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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Related Studies

A. Related Literature


According to Melvin R. Fontanilla’s “Fraternities in the Philippines” (2011) A

fraternity is defined as a group of people united in a relationship, having some common

interests, activity, and purpose. It is a brotherhood, as the members usually say, of people

at a college or university usually characterized by Greek letters. For members, fraternity

means brotherhood, unity, friendship, trust and acceptance. It means meeting new

people, sharing interests and accepting others' as well. It helps in building confidence

and character because they believe that a fraternity gives a certain kind of protection. It

gives the feeling of security and importance. It is somewhat comparable to gangs as they

are both organization of people. However, gangs usually lack purpose and acceptance to

communities. Usually linked with violence, members tend to compete with each other.

Unlike in fraternity, members have this humility to help each other out and protect each

other from an outsider.


According to Rafael Jude Tomeldan (2013), In joining a fraternity, one must

undergo the initiation rites better known as hazing. Some dismiss hazing as a parochial

issue, to be dealt with only by the universities and academies involved. But in his article

“Hazing should concern us all”, Juan Alvin Tiamson submits that it should concern us all.

He wrote that by now, hazing particularly the violent kind has invaded most of our

institutions. It is now prevalent in schools even in police and military academies. Hazing,

as we all know, systematically develops a culture of violence among the youth. Most

importantly, the bonds developed by hazing become seeds of corruption. Hazing is

hazing whether it results in death, mutilation or years of pain or whether it is done inside

or outside the school or institution.

In the article “Fraternal Fury” written by Argee Guevara, he stated that there is something

intriguing and frightening about the culture of college fraternities. The more we try to

understand it, the more we end up abhorring it. As a result of two rival fraternities

rumble, one was reported by TV Patrol to have been severely injured after getting a pretty

nasty whack on the head when rival frat men pounce on him with lead pipes, clubs and

baseball bats. The cause of rumble is un-important since rumbles erupt for a variety of

reason, none of which is intimately related to the pursuit of academic excellence, the

repudiation of our foreign debt or the liberation of our impoverished people. This is what

makes their way of life difficult to comprehend. It is said that these frat wars are part and

parcel of their reality. But the sense of belonging and security is non-existent when they

are perennially gripped by paranoia every time a rumble occurs.


According to William Hageman (2013), Here are some pros and cons in joining a

college fraternity or sorority.


Networking: One of the traditional selling points for Greek life is the connections

one can make, not just with current chapter members, but with the network of former

fraternity or sorority members in the business world. A fraternity is not a four-year

college experience, like a school club; it's a lifetime involvement.

"I have seen the benefits of that for some students who look to their fraternity or

sorority upon graduation when they're looking for a job," said Katherine Cohen, the CEO

and founder of IvyWise, an educational consulting company that helps students gain

admission to everything from pre-kindergarten to graduate school.

Of course, in 2013 there are myriad other ways to build your network. Cohen also

pointed out that a university offers many other opportunities to meet people in small

group settings, "whether it's joining the newspaper or a dance company or an a cappella

group. If (a student has) other interests, I encourage you to look at all the opportunities to

find students on campus with common interests."

Housing: Fraternity housing is generally less expensive than living in a residence

hall. "If you check out most websites of Greek affairs offices on college campuses,

they're very straightforward on pricing and financial expectations," Bosco said. And the

fraternity or sorority house experience also exposes a student to more real-life situations

— the house must be maintained, bills paid, a cook hired, etc.

Cohen said the cost depends on the fraternity or sorority and the year the student

is in. She said sharing an off-campus apartment may be cheaper than living in a dorm.

And living in a fraternity can be more cost effective — but you have to do the homework.

"Speak to someone in the frat. What are the real costs? Have them lay them out. Find out

if they'll be saving or not."

Charitable work: Through various fundraisers, fraternities and sororities raise

money for national and local charities, as well as individual causes. (Earlier this year,

members of Phi Alpha Tau at Emerson College in Boston raised more than $20,000 to

help pay for a transgendered chapter member's female-to-male surgery.) According to the

North-American Interfraternity Conference, a trade association for 75 international and

national men's fraternities, the groups raised $21.1 million for charity in the 2011-2012

school year (nicindy.org/press).

Better numbers: Bosco said that students belonging to fraternities and sororities

generally have higher grade-point averages than the rest of the student body (though

other factors may be a factor). They also have higher freshman and sophomore retention

rates and more service hours, Bosco noted.


Financial, time commitments: Both can be substantial. Cohen pointed out the

Greek life involves many social engagements that need to be balanced with the class

workload. Then there's the financial commitment. "There are dues, functions, events," she
said. "We've seen a lot of hidden costs families might not have thought of before the rush


Just as if you were buying a car, get all the costs spelled out for you. Peter

Smithhisler, CEO of the North-American Interfraternity Conference, said not to be

satisfied with a group's ballpark number. Get a specific dollar amount. "Costs for chapter

dues, costs for insurance, if there's a housing component. ... The fraternity and sorority

should be upfront. Don't be afraid to ask, 'What should I get for this money?' And if they

can't or won't answer, look elsewhere."

B. Related Studies

Auster, C. J., & Leone, J. M. (2001), concluded that previous studies on college age

men and women have shown gender differences in attitudes and beliefs about sexual assault and

rape. Furthermore, college men associated with fraternities have exhibited high rape myth

acceptance rates and increased negative attitudes toward women. The current study aims to

identify the relationship between gender as well as sorority and fraternity affiliation on attitudes

toward marital rape. A total of 209 college students who attended a small liberal arts college in

the Northeast were asked to respond to questions intended to reveal the participants’ ideas about:
(a) the relationship between stranger and marital rape, (b) the options available to victims of

marital rape, and (c) laws addressing marital rape. Results showed that non-fraternity men were

more likely than fraternity men to agree that stranger rape and marital rape were equally criminal

acts. Regardless of sorority membership status, women were more likely than men to believe that

a victim of marital rape should take legal action against her husband. Women were also more

likely than men to agree that marital rape should be considered a felony. The findings of this

study suggest that fraternity men have elevated levels of rape myth acceptance and poor attitudes

toward women that may increase their risk of inappropriate sexual behavior, including sexual

assault perpetration.

New Mexico State University (2012), concluded that As a member of the

fraternity/sorority community, you will have the opportunity to meet students of various

backgrounds with both similar and different interests. Within each chapter, there is a close bond

of friendship and brotherhood/sisterhood which only the fraternity/sorority atmosphere can

foster. The ideal of brotherhood/sisterhood is the principal foundation upon which each

fraternity/sorority is built and from which you will receive the greatest benefit. Every member

contributes to this aspect.

As a fraternity/sorority member you will form friendships unlike any found in other

organizations. Brotherhood/sisterhood is not conformity. No fraternity/sorority is made up of

members who are exactly alike. By choosing to become a member of a fraternity/sorority, you

will meet brothers/sisters who grow to become your closest friends, those who will cheer you on

when you’re successful and who will support you when the going gets tough. From this

unbreakable support system you can easily branch off into other areas of college life, knowing all

the while that your brothers/sisters will be behind you no matter what.
Ball State University (2012), concluded that the result of fraternity and sorority membership: a

bond that transcends your time at Ball State and will always be with you wherever your career

after college may take you. It is a friendship that lasts a lifetime. A fundamental principle of

every fraternity and sorority chapter is friendship: a brotherhood or sisterhood that one shares

through the good times and provides support during the difficult challenges that come with being

a college student. The fraternity or sorority chapter provides opportunities for members to

periodically assemble and renew those bonds of friendship: Homecoming, alumni weekends,

newsletters, a chapter Web page and athletic events. Many international/national organizations

have alumni chapters in major urban areas, where alumni from various chapters can continue to

create new bonds of friendship.