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PPD

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS


PUSAT PENGAJIAN DIPLOMA
CENTRE OF DIPLOMA STUDIES

CADANGAN SEMESTRAL PROJEK


PROJECT SEMESTRAL PROPOSAL

SESI/SEMESTER: 2017/18
SESSION / SEMESTER: ………………………

PROJECT PROPOSAL

Project Title:

Intelligent Tissue Box.

Student’s Name:

XXXXXXX

Student’s Matrix Diploma Kejuruteraan Sistem


Num.
: XXXXX Programme:
Elektrik.

Supervisor’s Name: Encik Jimirafizi Bin Jamil.

Co - Supervisor’s Name (if any) :

……………………………………………... ……………………………………………...
(Student’s Signature) (Supervisor’s Signature)

Official
Name : …………………………….... :
Stamp

Date : ……………………………....
Date : ……………………………....

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 1
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INTRODUCTION
Summary of the proposed project.

The intelligent tissue box is an automatic that drives tissue paper from the roll to the bottom of the
box. It has two cover which is one at the front and one at the back of the tissue box. A front cover
hinged to enable it to open or closed for loading a tissue paper roll and for the back cover enables it
to be mounting at a wall.

It is comprising a control circuit including a normally closed start switch and a normally open ready
switch connected in a series between the motor and an associated power source. The normally open
stop switch is in parallel with the ready switch. The programing is coupled to the sensor, tissue
detection, the motor and the control circuit to responsive to the movement of the tissue paper to its
severing position for opening the start switch and closing the ready switch. The program apparatus is
responsive to operation of the motor for sequentially closing the stop switch then reopening the ready
switch and then reopening the stop switch to de-energize the motor.

The improvement method of tissue box without contact between the user and the box, use proximity
detection component to detect the presence of a user in a detection zone to generate the motor.
Proximity detector include a sensor and a signal detection circuit operatively connected to the
sensor. The sensor include the conductor and capacitance change by the presence of the user within
in the detection zone. The signal detection change in capacitance and provided with oscillator having
a frequency change. The control circuit receives the detected frequency and generate signal to
actuate the tissue box to release the tissue paper.

The mechanism for release a predetermined length of tissue paper from the box, providing a delay
between cycles of tissue release and it controlling predetermined length. The power source used for
powering the tissue box is alternating current (AC). Electricity provided to supply electrical power to
the motor and also supplies to the proximity detector, thus control circuit of the tissue box.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 2
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PROBLEM STATEMENTS AND PROJECT OBJECTIVES


Please state the problem to be studied and objectives of the proposed project in concise terms. Use
additional sheets if necessary.

The uses of tissue box was more prevalent especially in public restroom facilities.Therefore
many modifications and variations of the tissue box invention are possible happened in
facing the problem that occur when using it.

In the public facility, these tissue rolls are typically unsecured, resulting the leftover tissue
paper which had been used hanging freely. Therefore, the objective of this projects are to
improve the usual tissue box become the intelligent tissue box for automatically release a
length of tissue paper in response to the movement of an object such as a user's hands. It also
can avoid the contact of tissue paper with viruses or bacteria on the leftover tissue paper by
prior users' hands. Besides that, by using the programming the length of the tissue paper can
becontrolled to prevent waste. There are two types of tissue paper user in the restroom, one
is the big-choosers and little-choosers. The big-chooser always takes the biggest length of
tissue paper soit will increases the cost of the usesof the tissue roll and the cutting of the
tissue paper are manually cut by the action of a user.

The next problem with the conventional tissue box were able to hold only a single roll of
tissue roll. Thus, to prevent the tissue roll being empty in a public facility. The intelligent
tissue box modifications provide a signal that can warn the user that the amount of tissue
paper had reduce and will be finished by using LED light.

In addition, the problem by using the hands-free electronic tissue box is that it require a
source of electricity such as AC current from a plug-in wall outlet to energize the motor and
the hands-free mechanism. This can be dangerous to a user, especially when the dispenser is
near a sink or other source of water. Therefore, to prevent this incident happened this
intelligent tissue box provide the programming that operate non-uniformly over the
operational life of its power source. Means that when there is motion the motor will operate
but when there is no motion the motor will be turn off, it also can reduce the uses of
electricity.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 3
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PROJECT SCOPES
Please state the scopes of the proposed project in concise terms. Use additional sheets if necessary.

In this project the component that will be used are the proximity sensor, the motor,
transistor, resistor, diode and capacitor.

- Proximity sensor.

Figure 1

Proximity sensor is a device which detects motion without any physical contact at nominal
range. It also convert information on the movement or presence of a motion into an electrical
signal.

There are several types of proximity sensor which are used according to user, material
detection and many other things.

Inductive Proximity Sensors

Figure 2

Sensor that generates output signal or electrical signal when metal objects such as iron,
aluminium, brass and copper are at its sensing area from any direction.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 4
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Capacitive Proximity Sensors

Figure 3

This sensor also detect metals but it can also detect motion, liquids and powders. Its sensing
distance also vary according to factors such as the temperature, surrounding objects, and the
mounting distance between object and the sensors. Its maximum range of sensing is 25 mm.

Magnetic Proximity Sensors

Figure 4

Magnetic proximity sensors have no electrical noise effect and it can work on DC, AC,
AC/DC. The sensing distance also can vary due to factors such as the temperature, the
sensing object, surrounding objects, and the mounting distance between Sensors. The highest
sensing range was up to 120 mm.These sensors has been used in various devices like mobile
phones, tablets, security appliances, and many more. These days it is mostly used on mobile
phones in order to make it more functional, responsive and useful.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 5
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- Transistor.

Figure 5

The transistor is a device that comes in many different shapes and sizes with different
voltage, current and amplification values and capabilities depend by the circuit.The common
different of transistor are called NPN and PNP transistor.Itstechnical name is bipolar
junction transistor (BJT) to distinguish it from the other types of transistor such as Field
Effect Transistor, Uni-Junction Transistor, and other types.

Figure 6 : transistor symbol.

The symbol for a PNP and NPN transistor are shown in the figure 6. PNP and NPN
transistors are look exactly the same but it must be identify by the number on the side of the
device.The leads on a transistor can beemitter-base-collector orcollector-base-emitter.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 6
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- Capacitor

Figure 7

Capacitor can be a component that can charged and discharged electricity. The rechargeable
electricity takes time to charge. Some capacitors are "jumping up and down" in a circuit
while being charged and discharged while others are just "sitting" and being charged and
discharged. It all depends where it was located in a circuit. Some capacitors pass signal from
one level to another level (jumping up and down). A capacitor takes time to charge and
discharge, at this time it detected by a circuit to produce an oscillator. It also can perform
more than 10 different functions and produce many different effects depends on the uses in a
circuit either it is "standing still" or "jumping up and down". The first steps to do is to know
how it is operating in the circuit.

- Diode

Figure 8

Diode is a simple component and it has a lot of applications.A diode is a component that
allow current passes in one direction. It can be defined like a water valve that prevents water
from back flowing into the mains.There are many types of diodes to handle small currents,
large currents, high frequencies and high voltages, there are also had diodes that made from
different materials, but all be described in a same way. Diode has two leads there are called
anode for the positive side and cathode for the negative side as shown in figure 8.A diode
can be used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 7
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- Resistor

Figure 9 Figure 10: Fixed resistor symbol


ANSI standard

The resistor is a passive electrical component to limit current flow in the circuit. Almost all
electrical networks and electronic circuits used resistor. The resistive of the resistance are
measured in ohms. An ohm is the resistance that occurs when a current of one ampere passes
through a resistor with one volt drop across its terminals. The current is proportional to the
voltage across the terminal ends. This ratio is represented by Ohm’s law:

𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅
Resistors are used for many purposes such as delimit electric current, voltage division, heat
generation, matching and loading circuits, control gain, and fix time constants. It was
commercially available with resistance values over a range of more than nine orders of
magnitude. It can be used to as electric brakes to dissipate kinetic energy from trains, or be
smaller than a square millimeter for electronics.

- Motor

Figure 11

Motors are primary component mechanisms which cause movement, some motors can be
attached to wheels that move an object around and others might cause joints in an object
limb to move, also might move the control surfaces of an object such as airplane or
submarine. A robot might have many different kinds of effect to perform specific tasks, but
many of these are being moved around by motors. Motors convert the electrical energy that
powers the robot into mechanical energy that allows the object to do work. Direct current
(DC) motors are called because they are powered by a current placed across the electrodes of
the motor. The speed rating of a DC motor is the top speed it can run at. The actual speed the
motor runs at is a function of how strong the current is that is applied to the motor. DC
motors can be run both forwards and backwards depending on the direction of the applied
current. DC motors come with very high speed ratings, and very low torque. Gears and
transmissions allow to convert the speed of a DC motor into torque that can be used for other
tasks, such as moving heavy robots or lifting objects.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 8
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PROJECT METHODOLOGY
Describe the procedures and methods to be used to achieve the objectives of the proposed project.
Use additional sheets if necessary.

1. Sensor

Sufficiet No Circuit not powered


Ambient Light motor will not operate
In Room?

Yes

Motion sensorNo
Detects change
In light?

Yes

Front cover No
closed?

Yes

Light more No
than 2 second
motor ran?

Yes

Turn on the motor Do not turn on


the motor.

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 9
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2. Motor

Motor Running

Yes

Yes
Detect magnet Turn off
by switch? Motor

(Proper amount of tissue paper)


No

Motor run more Yes Turn off


than 1 second? Motor

(Tissue jam)

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 10
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3. Tissue detection

Start

Reset

Set initial value in counter

Substract “1” for each output

Yes Warn residual


Under flow tissue paper amount
small

No

Transfer tissue paper


No one meter?

Yes

Residual tissue paper is large

End

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 11
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GANTT CHART

List major activities involved in the proposed project. Indicate duration of each activity to the related month(s).
YEAR 2017
Project’s Activities
MONTH W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14
Proposal preparation and submission of title registeration

Submission of project proposal and proposal defend


presentation
Search and buy the project equipment

Start doing the project

Progress report submission

Progress report submission

Draft report submission

Final project and final report preparation

Logbook submission

Final report submission

Final presentation

SEMESTRAL PROJECT 12
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SEMESTRAL PROJECT 13