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TISSUES AND HISTOLOGY NEURAL CREST CELLS – groups of cells that break away from the

neuroectoderm during development give rise to parts of the peripheral


TISSUES
nerves, skin pigment, and many tissues of the face
 collections of similar cells and the substances surrounding them
2. ENDODERM
 surrounded by specialized cells and the extracellular matrix
 the inner layer, forms the lining of the digestive tract and its
TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION derivatives

 where different tissue types are found 3. MESODERM


 cells of the ectoderm then migrate between the two layers to form
CLASSIFICATION OF TISSUE IS BASED ON:
this third layer; the middle layer, forms tissues such as muscle, bone,
1. Structure of the cells and blood vessels
2. The composition of the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX - noncellular
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
substances surrounding cells
3. Functions of the cells EPITHELIUM - a protective covering of surfaces, both outside and inside
the body
FOUR PRIMARY TISSUE TYPES:
1. Consists almost entirely of cells, with very little extracellular material
1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE
between them.
2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
2. Covers surfaces of the body and forms glands that are derived
 Most diverse in form
developmentally from body surfaces. The body surfaces include the
 Classified by
outside surface of the body, the lining of the digestive tract, the
1. Structure
vessels, and the linings of many body cavities.
2. Cell shape
3. Relationship of cells to one another  APICAL SURFACE – not attached to other cells
4. The material making up the extracellular matrix  LATERAL SURFACE – attached to other epithelial cells
3. MUSCLE TISSUE  BASAL SURFACE – basal surface of most epithelial tissues is attached
4. NERVOUS TISSUE to a basement membrane
 Classified mainly by function  BASEMENT MEMBRANE – a specialized type of extracellular
material that is secreted by the epithelial cells and by connective
HISTOLOGY – microscopic study of tissues
tissue cells.
BIOPSY – the process of removing tissue samples from patients surgically 3. Specialized cells bind epithelial cells together
or with a needle for diagnostic purposes. o Tight junctions
o Desmosomes
AUTOPSY – an examination of the organs of a dead body to determine
4. Blood vessels do not penetrate the basement membrane to reach
the cause of death or to study the changes caused by a disease.
the epithelium
5. Epithelial cells retain the ability to undergo mitosis and therefore are
EMBRYONIC TISSUE
able to replace damaged cells with new epithelial cells.

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS (STEM CELLS) continuously divide and
produce new cells.
 cells that give rise to a new individual
 form a slightly elongated disk consisting of two layers FUNCTIONS

1. Protecting underlying structure


1. ECTODERM 2. Acting as barriers
 the outer layer, forms the skin, and a portion of the ectoderm 3. Permitting the passage of substances
4. Secreting substances
NEUROECTODERM – becomes the nervous system 5. Absorbing substances
CLASSIFICATION FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

Epithelium is classified according to THE NUMBER OF CELL LAYERS and CELL LAYERS
SHAPE OF THE SUPERFICIAL CELLS
1. SIMPLE EPITHELIUM
1. SIMPLE EPITHELIUM
 covers surfaces in organs and functions to control diffusion of
 consists of a single layer of cells, with each cell extending from gases, filter organs, secrete cellular products, or absorb
the basement membrane to the free surface. nutrient

2. STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM 2. STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM

 consists of more than one layer of cells, only one of which is  Found in area where protection is a major function.
attached to the basement membrane.
o STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIA
3. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 Found in areas of the body where the abrasion can occur, such
 special type of simple epithelium. The prefix pseudo- means as the skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, anus and vagina
false, so this type of epithelium appears to be stratified but is
CELL SHAPES
not. It consists of one layer of cells, with all the cells attached
to the basement membrane. 1. SQUAMOUS
 found lining some of the respiratory passages, such as the
 Allows substances to diffuse through them
nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi
 secretes mucus, which covers its surface, and cilia located on o SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

the free surface move the mucus


 Forms blood and lymphatic capillaries, the alveoli of the

SHAPE OF EPITHELIAL CELLS lungs, and parts of the kidney tubules

1. SQUAMOUS – cells are flat or scalelike. 2. CUBOIDAL/COLUMNAR

2. CUBOIDAL – cells are cube-shaped; about as wide as they are tall.


 Secrete or absorb
3. COLUMNAR – (tall and thin, similar to a column) cells are taller than
 Have greater cytoplasmic volume compared to that of squamous
they are wide.
epithelial cells

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM


o This cytoplasmic volume results from the presence of organelles

1. MOIST STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS responsible for the tissues’ functions.

– found in areas such as the mouth, esophagus, rectum, and vagina, o PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

consists of living cells in the deepest and outermost layers. A layer of


 Secretes large amounts of mucus, lines the respiratory tract
fluid covers the outermost layers of cells, which makes them moist.
and contains large goblet cells

2. KERATINIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM


GOBLET CELLS – specialized columnar epithelial cells

– found in the skin, consists of living cells in the deepest layers, and
 Contain abundant organelles responsible for the synthesis
the outer layers are composed of dead cells containing the protein
and secretion of mucus, such as ribosomes, endoplastic
keratin.
reticulum, Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles filled with

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM mucus

 lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and pelvis of the kidney including CELL SURFACES

the major and minor calyces


1. SMOOTH
 these are structures where considerable expansion can occur.
 Reduces friction
o SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM with smooth surface – forms the B. GLYCOPROTEINS
covering of serous membranes  Secreted by epithelial cells which attach the cells to the basement
membrane and to one another
Example: lining of blood vessels reduce friction as blood flows through
the vessels C. DESMOSOMES

2. CONTAINS MICROVILLI  Reinforces the weak binding between cells


 Disk-shaped structures with especially adhesive glycoproteins that
MICROVILLI
bind cells to one another and intermediate filaments that extend

 nonmotile and contain microfilaments into the cytoplasm of the cells

 Greatly increase surface area and are found in cells that absorb or  Found in epithelia subjected to stress such as the stratified

secrete, such as the lining of the small intestine squamous epithelium of the skin

D. HEMIDESMOSOMES
o STEREOCILIA – elongated microvilli and are found where
 Similar to one-half of a desmosome, attach epithelial cells to the
absorption is an important function, and are found in places such
basement membrane
as in the epithelium of the epididymis

E. GLANDS
3. CILIATED
 Secretory organs that are composed primarily of epithelium, with a
CILIA supporting network of connective tissue
 Develop from an infolding or outfolding of epithelium in the embryo
 Motile and contain microtubules
 Move material across the surface of the cell DUCT - present when the gland maintains open contact with the

o Found in the respiratory tract where cilia move mucus that contains epithelium from which it is developed

foreign particles like dust out of the respiratory passage 1. EXOCRINE GLANDS

1. Simple ciliated cuboidal


 Glands with ducts that are lined with epithelium
2. Simple ciliated columnar
 Most exocrine glands are composed of many cells and are called
3. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelia
MULTICELLULAR GLANDS, but some exocrine glands are composed

4. FOLDED of a single cell and are called UNICELLULAR GLANDS

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM GOBLET CELLS of the respiratory system are unicellular glands that
secrete mucus.
 More rigid sections of membrane are separated by very flexible
regions in which the plasma membrane is folded. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTICELLULAR GLANDS

 When stretched, plasma membrane unfolds


I. STRUCTURE OF DUCTS:
 Found in the urinary bladder, ureters, kidney pelvis, and calyces of
the kidney 1. SIMPLE - Glands that have ducts with few branches

CELL CONNECTIONS 2. COMPOUND - glands with ducts that branch repeatedly

A. LATERAL + BASILAR SURFACES II. END OF DUCTS:

 Serve to hold cells to one another or to the basement membrane 1. TUBULES – duct ends in small tubes
 Structures can do three things:
 Straight
1. Mechanically bind cells together
 Coiled
2. Help form a permeability barrier
3. Provide a mechanism for intercellular communication 2. ACINI – duct ends in saclike structures

 Simple
 Compound
3. ALVEOLI – duct ends in a hollow sac SUFFIXES:

III. HOW PRODUCT LEAVES THE CELL 1. BLASTS – create the matrix

1. MEROCRINE GLANDS 1. FIBROBLASTS – cells that form fibrous connective tissue


2. CHONDROBLASTS – form cartilage
 secrete products with no loss of actual cellular material
3. OSTEOBLASTS – form bone
Example: water-producing sweat glands and the exocrine portion of the
2. CYTES – maintain the matrix
pancreas
1. FIBROCYTES
2. APOCRINE GLANDS
2. CHONDROCYTES
 Discharge fragments of the gland cells in the secretion 3. OSTEOCYTES
 Products are retained within the cell, and large portions of the cell
3. CLASTS – breaks down the matrix for remodeling
are pinched off to become part of the secretion
 Milk-producing mammary glands  OSTEOCLAST

3. HOLOCRINE GLANDS 1. ADIPOSE/ FAT CELLS/ ADIPOCYTES


 Contain large amounts of lipid
 Products accumulate in the cytoplasm of each epithelial cell, the cell
 Abundant in loose connective tissues and predominant in adipose
ruptures and dies, and the entire cell becomes part of the secretion.
tissues
 Sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin, shed entire cells
2. MAST CELLS
4. ENDOCRINE GLANDS
 Commonly found beneath membranes in loose connective

 Glands that have no ducts tissue and along small blood vessels of organs.

 Have extensive blood vessels in the connective tissue of the glands  Contain chemicals such as heparin, histamine, and proteolytic
enzymes

 HORMONES – cellular products of endocrine glands that are o Released in response to injury such as trauma and infection and play

secreted into the bloodstream and are carried throughout the body important roles in inflammation

 ADRENAL GLAND – from a non-epithelial tissue


3. WHITE BLOOD CELLS

III. CONNECTIVE TISSUES  Continuously move from blood vessels into connective tissues.
o The rate of movement increases dramatically in response to injury
 Consists of cells separated from each other by abundant
or infection
extracellular matrix
LYMPHOCYTES – common in connective tissues; parts of the digestive
FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
system

1. Enclosing and separating


4. MACROPHAGES

2. Connecting tissues to one another  Found in some connective tissue types


 Phagocytize foreign or injured cells, and they play a major role
3. Supporting and moving
in providing protection against infections.
4. Storing  Derived from MONOCYTES
 Classified as:
5. Cushioning and insulating
1. FIXED – do not move through the connective tissue in which
6. Transporting
they are found
7. Protecting
2. WANDERING MACROPHAGES – move by ameboid movement
CELLS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE through the connective tissue

SPECIALIZED CELLS – produce the extracellular matrix


5. UNDIFFERENTIATED MESENCHYMAL CELLS  This protein is elastic with the ability to return to its original shape
 Sometimes called stem cells after being distended or compressed
 Embryonic cells that persist in adult connective tissue
II. OTHER MATRIX MOLECULES
 They have the potential to differentiate to form adult cell types
such as fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells in response to injury GROUND SUBSTANCE

 The “shapeless” background against which the collagen fibers are


EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
seen through the microscope

MAJOR COMPONENTS:
TWO TYPES OF LARGE, NONFIBROUS MOLECULES THAT CONSTITUTE

1. PROTEIN FIBERS MOST OF THE GROUND SUBSTANCE OF THE MATRIX:

2. GROUND SUBSTANCE 1. HYALURONIC ACID

3. FLUID  A long, unbranched polysaccharide chain composed of repeating


disaccharide units.
I. PROTEIN FIBERS OF THE MATRIX
 Gives a very slippery quality to the fluids that contain it; for that

TYPES: reason, it is a good lubricant for joint cavities


 Found in large quantities in connective tissue and is the major
1. COLLAGEN FIBERS
component of the vitreous humor of the eye

 Most common protein in the body


2. PROTEOGLYCAN
 Each collagen molecule resembles a microscopic rope consisting of
three polypeptide chains coiled together.  Formed from proteins and polysaccharides

 Collagen is very strong and flexible but quite inelastic.  Can trap large quantities of water, which gives them the capacity to

 Collagen fibers differ in the types of amino acids that make up the return to their original shape when compressed or deformed

polypeptide chains  A large molecule that consists of GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS each

 Common types attached at one end to a common protein core

1. BONE DENTIN AND CEMENTUM – type I collagen


o GLYCOSAMINGLYCANS – polysaccharides
2. CARTILAGE – type II collagen
3. RETICULAR FIBERS – type III collagen  PROTEOGLYCAN MONOMERS – resemble minute pine tree
branches
2. RETICULAR FIBERS
o The protein core is the branch of the tree, and the
 Very fine collagen fibers and therefore are not a chemically distinct proteoglycans are the needles. The protein cores of
category of fibers. proteoglycan monomers can attach to a molecule of hyaluronic
 They are very short, thin fibers that branch to form a network and acid to form a PROTEOGLYCAN AGGREGATE
appear different microscopically from other collagen fibers.
PROTEOGLYCAN AGGREGATE - resembles a complete pine tree, with
 Reticular fibers are not as strong as most collagen fibers, but
hyaluronic acid represented by the tree trunk and the proteoglycan
networks of reticular fibers fill space between tissues and organs.
monomers forming the limbs
3. ELASTIC FIBERS
ADHESIVE MOLECULES
 Contain a protein called elastin
 Hold the proteoglycan aggregates together and to structures such as
ELASTIN - gives the tissue in which it is found an elastic quality the plasma membranes. A specific adhesive molecule type
predominates in certain types of ground substance
 tiny coiled springs, and individual molecules are crosslinked to
produce a large, interwoven meshwork of spring-like molecules that 1. CHONDRONECTIN – ground substance of cartilage
extend through the entire tissue 2. OSTEONECTIN – ground substance of bone
3. FIBRONECTIN – ground substance of fibrous connective TWO MAJOR GROUPS:
tissues
1. DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 Has protein fibers in the extracellular matrix that are oriented
1. PROTEIN FIBERS AND THE ARRANGEMENT OF PROTEIN FIBERS predominantly in one direction
IN THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
a. DENSE REGULAR COLLAGENOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUES
2. PROTEIN FIBERS AND GROUND SUBSTANCE IN THE
 Has abundant collagen fibers. The collagen fibers give this tissue a
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
white appearance.
3. FLUID EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
 Dense regular collagenous connective tissue forms structures such
MAJOR CATEGORIES: as tendons, which connect muscles to bones, and most ligaments,
which connect bones to bones
I. EMBRYONIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 Collagen fibers resist stretching and give the tissue considerable
 Called as MESENCHYME strength in the direction of the fiber orientation
 Made up of irregularly shaped fibroblasts surrounded by abundant  Difference of ligaments and tendons:
semifluid extracellular matrix in which delicate collagenous fibers o Collagen fibers of ligaments are often less compact
are distributed o Some fibers of many ligaments are not parallel
 Forms in the embryo during the third and fourth weeks of o Ligaments usually are more flattened than tendons and form
development from mesoderm and neural crest cells, and all adult sheets or bands if tissues
connective tissue types develop from it b. DENSE REGULAR ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUES
 By 8 weeks of development most of the mesenchyme has become  Consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibers and abundant
specialized to form types of connective tissue seen in adults as well elastic fibers
as muscle, blood vessels, and other tissues.  The elastin in elastic ligaments gives them a slightly yellow
 Major source: color
o Umbilical cord – MUCUOS CONNECTIVE TISSUE/  Forms some elastic ligaments, such as those in the vocal folds
WHARTON’S JELLY and the NUCHAL (back of the neck) ligament, which lies along
the posterior of the neck and helps hold the head upright.
II. ADULT CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 When elastic ligaments are stretched, they tend to shorten to
1. LOOSE CONNETCIVE TISSUE/ AREOLAR TISSUE their original length, much like an elastic band.

 Consists of protein fibers that form a lacy network with 2. DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
numerous fluid-filled spaces.
 Contains protein fibers
 Areolar tissue is the “loose packing” material of most organs
 Arranged as a meshwork of randomly oriented fibers.
and other tissues, and attaches the skin to underlying tissues.
 Alternatively, the fibers within a given layer of dense irregular
 It contains collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers and a variety of
connective tissue can be oriented in one direction whereas the
cells
fibers of adjacent layers are oriented at nearly right angles to
 Often associated with other connective tissue types such as
that layer
reticular tissue and fat (adipose tissue)
 Forms sheets of connective tissue that have strength in many
2. DENSE CONNETCIVE TISSUE directions, but less strength in any single direction than does
regular connective tissue
 Protein fibers that form thick bundles and fill nearly all of the
a. DENSE IRREGULAR COLLAGENOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
extracellular space
 Forms most of the dermis of the skin, which is the tough, inner
 Most of the cells of developing dense connective tissue are
portion of the skin and of the connective tissue capsules that
spindle-shaped fibroblasts
surround organs such as the kidney and spleen
b. DENSE IRREGULAR ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE 4. CARTILAGE
 Found in the wall of elastic arteries. In addition to collagen fibers,
 Composed of CHONDROCYTES located in spaces called LACUNAE
oriented in many directions, there are abundant elastic fibers in the
within an extensive and relatively rigid matrix
layers of this tissue.
 Firmest structure in the body next to bone
3. CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH SPECIAL PROPERTIES  Matrix contains protein fibers, ground substance, and fluid. The
protein fibers are collagen fibers or, in some cases, collagen and
A. ADIPOSE TISSUE
elastic fibers. The ground substance consists of proteoglycans and
 Consists of adipocytes, or fat cells, which contain large amounts of other organic molecules
lipid.  Collagen fibers give cartilage considerable strength.
 Composed of large cells and a small amount of extracellular matrix  Surface is surrounded by PERICHONDRIUM
that consists of loosely arranged collagen and reticular fibers with
PERICHONDRIUM – where cartilage cells arise
some scattered elastic fibers
 Usually arranged in clusters or lobules separated from one another ⤷ Secrete cartilage matrix
by loose connective tissue.  No blood vessels or nerves except those of the perichondrium; it
 Functions as an insulator, a protective tissue, and a site of energy therefore heals very slowly after an injury because the cells and
storage. Lipids take up less space per calorie than either nutrients necessary for tissue repair cannot reach the damaged area
carbohydrates or proteins and therefore are well adapted for energy easily.
storage.
TYPES:
FORMS:
1. HYALINE CARTILAGE
1. YELLOW ADIPOSE
 Large amounts of both collagen fibers and proteoglycans
 Most abundant tissue  Substance, and in joints, hyaline cartilage has a very smooth surface.
 Appears white at birth, but it turns yellow with age because of the Specimens appear to have a glassy, translucent matrix when viewed
accumulation of pigments such as carotene, a plant pigment that through a microscope
humans can metabolize as a source of vitamin A  Found in areas in which strong support and some flexibility are
 Functions as storage, insulation and protection needed, such as in the rib cage and the cartilage within the trachea
and bronchi
2. BROWN ADIPOSE
 Covers the surfaces of bones that move smoothly against each other
 Found only in specific areas of the body such as the axillae (armpits), in joints.
neck, and near the kidneys  Forms most of the skeleton before it is replaced by bone in the
 Brown color results from the cytochrome pigments in its numerous embryo, and it is involved in growth that increases the length of
mitochondria and its abundant blood supply bones
 Specialized to generate heat as a result of oxidative metabolism of
2. FIBROCARTILAGE
lipid molecules in mitochondria and can play a significant role in
body temperature regulation in newborn babies.  More collagen fibers than proteoglycans
 Has much thicker bundles of collagen fibers dispersed through its
B. RETICULAR TISSUE
matrix.
 Forms the framework of lymphatic tissue, such as in the spleen and  Slightly compressible and very tough. It is found in areas of the
lymph nodes, as well as in bone marrow and the liver. body where a great deal of pressure is applied to joints, such as the
 Characterized by a network of reticular fibers and reticular cells knee, the jaw, and between vertebrae.

RETICULAR CELLS - produce the reticular fibers and remain closely 3. ELASTIC CARTILAGE
attached to them.
 Has elastic fibers in addition to collagen and proteoglycans
 Dispersed throughout the matrix of elastic cartilage. It is found in BONE MARROW – the soft connective tissue in the cavities of bones.
areas, such as the external ears, that have rigid but elastic
TYPES:
properties.
1. YELLOW MARROW - consists of yellow adipose tissue
4. BONE

 A hard connective tissue that consists of living cells and mineralized 2. RED MARROW - consists of hemopoietic tissue surrounded by a
matrix framework of reticular fibers

PORTIONS: III. MUSCLE TISSUE

1. ORGANIC  It contracts or shortens with force, and therefore is responsible for


movement
 Consists of protein fibers, primarily collagen, and other organic
molecules TYPES:

2. INORGANIC/MINERAL A. STRUCTURE

 Consists of specialized crystals called HYDROXYAPATITE 1. STRIATED

› HYDROXYAPATITE - Contains calcium and phosphate  Microscopic bands or striations can be seen in muscle cells

 Allows bones to support and protect other tissues and organs of the 2. NONSTRIATED

body  Cannot be seen

 Has a rich blood supply


B. FUNCTION

OSTEOCYTES – bone cells that are located within holes in the matrix,
1. VOLUNTARY
which are called lacunae and are similar to the lacunae of cartilage
 Meaning that it is usually consciously controlled
TYPES: 2. INVOLUNTARY
 Meaning that it is not normally consciously controlled
a. CANCELLOUS/SPONGY BONE
 Has spaces between TRABECULAE, or plates, of bone and therefore TOGETHER:

resembles a sponge
1. STRIATED VOLUNTARY – SKELETAL MUSCLE
b. COMPACT BONE
 attaches to the skeleton and, by contracting, causes the major body
 More solid with almost no space between many thin layers, or
movements
LAMELLAE of bone
2. STRIATED INVOLUNTARY – CARDIAC MUSCLE
5. HEMOPOIETIC TISSUE AND BLOOD  the muscle of the heart, and contraction of cardiac muscle is
responsible for pumping blood
BLOOD
3. NONSTRIATED INVOLUNTARY – SMOOTH MUSCLE
 Unusual among the connective tissues because the matrix between  widespread throughout the body and is responsible for a wide range
the cells is liquid of functions, such as movements in the digestive, urinary, and
 Allows it to flow rapidly through the body, carrying food, oxygen, reproductive systems.
waste products, and other materials.
IV. NERVOUS TISSUE
 Has abundant extracellular matrix
 Free to move within a fluid matrix - Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, and is characterized by the

 Matrix of blood is also unusual in that most of it is produced by cells ability to conduct electric signals called ACTION POTENTIALS

contained in other tissues rather than by blood cells.


 ACTION POTENTIALS – Consists of neurons, which are responsible

HEMPOIETIC TISSUE for this conductive ability, and support cells called NEUROGLIA

 Forms blood cells NEURONS/ NERVE CELLS

 Mostly found in BONE MARROW


- The actual conducting cells of nervous tissue
- Transport electric signals throughout the body.  Line cavities such as the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities
that do not open to the exterior
MAJOR PARTS:
 Do not contain glands but are moistened by a small amount of fluid,
1. CELL BODY – contains the nucleus and is the site of general cell called SEROUS FLUID, produced by the serous membranes.
functions
SEROUS FLUID – lubricates the serous membranes and makes their
2. DENDRITES – usually receive action potentials and conduct them
surfaces slippery
toward the cell body. They are much shorter than axons and usually
taper to a fine tip.  Protect the internal organs from friction, help hold them in place,
3. AXONS – usually conduct action potentials away from the cell body. and act as selectively permeable barriers that prevent the
They can be much longer than dendrites, and they have a constant accumulation of large amounts of fluid within the serous cavities
diameter along their entire length.
3. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES
MULTIPOLAR NEURONS - Neurons that possess several dendrites and
 Consist of modified connective tissue cells either intermixed with
one axon
part of the dense connective tissue of the joint capsule or separated
BIPOLAR NEURONS - Neurons that possess a single dendrite and an axon from the capsule by areolar or adipose tissue
 Line freely movable joints
UNIPOLAR NEURONS – only one axon and no dendrites
 Produce a fluid rich in hyaluronic acid, which makes the joint fluid
NEUROGLIA very slippery, thereby facilitating smooth movement within the joint

- Are the support cells of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves INFLAMMATION

- Originally referred only to the support cells of the central nervous  Inflammatory response occurs when tissues are damaged or in
system, but it is now also applied to cells in the peripheral nervous association with an immune response
system  Mobilizes the body’s defenses, isolates and destroys microorganisms

- Nourish, protect, and insulate neurons and other injurious agents, and removes foreign materials and
damaged cells so that tissue repair can proceed.
MEMBRANES
FIVE MAJOR MANIFESTATIONS
- A thin sheet or layer of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity
1. Redness
- Formed from epithelium and the connective tissue on which it rests
2. Heat

MAJOR CATEGORIES OF INTERNAL MEMBRANES: 3. Swelling


4. Pain
1. MUCUOS MEMBRANE
5. Disturbance of function

 Consists of epithelial cells their basement membrane, a thick layer


MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION
of loose connective tissue called the LAMINA PROPRIA and
sometimes a layer of smooth muscle cells Released or activated in the tissues and the adjacent blood vessels. The

 Line cavities and canals that open to the outside of the body, such as mediators include histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and

the digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive passages others. Some mediators induce dilation of blood vessels and produce the
symptoms of redness and heat.
 Contain GOBLET CELLS multicellular mucous glands, which secrete a
viscous substance called MUCUS Also stimulate pain receptors and increase the permeability of blood
vessels. The increased permeability allows the movement of materials
2. SEROUS MEMBRANE
such as clotting proteins and white blood cells out of the blood vessels
COMPONENTS: and into the tissue, where they can deal directly with the injury.

1. MESOTHELIUM - layer of simple squamous epithelium As proteins from the blood move into the tissue, they change the osmotic
2. BASEMENT MEMBRANE relationship between the blood and the tissue. Water follows the
3. DELICATE LAYER OF LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE proteins by osmosis, and the tissue swells, producing edema.
EDEMA - increases the pressure in the tissue, which can also stimulate WOUND CONTRACTION
neurons and cause the sensation of pain.
 Occurs as a result of the contraction of fibroblasts in the granulation
TISSUE REPAIR tissue.
 Leads to disfiguring and debilitating scars
 Substitution of viable cells for dead cells, and it can occur by
regeneration or replacement TISSUES AND AGING

REGENERATION 1. Age-related changes in tissues result from reduced rates of cell


division and changes in the extracellular fibers.
 the new cells are the same type as those that were destroyed, and
2. Collagen fibers become less flexible and have reduced strength.
normal function is usually restored
3. Elastic fibers become fragmented and less elastic.
REPLACEMENT

 a new type of tissue develops that eventually causes scar production


and the loss of some tissue function

1. LABILE CELLS divide throughout life and can undergo regeneration.


2. STABLE CELLS do not ordinarily divide after growth is complete but
can regenerate if necessary.
3. PERMANENT CELLS cannot replicate. If killed, permanent tissue is
repaired by replacement.

PRIMARY UNION/ PRIMARY INTENTION

 If the edges of the wound are close together such as in a surgical


incision
 Wound fills with blood, and a clot forms. The clot contains a
threadlike protein, FIBRIN

FIBRIN - binds the edges of the wound together.

 The surface of the clot dries to form a SCAB, which seals the wound
and helps prevent infection
 NEUTROPHILS – phagocytic cells that ingest bacteria, thus helping to
fight infection, and they also ingest tissue debris and clear the area
for repair.
o Neutrophils are killed in this process and can accumulate
as a mixture of dead cells and fluid called PUS

SECONDARY UNION/ SECONDARY INTENTION

 If the edges are not close together, or if extensive loss of tissue has
occurred

GRANULATION TISSUE

 delicate connective tissue which consists of fibroblasts, collagen, and


capillaries. A large amount of granulation tissue sometimes persists
as a SCAR, which at first is bright red because of vascularization of
the tissue