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## MA TH EM AT IC S

BANSAL CLASSES
Target IIT JEE 2007
Daily Practice Problems
CLASS : XII (ABCD)
DPP ON PROBABILITY
DPP. NO.- 1

Af te r 1 st Le ct ur e Q.1 46 100 cards are numbered from 1 to 100. The probability that the randomly chosen card has a digit 5 is:

[Hint:

(A)

0.01

(B) 0.09

from 50 to 60, 10 fives and 9 other fives

(C*) 0.19

total 19

(C) ]

(D) 0.18

Q.2

4

A quadratic equation is chosen from the set of all the quadratic equations which are unchanged by squaring their roots. The chance that the chosen equation has equal roots is :

(A*) 1/2

(B) 1/3

(C) 1/4

(D) 2/3

Q.3

10

If the letters of the word "MISSISSIPPI" are written down at random in a row, the probability that no two S's occur together is :

(A)

1/3

(B*) 7/33

(C) 6/13

(D) 5/7

Q.4

29

[Hint:

A sample space consists of 3 sample points with associated probabilities given as 2p, p 2 , 4p ñ 1 then

(A*) p =

11 3

(B)

10 3

p 2 + 2p + 4p ñ 1 = 1 (exhaustive)

p 2 + 6p ñ 2 = 0

(A) ]

(C)

1

4

< p <

1

2

(D) none

Q.5 39

A committee of 5 is to be chosen from a group of 9 people. The probability that a certain married couple will either serve together or not at all is :

(A)

1/2

(B) 5/9

(C*) 4/9

(D) 2/3

[Hint :

• 7 CC

7

3

• 5 ]

9

• C 5

Q.6 53

[Hint:

There are only two women among 20 persons taking part in a pleasure trip. The 20 persons are divided into two groups, each group consisting of 10 persons. Then the probability that the two women will be in the same group is :

(A*) 9/19

(B) 9/38

(C) 9/35

(D) none

n(S) = number of ways in which 20 people can be divided into two equal groups

20!

= 10!10! 2! n(A) = 18 people can be divided into groups of 10 and 8

18!

= 10! 8!

18!

10!10! 2

10.9.2

9

P(E) = 10! 8! .

20!

=

20.19

19

Ans ]

Q.7

A bag contain 5 white, 7 black, and 4 red balls, find the chance that three balls drawn at random are all

white.

[Ans. 1/56]

Bansal Classes

[1]

Q.8

If four coins are tossed, find the chance that there should be two heads and two tails. [Ans. 3/8]

Q.9

Thirteen persons take their places at a round table, show that it is five to one against two particular persons sitting together.

Q.10

Q.11

In shuffling a pack of cards, four are accidentally dropped, find the chance that the missing cards should

be one from each suit.

[Ans.

(13)

2

• 52 C

4

=

2197

• 20825 ]

A has 3 shares in a lottery containing 3 prizes and 9 blanks, B has 2 shares in a lottery containing 2 prizes

and 6 blanks. Compare their chances of success.

[Ans. 952 to 715]

Q.12

There are three works, one consisting of 3 volumes, one of 4 and the other of one volume. They are placed

3

on a shelf at random, prove that the chance that volumes of the same works are all together is 140 .

Q.13

Q.14

Q.15

Q.16

The letter forming the word Clifton are placed at random in a row. What is the chance that the two

vowels come together?

 [Ans. 2/7] [Ans. 3/5] n(n  1)  n)(m n1) ]  [Ans. 2/3]

Three bolts and three nuts are put in a box. If two parts are chosen at random, find the probability that

one is a bolt and one is a nut.

There are 'm' rupees and 'n' ten nP's, placed at random in a line. Find the chance of the extreme coins

being both ten nP's.

[Ans. (m

A fair die is tossed. If the number is odd, find the probability that it is prime.

Q.17

Three fair coins are tossed. If both heads and tails appear, determine the probability that exactly one

[Ans. 1/2]

Q.18

3 boys and 3 girls sit in a row. Find the probability that (i) the 3 girls sit together. (ii) the boys are girls sit

in alternative seats.

[Ans. 1/5, 1/10]

Q.19

A coin is biased so that heads is three times as likely to appear as tails. Find P (H) and P (T). [Ans. 3/4, 1/4]

Q.20

In a hand at "whist" what is the chance that the 4 kings are held by a specified player?

[Ans.

4

C

4

48

C

9

52

C

13

]

Bansal Classes

[2]

BANSAL CLASSES
Target IIT JEE 2007
Daily Practice Problems
CLASS : XII (ABCD)
DPP ON PROBABILITY
DPP. NO.- 2

Q.1

After 2 nd Lecture

Given two independent events A, B such that P (A) = 0.3, P (B) = 0.6. Determine

(i)

P (A and B)

(iv) P (neither A nor B)

(ii) P (A and not B)

(v) P (A or B)

(iii) P (not A and B)

[Ans. (i) 0.18, (ii) 0.12, (iii) 0.42, (iv) 0.28, (v) 0.72]

Q.2

A card is drawn at random from a well shuffled deck of cards. Find the probability that the card is a

(i)

king or a red card

(iv) king or an ace

(ii) club or a diamond

(iii) king or a queen

(vi) neither a heart nor a king.

7

[Ans. (i) 13 , (ii)

1

2

2

2

, (iii) 13 , (iv) 13 , (v)

1

9

2 , (vi) 13 ]

Q.3

Q.4

[Sol.

Q.5

A coin is tossed and a die is thrown. Find the probability that the outcome will be a head or a number

greater than 4.

[Ans.

2

3 ]

~

Let A and B be events such that P(A)

= 4/5, P(B) = 1/3, P(A/B) = 1/6, then

(a)

P(A B) ;

(b)

P(A B)

;

(c) P(B/A) ;

(d) Are A and B independent?

[Ans. (a) 1/18, (b) 43/90, (c) 5/18, (d) NO]

(a)

P(A/B) =

P(A

B)

1

P(B)

6

P(A B) =

P(B)

1

=

6

18

Ans.]

(b)

P(A B) =

1

1

1

1830 5

43

+

5

3

ñ

18

=

90

=

90

Ans.

Ans.

(c)

P(B/A) =

P(BA)

1

5

5

P(A)

=

18

1

=

18

Ans.

Ans.

(d)

P(A) P(B) =

1

5

1

3

= 15 P(A B). A & B are not independent

]

If A and B are two events such that P (A) =

1

4

,

P (B) =

1

2

and P (A and B) =

1

8

, find

(i)

P (A or

B),

(ii) P (not A and

not B)

5

3

[Ans. (i) 8 , (ii) 8

]

Q.6 168 A 5 digit number is formed by using the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 without repetition. The probability that the

[Hint:

number is divisible by 6 is :

(A)

8 %

(B)

17 %

Number should be divisible by 2 and 3.

n(S) = 5 5!

reject 3,

;

n (A) : reject '0' = 2 4!

4! + 2 3 3!

Total n(A) = 3 4! + 6 3! = 18 3!

p =

18 3!

5 5!

= 18%

Bansal Classes

]

(C*)

18 %

(D)

36 %

[3]

Q.7

54

An experiment results in four possible out comes S 1 , S 2 , S 3 & S 4 with probabilities p 1 , p 2 , p 3 & p 4

respectively. Which one of the following probability assignment is possbile.

[Assume S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 are mutually exclusive]

 (A) p 1 = 0.25 , p 2 = 0.35 , p 3 = 0.10 , p 4 = 0.05 (B) p 1 = 0.40 , p 2 =  0.20 , p 3 = 0.60 , p 4 = 0.20 (C) p 1 = 0.30 , p 2 = 0.60 , p 3 = 0.10 , p 4 = 0.10 (D*) p 1 = 0.20 , p 2 = 0.30 , p 3 = 0.40 , p 4 = 0.10 Q.8 88 In throwing 3 dice, the probability that atleast 2 of the three numbers obtained are same is (A) 1/2 (B) 1/3 (C*) 4/9 (D) none [Hint :P(E) = 1 ñ P(all different) = 1 ñ (6/6) (5/6) (4/6) = 1 ñ (120/216) = 4/9 ] Q.9 173 There are 4 defective items in a lot consisting of 10 items. From this lot we select 5 items at random. The probability that there will be 2 defective items among them is 1 2 5 10 (A) 2 (B) 5 (C) 21 (D*) 21 [Hint: [12 th (26-12-2004)] 4 C 2 6 C 3 10 p = 10 =  (D) ] C 5 21 Q.10 134 From a pack of 52 playing cards, face cards and tens are removed and kept aside then a card is drawn at random from the ramaining cards. If A : The event that the card drawn is an ace H : The event that the card drawn is a heart S : The event that the card drawn is a spade then which of the following holds ? (A*) 9 P(A) = 4 P(H) (B) P(S) = 4P (A  H) (C) 3 P(H) = 4 P(A S) (D) P(H) = 12 P(A S)

[Hint:

face cards
52
 36
;
10's
1
1
1
P(A) =
; P(H) =
; P(S) =
9
4
4

; P(A H) =

1

36

;

• 1 1

P(A S) =

36

; P (A S) =

3

]

Q.11 220 6 married couples are standing in a room. If 4 people are chosen at random, then the chance that exactly

one married couple is among the 4 is :

[Hint:

(A*)

16

33

(B)

8

33

n(S) = 12 C 4 = 55 9

n(A) = 6 C 1 . 5 C 2 . 2 2

= 6 10 4

P(E) =

610



4

2.2.4

16

55

9

11.3

33

Ans]

(C)

 17 24 33 (D) 33

Bansal Classes

[4]

Q.12 45 The chance that a 13 card combination from a pack of 52 playing cards is dealt to a player in a game of

bridge, in which 9 cards are of the same suit, is

13
39
13
39
13
39
4
C
C
4!
C
C
C
C
9
4
9
4
9
4
(A*)
(B)
(C)
(D)
none
52
52
52
C
C
C
13
13
13
Q.13 64 If two of the 64 squares are chosen at random on a chess board, the probability that they have a side in
common is :
(A) 1/9
(B*) 1/18
(C) 2/7
(D) none
4 2 6 4 336 4
[Hint:
n (S) = 64 C 2 2
;
n (A) =
.
64 63
Alternatively : n (A) = 7 8 + 7 8 = 112
Prob that they have a corner in common ]
Q.14 182 Two red counters, three green counters and 4 blue counters are placed in a row in random order. The
probability that no two blue counters are adjacent is
7
7
5
(A)
(B)
(C*) 42
(D)
none
99
198
[Sol.
R R G G G B B B B when counters are alike
[14-8-2005, 13 th ]
9!
n (S) =
2!3!4!
5!
6
C
n(A) =
| R | R | G | G | G |
4
3!2!
5! 15
2!3!4!
6! 60
60
15
5
P(A) =
=
=
=
=
3!2!
9!
9 8 7 6!
7 8 9
7 2 9
42
Alternatively : n (S) = 9!
R 1 R 1 G 1 G 2 G
3 B 1 B
2 B 3
B 4
n(A) = 5! 6 C 4 4!
when counters are different
5! 6 5 4 3
5 4 3
5
p =
=
=
]
9!
9 8 7
42
Q.15
The probabilities that a student will receive A, B, C or D grade are 0.40, 0.35, 0.15 and 0.10 respectively.
Find the probability that a student will receive
(i)
[Ans. (i) 0.6, (ii) 0.5, (iii) 0.25]
Q.16
In a single throw of three dice, determine the probability of getting
(i)
a total of 5
(ii) a total of at most 5
(iii) a total of at least 5.
1
5
53
[Ans. (i) 36 , (ii) 108 , (iii) 54
]
Q.17
A die is thrown once. If E is the event "the number appearing is a multiple of 3" and F is the event "the
number appearing is even", find the probability of the event "E and F". Are the events E and F independent?
1
1
1
[Ans. P(E) =
, P(F)= 2 , P(E and F) =
; Yeess]]
3
6
Q.18
In the two dice experiment, if E is the event of getting the sum of number on dice as 11 and F is the event
of getting a number other than 5 on the first die, find P (E and F). Are E and F independent events?
2
30
1

Bansal Classes

[Ans. P(E)= 36 , P(F)= 36 , P(E F) =

• 36 ; Not independent]

[5]

Q.19

A natural number x is randomly selected from the set of first 100 natural numbers. Find the probability

that it satisfies the inequality.

x +

100

x

> 50

55

11

[Ans: 100

=

20 ]

Note:

{1, 2, 48, 49, 50,

........

,100 }

wrong Ans given bystudents

1

27

53

50

,

50

,

100

Q.20

3 students A and B and C are in a swimming race. A and B have the same probability of winning and each

is twice as likely to win as C. Find the probability that B or C wins. Assume no two reach the winning

[Sol.

Q.21

point simultaneously.

P(C) = p ; P(A) = 2p ; P(B) = 2p

5p = 1 p = 1/5

P(B or C) = P(B) + P(C) =

2

5

1



5

3

5

]

A box contains 7 tickets, numbered from 1 to 7 inclusive. If 3 tickets are drawn from the box, one at a

time, determine the probability that they are alternatively either odd-even-odd or even-odd-even.

Q.22

[Ans.

p =

4 3 3

3 4 2

6

=

7 6 5

210

=

2

7

]

5 different marbles are placed in 5 different boxes randomly. Find the probability that exactly two boxes

remain empty. Given each box can hold any number of marbles.

[Sol.

n(S) = 5 5

;

For computing favourable outcomes.

2 boxes which are to remain empty, can be selected in 5 C 2 ways and 5 marbles can be placed in the

remaining 3 boxes in groups of 221 or 311 in

3!

5!

5!

2!2!2!

32! !

= 150 ways

n (A) = 5 C 2 150

Hence

P(E)

= 5 C 2

150

5 5

=

60

125

=

12

25

Ans.]

Q.23 132 South African cricket captain lost the toss of a coin 13 times out of 14. The chance of this happening was

[Hint:

• 7 1

(A*)

2

13

(B)

2

13

(C)

13 13

2

14

(D)

2

13

L and W can be filled at 14 places in 2 14 ways.

n(S) = 2 14 .

Now 13 L's and 1W can be arranged at 14 places in 14 ways.

Q.24

Hence n(A) = 14

p =

14

2

14

=

7

2

13

]

[14-8-2005, 13 th ]

There are ten prizes, five A's, three B's and two C's, placed in identical sealed envelopes for the top ten

contestants in a mathematics contest. The prizes are awarded by allowing winners to select an envelope

at random from those remaining. When the 8 th contestant goes to select the prize, the probability that the

remaining three prizes are one A, one B and one C, is

[Hint:

(A*) 1/4

n(S) = 10 C 7 = 120

(B) 1/3

n(A) = 5 C 4 3 C 2 2 C 1

P(E) =

5 3 2

1

=

120

4

Ans. ]

Bansal Classes

(C) 1/12

(D) 1/10

[08-01-2006, 12 & 13]

[6]

## MA TH EM AT IC S

BANSAL CLASSES
Target IIT JEE 2007
Daily Practice Problems
CLASS : XII (ABCD)
DPP ON PROBABILITY
DPP. NO.- 3

Af te r 3 rd Le ct ur e

Q.1 33

Whenever horses a, b, c race together, their respective probabilities of winning the race are 0.3, 0.5 and

0.2 respectively. If they race three times the probability that ìthe same horse wins all the three racesî and

the probablity that a, b, c each wins one race, are respectively

[Sol.

(A*)

8

50 ;

9

50

(B)

16

100 ,

3

100

(C)

12

50

;

• 15 10

• 50 (D)

50

;

8

50

P(a) = 0.3 ; P(b) = 0.5 ; P(c) = 0.2

a, b, c are exhaustive

P(same horse wins all the three races) = P(aaa or bbb or ccc)

= (0.3) 3 + (0.5) 3 + (0.2) 3

=

27

125

8

160

4

=

1000

• 1000 25

P(each horse wins exactly one race)

= P(abc or acb or bca or bac or cab or cba) = 0.3 0.5 0.2 6 = 0.18 =

9

• 50 ]

Q.2 63

[Sol.

Let A & B be two events. Suppose P(A) = 0.4 , P(B) = p & P(A B) = 0.7. The value of p for which

A & B are independent is :

(A)

1/3

(B) 1/4

(C*) 1/2

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) ñ P(A) P(B)

0.7 = 0.4 + p ñ 0.4p

0.6p = 0.3

p =

1

2

]

(D) 1/5

Q.3

78

A & B are two independent events such that P(A) = 0.7, P( B) = a & P(A B) = 0.8, then, a =

(A)

5/7

(B*) 2/7

(C)

1

(D) none

Q.4

72

A

pair

of numbers is picked

up

randomly (without replacement) from

the

set

{1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19}. The probability that the number 11 was picked given that the sum of

the numbers was even, is nearly :

(A)

0.1

(B) 0.125

(C*) 0.24

(D) 0.18

[Hint :PA B=

(

PA

B

)

7

C

1

7

()

PB

=

8

C1

2

=

29

;

A : 11 is picked , B : sum is even ]

Q.5 42

For a biased die the probabilities for the diffferent faces to turn up are given below :

Faces :

Probabilities :

1

0.10

2

0.32

3

0.21

4

0.15

5

0.05

6

0.17

The die is tossed & you are told that either face one or face two has turned up. Then the probability that

it is face one is :

(A)

1/6

(B) 1/10

(C) 5/49

[Hint :P(A/A B) =

PA

(A



B)

()

PA

010

.

• ]

PA

### B

=

=

() (

PA

PB )

010

.

. 032

Bansal Classes

(D*) 5/21

[7]

Q.6 170 A determinant is chosen at random from the set of all determinants of order 2 with elements 0 or 1 only.

The probability that the determinant chosen has the value non negative is :

 (A) 3/16 (B) 6/16 (C) 10/16 (D*) 13/16 [Hint :1  P (Determinant has negative value) 1  3 13   = 16 16  11  01 10 ; ; 11 01 10   ] Q.7 99 15 coupons are numbered 1, 2, , 15 respectively. 7 coupons are selected at random one at a time

with replacement. The probability that the largest number appearing on a selected coupon is 9 is :

[Hint:

(A)

9

16

6

n(S) =

(B)

8

15

7

(C)

3

 

5

7

= 15 7 ; came of the number must be 9

(D*)

7

98

7

15

7

]

Q.8 229 A card is drawn & replaced in an ordinary pack of 52 playing cards. Minimum number of times must a

card be drawn so that there is atleast an even chance of drawing a heart, is

[Hint:

• (A) (B*) 3

2

1

4

3

4

1

.

4

3

4

3

1

.

4

.

4

]

(C) 4

Q.9

An electrical system has open-closed switches

S 1 , S 2 and S 3 as shown.

(D) more than four

The switches operate independently of one another and the current will flow from A to B either if S 1 is

[Sol.

Q.10

closed or if both S 2 and S 3 are closed. If P(S 1 ) = P(S 2 ) = P(S 3 ) =

1

2

, find the probability that the circuit

will work.

P(S 1 ) = P(S 2 ) = P(S 3 ) =

1

2

E : event that the current will flow.

[Ans.

5

8 ]

P(E)= P

(S

2

S

3

### 

)or S= P (S 2 S 3 ) + P (S 3 ) ñ P (S 1 S 2 S 3 ) =

1

1

4

+

1

2

ñ

1

8

=

5

8

]

A certain team wins with probability 0.7, loses with probability 0.2 and ties with probability 0.1. The

team plays three games. Find the probability

• (i) that the team wins at least two of the games, but lose none.

(ii)

[Sol.

that the team wins at least one game.

P (W) = 0.7

;

P (L) = 0.2

; P (T) = 0.1

[Ans. (i) 0.49 ; (ii) 0.973 ]

E : winning at least 2 games but lose none

P (E) = P (W W T

or W T W

or T W W or W W W)

= 3 0.7 0.7 0.1 + (0.7) 3

= 0.7 0.7 [0.3 + 0.7] = 0.49

F : wining at least 1 game

A = L or T P (A) = 0.3 ; P (F) = 1 ñ P (A A A) = 1 ñ (0.3) 3 = 1 ñ 0.027 = 0.973

]

Bansal Classes

[8]

Q.11

An integer is chosen at random from the first 200 positive integers. Find the probability that the integer is

divisible by 6 or 8.

1

 [Sol. n (S) = 200 [Ans. 4 ] n (A) = divisible by 6 or 8 n (6) = 6 + 12 + + 198 = 33 n (8) = 8 + 16 + 200 = 25 n (6  8) = 24 + 48 + + 192 = 8 n (A) = 33 + 25 ñ 8 = 50 1 P (A) = 4 ]

Q.12

A clerk was asked to mail four report cards to four students. He addresses four envelops that unfortunately

paid no attention to which report card be put in which envelope. What is the probability that exactly one

Q.13

[Sol.

of the students received his (or her) own card?

[Ans.

• 8 1

24

=

3

]

Find the probability of at most two tails or at least two heads in a toss of three coins.

A = at most two tails

n (s) ñ {T T T}

B = at least two heads

P (A) =

7

8

;

P (B) =

4

8

H H H,

T H H,

;

P (A B) =

4

8

P (A B) =

7

8

+

4

8

ñ

4

8

=

7

8

AAnnss..

]

H T H,

H H T

[Ans.

7

8 ]

Q.14

What is the probability that in a group of

(i)

(ii)

2 people, both will have the same date of birth.

3 people, at least 2 will have the same date of birth.

Assume the year to be ordinarry consisting of 365 days.

[Sol.(i) A : both have the same date of birth

(ii)

Q.15

P (A) =

1

1

365

365

1

1

365

365

.......365times

=

1

365

Ans.

B : at least 2 in a group of 3 will have the same birthday

P (B)

= 1 ñ P (all 3 have different birthday )

= 1 ñ 1

364

363

365

365

364363

= 1 ñ

(365)

2

Ans. ]

2

The probability that a person will get an electric contract is 5

and the probability that he will not get

plumbing contract is

4

2

7 . If the probability of getting at least one contract is 3 , what is the probability that

he will get both ?

[Sol.

P (E) =

2

5

; P (F) = P (plumbing) = 1 ñ

4

7

=

3

7

P (E F) = P (E) + P (F) ñ P (E F)

 2 2 3 17 3 = 5 + 7 ñ x  x = 105 Ans. ] Bansal Classes [9]

Q.16

[Sol.

Five horses compete in a race. John picks two horses at random and bets on them. Find the probability

that John picked the winner. Assume dead heal.

n (S) = 5 C 2 = 10

n (A) = 1 4 C 1 = 4

p

2

5

]

4

[Ans. 10

]

Q.17

Two cubes have their faces painted either red or blue. The first cube has five red faces and one blue face.

When the two cubes are rolled simultaneously, the probability that the two top faces show the same

[Sol.

Q.18

Q.19

Q.20

Q.21

colour is 1/2. Number of red faces on the second cube, is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C*) 3

Let the number of red faces on the 2 nd cube = x

number of blue faces = (6 ñ x)

P (R R or B B) = 1/2

(D) 4

[08-01-2006, 12 & 13]

 5 x 1 6x  1 6 6 + 6 6 = 2 5x + 6 ñ x = 18 4x = 12  x = 3Ans. ] A H and W appear for an interview for two vaccancies for the same post. P(H) = 1/7 ; P(W) = 1/5. Find the probability of the events
• (a) Both are selected

(b) only one of them is selected

(c) none is selected.

[Ans.

1

2

24

35

,

7 ,

35

]

A bag contains 6R, 4W and 8B balls. If 3 balls are drawn at random determine the probability of the

event

• (a) (b) all 3 are black ;

all 3 are red ;

• (d) (e) 1 of each colour are drawn

at least 1 is red ;

(c) 2 are white and 1 is red ;

• (f) the balls are drawn in the order of red, white, blue.

 5 7 3 149 4 2 [Ans. (a) 204 , (b) 102 , (c) 68 , (d) 204 , (e) 17 , 51 ] The odds that a book will be favourably reviewed by three independent critics are 5 to 2, 4 to 3, and 3 to 4 respectively. What is the probability that of the three reviews a majority will be favourable? 209 [Ans. 343 ]

In a purse are 10 coins, all five nP's except one which is a rupee, in another are ten coins all five nP's.

Nine coins are taken from the former purse and put into the latter, and then nine coins are taken from the

latter and put into the former. Find the chance that the rupee is still in the first purse.

Q.22

Q.23

 10 [Ans. 19 ] A, B, C in order cut a pack of cards, replacing them after each cut, on condition that the first who cuts 16 12 9 a spade shall win a prize. Find their respective chances. [Ans. 37 , 37 , 37 ]

A and B in order draw from a purse containing 3 rupees and 4 nP's, find their respective chances of first

drawing a rupee, the coins once drawn not being replaced.

• 22 13

[Ans. 35

, 35

]

Bansal Classes

[10]

## MA TH EM AT IC S

BANSAL CLASSES
Target IIT JEE 2007
Daily Practice Problems
CLASS : XII (ABCD)
DPP ON PROBABILITY
DPP. NO.- 4

Af te r 4 th Le ct ur e

Q.1 37

There are n different gift coupons, each of which can occupy N(N > n) different envelopes, with the

same probability 1/N

P 1 : The probability that there will be one gift coupon in each of n definite envelopes out of N given envelopes

P 2 : The probability that there will be one gift coupon in each of n arbitrary envelopes out of N given envelopes

[Sol.

Consider the following statements

(i)

P 1 = P 2

n!

(iv) P 2 = N(N

n

n)!

(ii) P 1 =

(v) P 1 =

N!

N

n

n!

N

n

N!

(iii) P 2 = N(N

n

n)!

Now, which of the following is true

(A)

Only (i)

(B*) (ii) and (iii)

(C) (ii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (v)

From the given data

n (S) = N n

; n (A) = n !

P 1 =

n!

N

n

P 1 =

P 2 =

n!

N

n

Since the n different gift coupans can be placed in the n definite (Out of N)

envelope in n P n = n ! ways

N!

(N

n)! N

n

As n arbitrary envelopes out of N given envelopes can be chosen in N C n

ways and the n gift coupans can occupy these envelopes in n ! ways. ]

Q.2 61

N!

=

n

N(N

n)!

]

The probability that an automobile will be stolen and found withing one week is 0.0006. The probability that

an automobile will be stolen is 0.0015. The probability that a stolen automobile will be found in one week is

[Hint:

Q.3 25

(A)

0.3

(B*) 0.4

(C) 0.5

(D) 0.6

P (S F) = 0.0006, where S : moter cycle is stolen ; F : moter cycle found

P (S) = 0.0015

P (F/S) =

P(FS)

• 610

4

2

P(S)

=

15

10

4

=

5

(B) ]

One bag contains 3 white & 2 black balls, and another contains 2 white & 3 black balls. A ball is drawn

from the second bag & placed in the first, then a ball is drawn from the first bag & placed in the second.

When the pair of the operations is repeated, the probability that the first bag will contain 5 white balls is:

[Hint:

Q.4 75

(A)

1/25

(B) 1/125

(C*) 1/225

P(E) = P [W B W B] =

• 2 1

• 2 1

1

=

• 5 5

• 6 6

225

]

(D) 2/15

A child throws 2 fair dice. If the numbers showing are unequal, he adds them together to get his final

score. On the other hand, if the numbers showing are equal, he throws 2 more dice & adds all 4 numbers

showing to get his final score. The probability that his final score is 6 is:

(A)

145

1296

146

(B) 1296

• 147 148

(C) 1296

(D*) 1296

[Hint:

P (6) = (51, 15, 24, 42)

Bansal Classes

or

11 & (22 or 13 or 31)

or

(22 & 11)

]

[11]

Q.5 118

A person draws a card from a pack of 52 cards, replaces it & shuffles the pack. He continues doing this

till he draws a spade. The probability that he will fail exactly the first two times is :

[Hint:

(A) 1/64

(B*) 9/64

P(E) = P(FFS) = 3/4.3/4.1/4]

(C) 36/64

Q.6

Indicate the correct order sequence in respect of the following :

(D) 60/64

• I. If the probability that a computer will fail during the first hour of operation is 0.01, then if we turn on 100 computers, exactly one will fail in the first hour of operation.

II.

A man has ten keys only one of which fits the lock. He tries them in a door one by one discarding

the one he has tried. The probability that fifth key fits the lock is 1/10.

III.

IV.

Given the events A and B in a sample space. If P(A) = 1, then A and B are independent.

When a fair six sided die is tossed on a table top, the bottom face can not be seen. The probability

that the product of the numbers on the five faces that can be seen is divisible by 6 is one.

[Hint:

(A)

FTFT

(B*) FTTT

(C) TFTF

(D) TFFF

I.

II.

III.

IV.

P(X = 1) = 100 C 1

1

• 100

99

• 100

100

[18-12-2005, 12 & 13]

Every key that fits have the same probability = 1/10

Consider P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) ñ P(A B)

but P(A B) = P(A) = 1

1

= 1 + P(B) ñ P(A B)

P(A B) = P(B) = P(B) P(A)

( P(A) = 1 )

Each product 1 2 3 4 5 ; 1 2 3 4 6 ; 1 2 3 5 6 ; 1 2 4 5 6 ; 1 3 4 5 6 ; 2 3 4 5 6 is divisible by six.]

Q.7 156 An unbaised cubic die marked with 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3 is rolled 3 times. The probability of getting a total

score of 4 or 6 is

[ Hint:

(A)

16

216

1 , 2 , 2

, 3 ,

3 , 3

50

(B*) 216

(thrown 3 times)

60

(C) 216

P(1) =

1

6

; P(2) =

2

6

; P(3) =

3

6

P(S)

= P(4 or 6) = P( 112 (3 cases) or 123 (6 cases) or 222 )

(D) none

=

3.

1

6

1

.

6

2

.

1

6

1

6

2

.

6

• 3 2

.

• 1 6

• 2 636

2

8

50

25

.

.

• 6 6

=

216

216

108

]

Q.8 200 A bag contains 3 R & 3 G balls and a person draws out 3 at random. He then drops 3 blue balls into the

bag & again draws out 3 at random. The chance that the 3 later balls being all of different colours is

[Sol.

(A)

15%

(B) 20%

(C*) 27%

(D) 40%

;

• 3 C

C

1

3

C

2

2

1

• 1 C

1

• 3 C

• 1 C

2

• 1

3

C

3

• 1 C

1

• 2 C

1

• 3 C

1

• 6 C

6

• 2 C

3

+

6

C 3

6 C

3

]

Q.9 169

A biased coin with probability P, 0 < P < 1, of heads is tossed until a head appears for the first time. If the

probability that the number of tosses required is even is 2/5 then the value of P is

(A)

1/4

Bansal Classes

(B) 1/6

(C*) 1/3

(D) 1/2

[12]

Q.10 202 If a, b N then the probability that a 2 + b 2 is divisible by 5 is

(A*)

9

25

(B)

7

18

(C)

11 17

36

• (D) 81

[Hint :Square of a number ends in 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9 favourable ordered pairs of

(a 2 , b 2 ) can be

(0, 0) ;

(5, 5) ;

(1, 4) ,

(4, 1) ;

(1, 9) ,

(9, 1) ;

(4, 6) ,

(6, 4)

(6, 9) , (9, 6)

and

P(0) = 1/10

= P(5)

;

P(1) = P(4) = P(6) = P(9) = 2/10

;

]

Q.11 52 In an examination, one hundred candidates took paper in Physics and Chemistry. Twenty five candidates

failed in Physics only. Twenty candidates failed in chemistry only. Fifteen failed in both Physics and

Chemistry. A candidate is selected at random. The probability that he failed either in Physics or in

Q.12

[Hint:

Q.13

[Hint:

Q.14

[Hint:

Q.15

Chemistry but not in both is

9

(A*) 20

3

(B) 5

(C)

2

5

11

• (D) 20

[ 13 th Test (5-12-2004)]

In a certain game A's skill is to be B's as 3 to 2, find the chance of A winning 3 games at least out of 5.

odd in favour of A 3 : 2

P(A) =

3

5

= p

; q =

2

5

P(E) = 5 C 3

3

3   2

5

 

5

2

+ 5 C 4

4

3   2

5

 

5

+

3

 

5

5

]

2133

[Ans. 3125 ]

In each of a set of games it is 2 to 1 in favour of the winner of the previous game. What is the chance that

the player who wins the first game shall wins three at least of the next four?

P(W/W) =

2

3

; P(L/W) =

1

3

; P(W/L) =

1

3

; P(L/L) =

2

3

]

[Ans. 4/9]

A coin is tossed n times, what is the chance that the head will present itself an odd number of times?

P(E) =

n

C

1

n

C

3

n

C.......

5

2

n

=

2

n1

2

n

=

1

2

]

1

[Ans. 2 ]

A fair die is tossed repeatidly. A wins if it is 1 or 2 on two consecutive tosses and B wins if it is 3, 4, 5 or 6

on two consecutive tosses. The probability that A wins if the die is tossed indefinitely, is

[Sol.

1

(A) 3

Let

5

(B*) 21

(C)

1

4

2

• (D) 5

P(S) = P(1 or 2) = 1/3

P(F) = P(3 or 4 or 5 or 6) = 2/3

[29-10-2005, 12 th Jaipur]

P(A wins) = P[( S S or S F S S or S F S F S S or

=

1

9

1

2

+

2

27

1

2

=

1

9

9

7

+

2

• 9 32

1

2

or

• 7 +

=

7

21

=

21

=

27

9

9

(F S S

5

21

or

F S F S S or ........)]

P (A winning) =

5

• 21 ; P (B winning) =

16

21

Ans. ]

Q.16

[Hint:

Counters marked 1, 2, 3 are placed in a bag, and one is withdrawn and replaced. The operation being

repeated three times, what is the chance of obtaining a total of 6?

(6 cases)

P(1 23

or

22 2)

=

61

3

• 3 =

7

• 27 ]

[Ans. 7 / 27]

Bansal Classes

[13]

Q.17

A normal coin is continued tossing unless a head is obtained for the first time. Find the probability that

• (a) number of tosses needed are at most 3.

• (b) number of tosses are even.

[Sol.

(a) P (H or T H or T T H);

1

2

• 1 7

1



• 4 8

8

• (b) T H or T T T H

or .......

;

14
1
4

P (E) = 11 4 =

 7 1 8 , (b) 3 ] ]

[Ans. (a)

4



3

1

3

Q.18

A purse contains 2 six sided dice. One is a normal fair die, while the other has 2 ones, 2 threes, and 2

fives. A die is picked up and rolled. Because of some secret magnetic attraction of the unfair die, there is

75% chance of picking the unfair die and a 25% chance of picking a fair die. The die is rolled and shows

up the face 3. The probability that a fair die was picked up, is

[Sol.

Q.19

• 1 1

(A*) 7

(B) 4

N = Normal die ; P(N) = 1/4

M = magnetic die ; P(M) = 3/4

A = die shows up 3

P(A) = P(A N) + P(A M)

= P(N) P(A/N) + P(M) P(A/M)

• 1 1

(C)

6

(D) 24

[08-01-2006, 12 & 13]

1
1
3
2
7
=
+
=
4
6
4
6
24
P(N A)
 
14
16
1
P(N/A) =
=
=
P(A)
724
7

Ans. ]

Before a race the chance of three runners, A, B, C were estimated to be proportional to 5, 3, 2, but

during the race A meets with an accident which reduces his chance to 1/3. What are the respective

Q.20

chance of B and C now?

[Ans. B = 2/5 ; C = 4/15]

A fair coin is tossed a large number of times. Assuming the tosses are independent which one of the

following statement, is True?

• (A) Once the number of flips is large enough, the number of heads will always be exactly half of the total number of tosses. For example, after 10,000 tosses one should have exactly 5,000 heads.

(B*) The proportion of heads will be about 1/2 and this proportion will tend to get closer to 1/2 as the

number of tosses inreases

• (C) As the number of tosses increases, any long run of heads will be balanced by a corresponding run of

Q.21

Hint:

Q.22

tails so that the overall proportion of heads is exactly 1/2

• (D) All of the above

[29-10-2005, 12 th ]

A and B each throw simultaneously a pair of dice. Find the probability that they obtain the same score.

[ P [ (2&2) or (3&3) or (4&4) ...]

[ Ans:

73

648

]

A is one of the 6 horses entered for a race, and is to be ridden by one of two jockeys B or C. It is 2 to

1 that B rides A, in which case all the horses are equally likely to win; if C rides A, his chance is trebled,

what are the odds against his winning?

Bansal Classes

[Ans. 13 to 5]

[14]

Direction for Q.23 to Q.25

Let S and T are two events defined on a sample space with probabilities

Q.23

Q.24

Q.25

[Sol.

P(S) = 0.5, P(T) = 0.69, P(S/T) = 0.5

Events S and T are:

(A)

mutually exclusive

(C)

mutually exclusive and independent

The value of P(S and T)

(A*) 0.3450

(B) 0.2500

The value of P(S or T)

(A)

0.6900

(B) 1.19

(B*) independent

(D) neither mutually exclusive nor independent

(C) 0.6900

(C*)

0.8450

(D) 0.350

(D) 0

P(S/T) =

P(ST)

P(T)

0.5 =

P(S

T)

0.69

P(S T) = 0.5 0.69 = P(S)P(T)

S and T are independent Ans.

P (S and T) = P (S) P(T) = 0.69 0.5 = 0.345

Ans.

P (S or T) = P (S) + P (T) ñ P (S T) = 0.5 + 0.69 ñ 0.345 = 0.8450

Ans. ]

[29-10-2005, 12 th ]

Bansal Classes

[15]

## MA TH EM AT IC S

BANSAL CLASSES
Target IIT JEE 2007
Daily Practice Problems
CLASS : XII (ABCD)
DPP ON PROBABILITY
DPP. NO.- 5

Af te r 5 th Le ct ur e

Q.1 113 The first 12 letters of the english alphabets are written down at random. The probability that there are

4 letters between A & B is :

[Hint:

(A)

7/33

n(S) = 12 !

;

n(A) =

(B) 12/33

10 C 4 4! 2!

7!

p = 7 / 66

]

(C) 14/33

(D*) 7/66

Q.2 223 Events A and C are independent. If the probabilities relating A, B and C are P (A) = 1/5;

[Hint:

Q.3

P (B) = 1/6 ; P (A C) = 1/20 ; P (B C) = 3/8 then

(A*) events B and C are independent

(B)

events B and C are mutually exclusive

(C)

events B and C are neither independent nor mutually exclusive

(D)

events B and C are equiprobable

P (A C) = P (A) P (C)

1

20

1 1

=

P (C)

• 5

P(C) =

4

now P (B C) =

1

6

+

1

4

ñ P (B C),

hence P(BC) =

• 3 1

1

ñ

=

• 8 3

24

= P(B) P(C)

(A) ]

Assume that the birth of a boy or girl to a couple to be equally likely, mutually exclusive, exhaustive and

independent of the other children in the family. For a couple having 6 children, the probability that their

[Hint:

Q.4

"three oldest are boys" is

(A)

20

64

E : B 1 B 2 B 3

• 1 2

(B) 64

• (C) 64

where means B or G

P(E) =

1

1

1

1 8

=

=

2

2

2

8

• 64 Ans. ]

8

(D*) 64

[27-11-2005, 12 th ]

A and B play a game. A is to throw a die first, and is to win if he throws 6, If he fails B is to throw, and

to win if he throws 6 or 5. If he fails, A is to throw again and to win with 6 or 5 or 4, and so on, find the

chance of each player.

• 169 155

[Ans. A : 324

; B :

324

]

Q.5 69

Box A contains 3 red and 2 blue marbles while box B contains 2 red and 8 blue marbles. A fair coin is

tossed. If the coin turns up heads, a marble is drawn from A, if it turns up tails, a marble is drawn from

bag B. The probability that a red marble is chosen, is

[Hint:

(A)

1

5

;

• 2 3

1

(B*) 5
• (C) (D) 2

5

R = event that a red marble is drawn

P (R) = P (R H) + P (R T)

= P (H) P (R / H) + P (T) P (R / T)

=

1

3

2

8

1

2

2

5

10 ]

=

=

10

2

5

Bansal Classes

[17]

Q.6 74

A examination consists of 8 questions in each of which one of the 5 alternatives is the correct one. On the

assumption that a candidate who has done no preparatory work chooses for each question any one of

the five alternatives with equal probability, the probability that he gets more than one correct answer is

[Hint:

equal to :

(A)

(0.8) 8

(B) 3 (0.8) 8

(C)

1 (0.8) 8

p =

1

5

= 0.2 ; q = 0.8

;

P (E) = 1 ñ P (0 or 1)

]

(D*)

1 3 (0.8) 8

Q.7

181

The germination of seeds is estimated by a probability of 0.6. The probability that out of 11 sown seeds

exactly 5 or 6 will spring is :

(A*)

11

C. 6

5

5

5

10

(B)

11 C

## 6  5

32

5

5

11

(C)

11 C 5

 5 
  6  

11

(D) none of these

Q.8

152

The probability of obtaining more tails than heads in 6 tosses of a fair coins is :

(A)

2/64

(B*) 22/64

(C) 21/64

(D) none

[Hint :P (4 or 5 or 6) =

6

C

4

6

C

5

• 6 C 6

64

• 22 ]
64

Q.9 192 An instrument consists of two units. Each unit must function for the instrument to operate. The reliability

of the first unit is 0.9 & that of the second unit is 0.8. The instrument is tested & fails. The probability that

"only the first unit failed & the second unit is sound" is :

[ Hint:

(A)

1/7

(B*) 2/7

<