
.
. 032
Bansal Classes
(D*) 5/21
[7]
Q.6 _{1}_{7}_{0} A determinant is chosen at random from the set of all determinants of order 2 with elements 0 or 1 only.
The probability that the determinant chosen has the value non negative is :
(B) 6/16 
(C) 10/16 
(D*) 13/16 

[Hint :1 P (Determinant has negative value) 1
3
13
=
16
16
01
; 11 01 10 

] 

Q.7 _{9}_{9} 
15 coupons are numbered 1, 2, 
, 15 respectively. 7 coupons are selected at random one at a time 
with replacement. The probability that the largest number appearing on a selected coupon is 9 is :
[Hint:
(A)
9
16
6
n(S) =
(B)
8
15
7
(C)
3
5
7
= 15 ^{7} ; came of the number must be 9
(D*)
7
98
7
15
7
]
Q.8 _{2}_{2}_{9} A card is drawn & replaced in an ordinary pack of 52 playing cards. Minimum number of times must a
card be drawn so that there is atleast an even chance of drawing a heart, is
[Hint:
(A) (B*) 3
2
1
4
3
4
1
.
4
3
4
3
1
.
4
.
4
]
(C) 4
Q.9
An electrical system has openclosed switches
S _{1} , S _{2} and S _{3} as shown.
(D) more than four
The switches operate independently of one another and the current will flow from A to B either if S _{1} is
[Sol.
Q.10
closed or if both S _{2} and S _{3} are closed. If P(S _{1} ) = P(S _{2} ) = P(S _{3} ) =
1
2
, find the probability that the circuit
will work.
P(S _{1} ) = P(S _{2} ) = P(S _{3} ) =
1
2
E : event that the current will flow.
[Ans.
5
_{8} ]
P(E)= P
(S
2
S
3
)or S= P (S _{2} S _{3} ) + P (S _{3} ) ñ P (S _{1} S _{2} S _{3} ) =
1
1
4
^{+}
1
2
ñ
1
8
=
5
8
]
A certain team wins with probability 0.7, loses with probability 0.2 and ties with probability 0.1. The
team plays three games. Find the probability
(i) that the team wins at least two of the games, but lose none.
(ii)
[Sol.
that the team wins at least one game.
P (W) = 0.7
;
P (L) = 0.2
; P (T) = 0.1
[Ans. (i) 0.49 ; (ii) 0.973 ]
E : winning at least 2 games but lose none
P (E) = P (W W T
or W T W
or T W W or W W W)
= 3 0.7 0.7 0.1 + (0.7) ^{3}
= 0.7 0.7 [0.3 + 0.7] = 0.49
F : wining at least 1 game
A = L or T P (A) = 0.3 ; P (F) = 1 ñ P (A A A) = 1 ñ (0.3) ^{3} = 1 ñ 0.027 = 0.973
]
Bansal Classes
[8]
Q.11
An integer is chosen at random from the first 200 positive integers. Find the probability that the integer is
divisible by 6 or 8.
1
[Sol. 
n (S) = 200 
[Ans. 
_{4} ] 

n (A) = divisible by 6 or 8 

n (6) = 6 + 12 + 
+ 198 = 33 

n (8) = 8 + 16 + 
200 = 25 

n (6 8) = 24 + 48 + 
+ 192 = 8 

n (A) = 33 + 25 ñ 8 = 50 

1 

P (A) = 

Q.12
A clerk was asked to mail four report cards to four students. He addresses four envelops that unfortunately
paid no attention to which report card be put in which envelope. What is the probability that exactly one
Q.13
[Sol.
of the students received his (or her) own card?
[Ans.
8 1
_{2}_{4}
=
3
]
Find the probability of at most two tails or at least two heads in a toss of three coins.
A = at most two tails
n (s) ñ {T T T}
B = at least two heads
P (A) =
7
8
;
P (B) =
4
8
H H H,
T H H,
;
P (A B) =
4
8
P (A B) =
7
8
+
4
8
ñ
4
8
=
7
8
AAnnss..
]
H T H,
H H T
[Ans.
7
_{8} ]
Q.14
What is the probability that in a group of
(i)
(ii)
2 people, both will have the same date of birth.
3 people, at least 2 will have the same date of birth.
Assume the year to be ordinarry consisting of 365 days.
[Sol.(i) A : both have the same date of birth
(ii)
Q.15
P (A) =
1
1
365
365
1
1
365
365
.......365times
=
1
365
Ans.
B : at least 2 in a group of 3 will have the same birthday
P (B)
= 1 ñ P (all 3 have different birthday )
= 1 ñ 1
364
363
365
365
364363
= 1 ñ
(365)
2
Ans. ]
2
The probability that a person will get an electric contract is _{5}
and the probability that he will not get
plumbing contract is
4
2
_{7} . If the probability of getting at least one contract is _{3} , what is the probability that
he will get both ?
[Sol.
P (E) =
2
5
; P (F) = P (plumbing) = 1 ñ
4
7
=
3
7
P (E F) = P (E) + P (F) ñ P (E F)
2 
2 
3 
17 

3 
= 
5 
^{+} 
7 
ñ x 

x = 
105 
Ans. 
] 

Bansal Classes 
[9] 
Q.16
[Sol.
Five horses compete in a race. John picks two horses at random and bets on them. Find the probability
that John picked the winner. Assume dead heal.
n (S) = ^{5} C _{2} = 10
n (A) = 1 ^{4} C _{1} = 4
p
2
5
]
4
[Ans. _{1}_{0}
]
Q.17
Two cubes have their faces painted either red or blue. The first cube has five red faces and one blue face.
When the two cubes are rolled simultaneously, the probability that the two top faces show the same
[Sol.
Q.18
Q.19
Q.20
Q.21
colour is 1/2. Number of red faces on the second cube, is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C*) 3
Let the number of red faces on the 2 ^{n}^{d} cube = x
number of blue faces = (6 ñ x)
P (R R or B B) = 1/2
(D) 4
[08012006, 12 & 13]
5 

x 
1 
6x 
1 

6 
6 
+ 
6 
6 
= 
2 

5x + 6 ñ x = 18 

4x = 12 

x = 3Ans. ] 

A H and W appear for an interview for two vaccancies for the same post. 

P(H) = 1/7 ; 
P(W) = 1/5. Find the probability of the events 
(a) Both are selected
(b) only one of them is selected
(c) none is selected.
[Ans.
1
2
24
_{3}_{5}
^{,}
7 ^{,}
35
]
A bag contains 6R, 4W and 8B balls. If 3 balls are drawn at random determine the probability of the
event
(a) (b) all 3 are black ;
all 3 are red ;
(d) (e) 1 of each colour are drawn
at least 1 is red ;
(c) 2 are white and 1 is red ;
(f) the balls are drawn in the order of red, white, blue.
5 


2 

[Ans. 
(a) 
_{2}_{0}_{4} , 
(b) _{1}_{0}_{2} , 
(c) 
_{6}_{8} , 
(d) 
_{2}_{0}_{4} , (e) _{1}_{7} 
^{,} 
51 
] 
The odds that a book will be favourably reviewed by three independent critics are 5 to 2, 4 to 3, and 3 

to 4 respectively. What is the probability that of the three reviews a majority will be favourable? 

209 

[Ans. _{3}_{4}_{3} ] 
In a purse are 10 coins, all five nP's except one which is a rupee, in another are ten coins all five nP's.
Nine coins are taken from the former purse and put into the latter, and then nine coins are taken from the
latter and put into the former. Find the chance that the rupee is still in the first purse.
Q.22
Q.23
10 

[Ans. _{1}_{9} ] 

A, B, C in order cut a pack of cards, replacing them after each cut, on condition that the first who cuts 

16 
12 
9 

a spade shall win a prize. Find their respective chances. 
[Ans. _{3}_{7} 
^{,} 
37 ^{,} 37 
] 
A and B in order draw from a purse containing 3 rupees and 4 nP's, find their respective chances of first
drawing a rupee, the coins once drawn not being replaced.
22 13
[Ans. _{3}_{5}
^{,} 35
]
Bansal Classes
[10]
Af te r 4 ^{t}^{h} Le ct ur e
Q.1 _{3}_{7}
There are n different gift coupons, each of which can occupy N(N > n) different envelopes, with the
same probability 1/N
P _{1} : The probability that there will be one gift coupon in each of n definite envelopes out of N given envelopes
P _{2} : The probability that there will be one gift coupon in each of n arbitrary envelopes out of N given envelopes
[Sol.
Consider the following statements
(i)
P _{1} = P _{2}
n!
^{(}^{i}^{v}^{)} ^{P} 2 ^{=} N(N
n
n)!
(ii) P _{1} =
(v) P _{1} =
N!
N
n
n!
N
n
N!
(iii) P _{2} = _{N}_{(}_{N}
n
_{n}_{)}_{!}
Now, which of the following is true
(A)
Only (i)
(B*) (ii) and (iii)
(C) (ii) and (iv)
(D) (iii) and (v)
From the given data
n (S) = N ^{n}
; n (A) = n !
P _{1} =
n!
N
n
P _{1} =
P _{2} =
n!
N
n
Since the n different gift coupans can be placed in the n definite (Out of N)
envelope in ^{n} P _{n} = n ! ways
N!
(N
n)! N
n
As n arbitrary envelopes out of N given envelopes can be chosen in ^{N} C _{n}
ways and the n gift coupans can occupy these envelopes in n ! ways. ]
Q.2 _{6}_{1}
N!
=
n
N(N
n)!
]
The probability that an automobile will be stolen and found withing one week is 0.0006. The probability that
an automobile will be stolen is 0.0015. The probability that a stolen automobile will be found in one week is
[Hint:
Q.3 _{2}_{5}
(A)
0.3
(B*) 0.4
(C) 0.5
(D) 0.6
P (S F) = 0.0006, where S : moter cycle is stolen ; F : moter cycle found
P (S) = 0.0015
P (F/S) =
P(FS)
610
4
2
P(S)
=
15
10
4
=
5
(B) ]
One bag contains 3 white & 2 black balls, and another contains 2 white & 3 black balls. A ball is drawn
from the second bag & placed in the first, then a ball is drawn from the first bag & placed in the second.
When the pair of the operations is repeated, the probability that the first bag will contain 5 white balls is:
[Hint:
Q.4 _{7}_{5}
(A)
1/25
(B) 1/125
(C*) 1/225
P(E) = P [W B W B] =
2 1
2 1
1
=
5 5
6 6
225
]
(D) 2/15
A child throws 2 fair dice. If the numbers showing are unequal, he adds them together to get his final
score. On the other hand, if the numbers showing are equal, he throws 2 more dice & adds all 4 numbers
showing to get his final score. The probability that his final score is 6 is:
^{(}^{A}^{)}
145
1296
146
^{(}^{B}^{)} 1296
147 148
^{(}^{C}^{)} 1296
^{(}^{D}^{*}^{)} 1296
[Hint:
P (6) = (51, 15, 24, 42)
Bansal Classes
or
11 & (22 or 13 or 31)
or
(22 & 11)
]
[11]
Q.5 _{1}_{1}_{8}
A person draws a card from a pack of 52 cards, replaces it & shuffles the pack. He continues doing this
till he draws a spade. The probability that he will fail exactly the first two times is :
[Hint:
(A) 1/64
(B*) 9/64
P(E) = P(FFS) = 3/4.3/4.1/4]
(C) 36/64
Q.6
Indicate the correct order sequence in respect of the following :
(D) 60/64
I. If the probability that a computer will fail during the first hour of operation is 0.01, then if we turn on 100 computers, exactly one will fail in the first hour of operation.
II.
A man has ten keys only one of which fits the lock. He tries them in a door one by one discarding
the one he has tried. The probability that fifth key fits the lock is 1/10.
III.
IV.
Given the events A and B in a sample space. If P(A) = 1, then A and B are independent.
When a fair six sided die is tossed on a table top, the bottom face can not be seen. The probability
that the product of the numbers on the five faces that can be seen is divisible by 6 is one.
[Hint:
(A)
FTFT
(B*) FTTT
(C) TFTF
(D) TFFF
I.
II.
III.
IV.
P(X = 1) = ^{1}^{0}^{0} C _{1}
1
100
99
100
100
[18122005, 12 & 13]
Every key that fits have the same probability = 1/10
Consider P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) ñ P(A B)
but P(A B) = P(A) = 1
1
= 1 + P(B) ñ P(A B)
P(A B) = P(B) = P(B) P(A)
( P(A) = 1 )
Each product 1 2 3 4 5 ; 1 2 3 4 6 ; 1 2 3 5 6 ; 1 2 4 5 6 ; 1 3 4 5 6 ; 2 3 4 5 6 is divisible by six.]
Q.7 _{1}_{5}_{6} An unbaised cubic die marked with 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3 is rolled 3 times. The probability of getting a total
score of 4 or 6 is
[ Hint:
^{(}^{A}^{)}
16
216
1 , 2 , 2
, 3 ,
3 , 3
50
(B*) _{2}_{1}_{6}
(thrown 3 times)
60
^{(}^{C}^{)} 216
P(1) =
1
6
; P(2) =
2
6
; P(3) =
3
6
P(S)
= P(4 or 6) = P( 112 (3 cases) or 123 (6 cases) or 222 )
(D) none
=
3.
1
6
1
.
6
2
.
1
6
1
6
2
.
6
3 2
.
1 6
2 636
2
8
50
25
.
.
6 6
=
216
216
108
]
Q.8 _{2}_{0}_{0} A bag contains 3 R & 3 G balls and a person draws out 3 at random. He then drops 3 blue balls into the
bag & again draws out 3 at random. The chance that the 3 later balls being all of different colours is
[Sol.
(A)
15%
(B) 20%
(C*) 27%
(D) 40%
;
3 C
C
1
3
C
2
2
1
1 C
1
3 C
1 C
2
1
3
C
3
1 C
1
2 C
1
3 C
1
6 C
6
2 C
3
+
6
C 3
6 C
3
]
Q.9 _{1}_{6}_{9}
A biased coin with probability P, 0 < P < 1, of heads is tossed until a head appears for the first time. If the
probability that the number of tosses required is even is 2/5 then the value of P is
(A)
1/4
Bansal Classes
(B) 1/6
(C*) 1/3
(D) 1/2
[12]
Q.10 _{2}_{0}_{2} If a, b N then the probability that a ^{2} + b ^{2} is divisible by 5 is
(A*)
9
_{2}_{5}
(B)
7
_{1}_{8}
(C)
11 17
_{3}_{6}
(D) 81
[Hint :Square of a number ends in 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9 favourable ordered pairs of
(a ^{2} , b ^{2} ) can be
(0, 0) ;
(5, 5) ;
(1, 4) ,
(4, 1) ;
(1, 9) ,
(9, 1) ;
(4, 6) ,
(6, 4)
(6, 9) , (9, 6)
and
P(0) = 1/10
= P(5)
;
P(1) = P(4) = P(6) = P(9) = 2/10
;
]
Q.11 _{5}_{2} In an examination, one hundred candidates took paper in Physics and Chemistry. Twenty five candidates
failed in Physics only. Twenty candidates failed in chemistry only. Fifteen failed in both Physics and
Chemistry. A candidate is selected at random. The probability that he failed either in Physics or in
Q.12
[Hint:
Q.13
[Hint:
Q.14
[Hint:
Q.15
Chemistry but not in both is
9
(A*) _{2}_{0}
3
(B) _{5}
(C)
2
_{5}
11
(D) _{2}_{0}
[ 13 ^{t}^{h} Test (5122004)]
In a certain game A's skill is to be B's as 3 to 2, find the chance of A winning 3 games at least out of 5.
odd in favour of A 3 : 2
P(A) =
3
5
= p
; q =
2
5
P(E) = ^{5} C _{3}
3
3 2
5
5
2
+ ^{5} C _{4}
4
3 2
5
5
+
3
5
5
]
2133
[Ans. _{3}_{1}_{2}_{5} ]
In each of a set of games it is 2 to 1 in favour of the winner of the previous game. What is the chance that
the player who wins the first game shall wins three at least of the next four?
P(W/W) =
2
3
; P(L/W) =
1
3
; P(W/L) =
1
3
; P(L/L) =
2
3
]
[Ans. 4/9]
A coin is tossed n times, what is the chance that the head will present itself an odd number of times?
P(E) =
n
C
1
n
C
3
n
C.......
5
2
n
=
2
n1
2
n
=
1
2
]
1
[Ans. _{2} ]
A fair die is tossed repeatidly. A wins if it is 1 or 2 on two consecutive tosses and B wins if it is 3, 4, 5 or 6
on two consecutive tosses. The probability that A wins if the die is tossed indefinitely, is
[Sol.
1
(A) _{3}
Let
5
(B*) _{2}_{1}
(C)
1
_{4}
2
(D) _{5}
P(S) = P(1 or 2) = 1/3
P(F) = P(3 or 4 or 5 or 6) = 2/3
[29102005, 12 ^{t}^{h} Jaipur]
P(A wins) = P[( S S or S F S S or S F S F S S or
=
1
9
1
2
+
2
27
1
2
=
1
9
9
7
+
2
9 3 2
1
2
or
7 ^{+}
=
7
21
=
21
=
27
9
9
(F S S
5
21
or
F S F S S or ........)]
P (A winning) =
5
21 ; P (B winning) =
16
21
Ans. ]
Q.16
[Hint:
Counters marked 1, 2, 3 are placed in a bag, and one is withdrawn and replaced. The operation being
repeated three times, what is the chance of obtaining a total of 6?
(6 cases)
P(1 23
or
22 2)
=
61
3
3 =
7
27 ]
[Ans. 7 / 27]
Bansal Classes
[13]
Q.17
A normal coin is continued tossing unless a head is obtained for the first time. Find the probability that
(a) number of tosses needed are at most 3.
(b) number of tosses are even.
[Sol.
(a) P (H or T H or T T H);
1
2
1 7
1
4 8
8
(b) T H or T T T H
or .......
;
P (E) = _{1}_{1} _{4} =
7 
1 

_{8} , 
(b) 
_{3} 
] 

] 
[Ans. (a)
4
3
1
3
Q.18
A purse contains 2 six sided dice. One is a normal fair die, while the other has 2 ones, 2 threes, and 2
fives. A die is picked up and rolled. Because of some secret magnetic attraction of the unfair die, there is
75% chance of picking the unfair die and a 25% chance of picking a fair die. The die is rolled and shows
up the face 3. The probability that a fair die was picked up, is
[Sol.
Q.19
1 1
(A*) _{7}
(B) _{4}
N = Normal die ; P(N) = 1/4
M = magnetic die ; P(M) = 3/4
A = die shows up 3
P(A) = P(A N) + P(A M)
= P(N) P(A/N) + P(M) P(A/M)
1 1
(C)
_{6}
(D) _{2}_{4}
[08012006, 12 & 13]
Ans. ]
Before a race the chance of three runners, A, B, C were estimated to be proportional to 5, 3, 2, but
during the race A meets with an accident which reduces his chance to 1/3. What are the respective
Q.20
chance of B and C now?
[Ans. B = 2/5 ; C = 4/15]
A fair coin is tossed a large number of times. Assuming the tosses are independent which one of the
following statement, is True?
(A) Once the number of flips is large enough, the number of heads will always be exactly half of the total number of tosses. For example, after 10,000 tosses one should have exactly 5,000 heads.
(B*) The proportion of heads will be about 1/2 and this proportion will tend to get closer to 1/2 as the
number of tosses inreases
(C) As the number of tosses increases, any long run of heads will be balanced by a corresponding run of
Q.21
Hint:
Q.22
tails so that the overall proportion of heads is exactly 1/2
(D) All of the above
[29102005, 12 ^{t}^{h} ]
A and B each throw simultaneously a pair of dice. Find the probability that they obtain the same score.
[ P [ (2&2) or (3&3) or (4&4) ...]
[ Ans:
73
_{6}_{4}_{8}
]
A is one of the 6 horses entered for a race, and is to be ridden by one of two jockeys B or C. It is 2 to
1 that B rides A, in which case all the horses are equally likely to win; if C rides A, his chance is trebled,
what are the odds against his winning?
Bansal Classes
[Ans. 13 to 5]
[14]
Direction for Q.23 to Q.25
Let S and T are two events defined on a sample space with probabilities
Q.23
Q.24
Q.25
[Sol.
P(S) = 0.5, P(T) = 0.69, P(S/T) = 0.5
Events S and T are:
(A)
mutually exclusive
(C)
mutually exclusive and independent
The value of P(S and T)
(A*) 0.3450
(B) 0.2500
The value of P(S or T)
(A)
0.6900
(B) 1.19
(B*) independent
(D) neither mutually exclusive nor independent
(C) 0.6900
(C*)
0.8450
(D) 0.350
(D) 0
P(S/T) =
P(ST)
_{P}_{(}_{T}_{)}
0.5 =
P(S
^{T}^{)}
0.69
P(S T) = 0.5 0.69 = P(S)P(T)
S and T are independent Ans.
P (S and T) = P (S) P(T) = 0.69 0.5 = 0.345
Ans.
P (S or T) = P (S) + P (T) ñ P (S T) = 0.5 + 0.69 ñ 0.345 = 0.8450
Ans. ]
[29102005, 12 ^{t}^{h} ]
Bansal Classes
[15]
Af te r 5 ^{t}^{h} Le ct ur e
Q.1 _{1}_{1}_{3} The first 12 letters of the english alphabets are written down at random. The probability that there are
4 letters between A & B is :
[Hint:
(A)
7/33
n(S) = 12 !
;
n(A) =
(B) 12/33
^{1}^{0} C _{4} 4! 2!
7!
p = 7 / 66
]
(C) 14/33
(D*) 7/66
Q.2 _{2}_{2}_{3} Events A and C are independent. If the probabilities relating A, B and C are P (A) = 1/5;
[Hint:
Q.3
P (B) = 1/6 ; P (A C) = 1/20 ; P (B C) = 3/8 then
(A*) events B and C are independent
(B)
events B and C are mutually exclusive
(C)
events B and C are neither independent nor mutually exclusive
(D)
events B and C are equiprobable
P (A C) = P (A) P (C)
1
20
1 1
=
P (C)
5
P(C) =
4
now P (B C) =
1
6
^{+}
1
4
ñ P (B C),
hence P(BC) =
3 1
1
ñ
=
8 3
24
= P(B) P(C)
(A) ]
Assume that the birth of a boy or girl to a couple to be equally likely, mutually exclusive, exhaustive and
independent of the other children in the family. For a couple having 6 children, the probability that their
[Hint:
Q.4
"three oldest are boys" is
(A)
20
_{6}_{4}
E : B _{1} B _{2} B _{3}
1 2
(B) _{6}_{4}
(C) _{6}_{4}
where means B or G
P(E) =
1
1
1
1 8
=
=
2
2
2
8
64 Ans. ]
8
(D*) _{6}_{4}
[27112005, 12 ^{t}^{h} ]
A and B play a game. A is to throw a die first, and is to win if he throws 6, If he fails B is to throw, and
to win if he throws 6 or 5. If he fails, A is to throw again and to win with 6 or 5 or 4, and so on, find the
chance of each player.
169 155
[Ans. A : _{3}_{2}_{4}
; B :
324
]
Q.5 _{6}_{9}
Box A contains 3 red and 2 blue marbles while box B contains 2 red and 8 blue marbles. A fair coin is
tossed. If the coin turns up heads, a marble is drawn from A, if it turns up tails, a marble is drawn from
bag B. The probability that a red marble is chosen, is
[Hint:
(A)
1
_{5}
;
2 3
1
(C) (D) _{2}
_{5}
R = event that a red marble is drawn
P (R) = P (R H) + P (R T)
= P (H) P (R / H) + P (T) P (R / T)
=
1
3
2
8
1
2
2
5
10 ]
=
=
10
2
5
Bansal Classes
[17]
Q.6 _{7}_{4}
A examination consists of 8 questions in each of which one of the 5 alternatives is the correct one. On the
assumption that a candidate who has done no preparatory work chooses for each question any one of
the five alternatives with equal probability, the probability that he gets more than one correct answer is
[Hint:
equal to :
(A)
(0.8) ^{8}
(B) 3 (0.8) ^{8}
(C)
1 (0.8) ^{8}
p =
1
5
= 0.2 ; q = 0.8
;
P (E) = 1 ñ P (0 or 1)
]
(D*)
1 3 (0.8) ^{8}
Q.7
_{1}_{8}_{1}
The germination of seeds is estimated by a probability of 0.6. The probability that out of 11 sown seeds
exactly 5 or 6 will spring is :
(A*)
11
C. 6
5
5
5
10
(B)
11 C
32
5
5
11
(C)
^{1}^{1} C _{5}
11
(D) none of these
Q.8
_{1}_{5}_{2}
The probability of obtaining more tails than heads in 6 tosses of a fair coins is :
(A)
2/64
(B*) 22/64
(C) 21/64
(D) none
[Hint :P (4 or 5 or 6) =
6
C
4
6
C
5
6 ^{C} 6
64
22 ]
64
Q.9 _{1}_{9}_{2} An instrument consists of two units. Each unit must function for the instrument to operate. The reliability
of the first unit is 0.9 & that of the second unit is 0.8. The instrument is tested & fails. The probability that
"only the first unit failed & the second unit is sound" is :
[ Hint:
(A)
1/7
(B*) 2/7