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“Relationship of Vitamins/Minerals with
other Nutrients”


DR. D.D. garg R. k. bloch
Reg. No. 2040417002
Associate Professor M.V.Sc Scholar
Dept. of Animal Animal Nutrition

College of Veterinary Sci. & Animal Husbandry

Junagadh Agricultural University

Proper animal nutrition is key to successful livestock production. Good nutrition can
improve feed efficiency and the rate of body weight gain in animals. Animals must be fed in
such a way that to fulfil their requirement. In deficient conditions, animals have retard growth,
reproduction failures, decreases milk production and even they could possibly die in severe
deficient condition. So, nutrients are very essential for proper growth which are six classes of
essential nutrients: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.
Vitamins are organic nutrients required in small quantities to perform specific
functions. They do not provide energy but are essential for utilization of energy. Vitamins helps
regulate body functions, body health and promoting resistance to diseases in animal.
What is nutrient interaction?
 Nutrient interaction means the impact of the nutrient on other nutrient’s bioavailability.
 Nutrient bioavailability includes two important components, absorption and utilization.
 Absorption is the process by which a nutrient moves from the intestinal lumen into the
 Utilization of the absorbed nutrients includes transport to various parts of the body,
assimilation by cells, and conversion to biologically active forms.
Nutrient-nutrient interactions may affect –
 Bioavailability in either in positive or negative way.
 May either enhance or inhibit nutrient absorption or utilization.
 High or low levels of one or more nutrients may affects bioavailability of other nutrient.
 Interaction can affect all the major categories of nutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fats,
vitamins and minerals.
 Interactions of nutrients with non-nutrient components of foods can alter availability.
Vitamin-mineral antagonism
Vitamins are closely associated with the metabolic functions of minerals. Vitamin deficiency
can interfere with mineral utilization or absorption and vitamin supplementation may also be
required to correct a mineral deficiency. Classic examples of vitamin requirements and mineral
deficiencies are rickets and vitamin D. Vitamins C and/or Vitamin B6 and vitamin A may often
be required to correct iron deficiency anaemia which would not respond to iron
supplementation. A zinc deficiency can be related to vitamin A deficiency that would not
respond to vitamin A supplementation. Zinc is required for mobilization of stored vitamin A
from the liver.

Vitamin-mineral antagonism

Less recognized are the vitamin-mineral antagonistic relationships. Excessive intake of a single
vitamin can lead to mineral disturbances by either producing a deficiency or increasing the
retention of a mineral. High vitamin C intake will contribute to copper deficiency as a result of
decreasing its absorption or producing a metabolic interference. Since vitamin C is antagonistic
to copper and copper is required in sufficient amounts for the metabolic utilization of iron,
excess intake of vitamin C can lead to iron toxicity. A deficiency of copper results in the
inability to utilize iron, therefore, iron will accumulate in storage tissues if an adequate supply
of copper is not available. Copper and vitamin C are synergistic in many metabolic functions,
but due to their antagonistic effects upon each other, we can see that excessive intake of copper
can cause a vitamin C deficiency. Excess amounts of vitamin C in the presence of marginal
copper status can contribute to osteoporosis as well as cause a decrease in immune response.
Excessive intake of vitamin D can produce a magnesium and potassium deficiency by its action
of enhancing the absorption and/or retention of calcium. Excessive intake of vitamin A can
contribute to calcium loss.

Interactions with
Micronutrient other minerals Interactions Characteristics of interactions
or vitamins

Calcium, Zinc Negative Reduces the absorption of iron.

Increases the absorption of iron.

The level of haemoglobin is
Vitamin A Positive higher if iron and vitamin A are
Iron taken together than in case of iron

Increases the absorption of iron by

Vitamin C Positive enhancing absorption in the
gastrointestinal tract.

Increases bioavailability of
Vitamin D Positive calcium, potentiates calcium
absorption by bone tissue.
Magnesium Negative Reduces absorption of calcium.

Zinc Negative Reduces absorption of calcium.

Promotes absorption of
Magnesium into the body, and
Vitamin B6 Positive enhances the absorption and
Magnesium retention of Magnesium into the

Reduces absorption of
Calcium Negative

Manganese Calcium, Iron Negative Impairs absorption of Manganese.

Copper Zinc Negative Reduces absorption of Copper.

Reduces absorption of
Molybdenum Copper Negative

Inhibits absorption of zinc due to

Vitamin B9
Negative the formation of insoluble
(Folic Acid)
Calcium, Iron, Reduces absorption of zinc in the
Copper intestines.

Vitamin B12 Positive Increases absorption of zinc.

Chromium Iron Negative Reduces absorption of chromium.

Vitamin C, Protects Vitamin A from

Vitamin E oxidation.

Vitamin A Required for the metabolism of

vitamin A and for its
Zinc Positive
transformation into an active

Slows the transformation of

Vitamin B6 Negative vitamin B1 to its biologically
active form.
Vitamin B1 Enhances allergic reactions to
Vitamin B1.Cobalt ions in the
Vitamin B12 Negative
molecule of cobalamin contribute
to the breakdown of vitamin B1.

Cobalt ions in the molecule of

Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Negative cobalamin contribute to the
destruction of Vitamin B6.

Inhibits absorption of vitamin B9
Zinc Negative due to the formation of insoluble
Vitamin B9 complexes.

Promotes conservation of Vitamin

Vitamin C Positive
B9 in tissues.

Vitamin C, B1, Turns vitamin B12 into useless

Vitamin B12 Negative
Iron, Copper analogues.

Vitamin C Positive Restores oxidized vitamin E.

Vitamin E Enhances the antioxidant effects
Selenium Positive
of each other.

Interaction of Vitamin A with other nutrient

 The transport and utilization of vitamin A is dependent upon several vitamin A binding
 Sufficient dietary intake of protein is required for the manufacture of these binding
proteins, inadequate protein intake may result in vitamin A deficiency.
 Adequate intake of dietary fat and zinc is necessary for the absorption and utilization
of vitamin A.
 Because vitamin A deficiency causes anemia, it is believed that vitamin A impacts the
metabolism of iron.
 Excess vitamin A interferes with the absorption of vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin
necessary for blood clotting.
Interaction of Vitamin B2 with other nutrient
 Vitamin B2 status is strongly affected by intake of vitamin B1.
 Adequate supplies of vitamin B1 can help increase levels of vitamin B2.
 However, very high levels of vitamin B1 intake can increase the loss of vitamin B2 in
the urine.
 Other nutrients, especially iron, zinc, folate, vitamin B3 and vitamin B12 are not fully
available in the body without adequate supplies of riboflavin.

Niacin-B3 Interaction of vitamin B3 with other nutrient
 Vitamin B3 supply comes from conversion of the amino acid tryptophan.
 Tryptophan deficiency can therefore increase risk of vitamin B3 deficiency.
(Tryptophan deficiency is likely to occur in any individual with poor overall protein
 Conversion also requires the presence of vitaminsB1 and B6, and when B1 and/or B6
are deficient, B3 can also become deficient.
 Vitamin B3 deficiency also appears to be related to vitamin B12 status, since even mild
deficiencies in vitamin B12 can increase loss of vitamin B3 in the urine.
Pantothenic acid - B5 Interaction of pantothenic acid with other nutrient
 In animal studies, vitamins B12, folate, and biotin are required for proper use of vitamin
B5 in the body's biochemical pathways.
 In addition, vitamin C appears to help prevent B5 deficiency.
Folate: Interaction of folate with other nutrient
 Vitamins B1, B2, and B3 must be present in adequate amounts to enable folic acid to
undergo metabolic recycling in the body.
 Excessive amounts of folic acid, however, can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency, by
masking blood related symptoms.
Vitamin B12: Interaction of vitamin B12 with other nutrient
 Vitamin B6 is required for proper absorption of vitamin B12, and deficiency of vitamin
B6 has been shown to impair B12 absorption in animal studies.
 Conversion of vitamin B12 from its non-active into its biologically active form requires
the presence of vitamin E.
 Vitamin E deficiency may show signs of vitamin B12 deficiency as well. Excessive
intake of folic acid can mask B12 Deficiencies
Vitamin C: Interaction of Vitamin C with other nutrient
 Vitamin C has significant interactions with several key minerals in the body.
 Supplemental intake of vitamin C at gram-level doses can interfere with copper
 Conversely, vitamin C can significantly enhance iron uptake and metabolism, even at
food-level amounts.
 Vitamin C also has important interactions with other vitamins.

 Excessive intake of vitamin A is less toxic to the body when vitamin C is readily
 Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of vitamin E, and these two vitamins appear
to work together in their antioxidant effect.
Vitamin D: Interaction of vitamin D with other nutrient
 It plays a role in maintaining normal blood levels of calcium.
 It impacts the absorption and storage of calcium.
 It also stimulates the absorption of phosphorus.
 Vitamin D is believed to regulate the production of certain calcium-binding proteins
that function in the bones and kidneys. Because these binding proteinsare dependent on
vitamin K.-It has also been theorized that iron deficiency results in decreased vitamin
D absorption.
Vitamin E
 The recycling of vitamin E in the body is intricately connected to four other nutrients:
vitamin C, glutathione, selenium, and vitamin B3.
 Vitamin C is required to keep vitamin E in its metabolically active form.
 Glutathione (a very small protein molecule called a tri-peptide and consisting of three
amino acid building blocks) is required to keep vitamin C in its active form and
selenium (a micro-mineral) and vitamin B3 (in a special form called NADPH) are
required to keep glutathione in its active form.
 At moderately high levels of 1,000 milligrams or more, vitamin E can interfere with the
bodily activities of vitamin K. The potential injury to vitamin K metabolism was largely
the reason why the National Academy of Sciences, in the year 2000, set a Tolerable
 Upper Limit (UL) of 1,000 milligrams per day for vitamin E.

Vitamin K
 Research on nutrient-nutrient interactions with vitamin K has traditionally focused on
the major fat-soluble vitamins-A, E, and D.
 Persons undergoing treatment with anticoagulant drugs have clearly been shown to
have their anticoagulant therapy and their vitamin K status impacted by high doses of
vitamin E. For this reason, intake of both vitamin K and vitamin E for persons
undergoing treatment with anticoagulant medications needs to be determined with the
help of a healthcare provider.

 In healthy persons, no food intake of vitamin E has been shown to compromise vitamin
K status. However, under some circumstances, higher supplement intake of vitamin E
(above 1,000 milligrams) has been shown to interfere with vitamin K function and, in
some cases, to promote haemorrhaging.
 Since calcium metabolism can be greatly affected by both vitamin D and vitamin K,
researchers suspect some key interactions between these two fat-soluble vitamins.
However, the exact nature of this interaction has yet to be determined.
 Excess supplemental intake of vitamin A (in its retinol form) has been shown to
interfere with the vitamin K-related clotting ability of the blood and cause
 The amount of vitamin A triggering this potential problem with vitamin K status in
adults is typically 10,000 IU (3,000 micrograms) or higher.
Coenzyme Q
 Coenzyme Q plays a critical role in maintaining our supply of vitamin E.
 When vitamin E gets "used up" in the performance of its duty as an antioxidant
protector of our cell membranes, coenzyme Q can "recharge" it, and restore its
antioxidant capability.


 Vitamin D accelerates the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.

 High consumption of potassium reduces the urinary excretion of calcium.
 High intakes of sodium, caffeine, or protein cause an increase in the urinary excretion
of calcium.
 Certain types of dietary fibre in wheat and oat bran, may interfere with calcium
absorption by decreasing transit time, limiting the amount of time during digestion for
calcium to be absorbed.
 Dietary fibre also stimulates the proliferation of "friendly" bacteria in the gut, which
bind calcium and make it less available for absorption.
 Phytic acid, found in whole grains, nuts, and legumes, can bind to calcium to form and
insoluble complex, decreasing the absorption of calcium.
 Oxalic acid, found in spinach, beets, celery, pecans, peanuts, tea and cocoa, can bind to
calcium and form an insoluble complex that is excreted in the faeces.

Calcium impacts the absorption of the following nutrients:
 It decreases the absorption of heme and non-heme iron.
 Magnesium and calcium compete with each other for intestinal absorption.
 Consequently, calcium supplements should not be taken at the same time as magnesium
 Copper is known to react with a variety of other nutrients like iron, zinc, molybdenum,
sulphur, selenium, and vitamin C.
 Iron and zinc-interfere with absorption of copper.
 Zinc supplements, when taken at 50 milligrams or more on a daily basis over an
extended period of time, can lower availability of copper.
 High supplemental doses of vitamin C—in a range approaching 1,000 milligrams or
more may decrease copper availability. While not applicable to adults,
 There is also some evidence that in the formula feeding of infants, too much iron in a
formula can lower absorption of copper from that formula.
 The most advantageous nutrient for helping to increase the absorption of plant-food
iron is vitamin C, 25 milligrams of vitamin C may as much as double the absorption of
plant food iron from that meal.
 Copper is another key nutrient for supporting iron metabolism. In this case, it is
transport of iron around the body that relies in many ways on the presence of copper.
 So important is this relationship that iron-deficiency anaemia may sometimes reflect
the more basic underlying problem of copper deficiency. Vitamin A may also help
improve iron status, and perhaps because of their relationship to stomach acidity levels,
so might amino acids and organic acids (like citric acid or malic acid). There might also
be better absorption of some plant iron from a meal when animal foods containing heme
iron (the primary form of iron in animals) are present.
 Research is less clear on the relationship between iron and calcium, although most
studies show problems with iron absorption when too much calcium is present. Since
too much calcium in this case usually means 300 milligrams or more, this iron-calcium
interaction is not likely to cause practical problems in most food situations. But it might
come into play if a person had high iron requirements and was drinking a full glass of
cow's milk (containing about 300 milligrams of calcium) along with an iron-rich meal.

In this kind of circumstance, it might make sense to cut meal-time consumption of the
milk in half and hold the other half for a between-meal snack. The ability of calcium to
block iron absorption has led some researchers to recommend that individuals with high
iron requirements avoid taking calcium supplements alongside of meals. Other
nutrients that can lower absorption of plant iron include phytic acid (found in grains
and legumes), certain plant food polyphenols (like tannins), and soy proteins. However,
we are still able to absorb helpful amounts of iron from plant foods that contain any or
several of these nutrients, and foods like whole wheat, whole grain rice, soybeans or
other legumes are still very much worth including in the diet, even when iron absorption
from these foods is moderate to low.
Potassium: Interaction of potassium with other nutrient
 Through a mechanism known as the "sodium-potassium" pump, sodium and potassium
work together closely to initiate muscle contraction and nerve transmission, and to
maintain the body's normal distribution of fluid. Most of the potassium in body is stored
inside of cells, while most of the sodium in body is stored in the fluid that surrounds
 During muscle contraction and nerve transmission, potassium leaves the cell and
sodium enters the cell via the "sodium-potassium pump."
 This transfer causes a change in electrical charge within the cell, which initiates the
muscle contraction or the nerve impulse. Because sodium attracts water, once the
muscle contraction or nerve impulse is initiated, the sodium is immediately pumped out
of the cell to prevent water from entering the cell and causing the cell to swell or burst,
and potassium is pumped back into the cell.
 Potassium is known to decrease the excretion of calcium. As a result, increasing the
amount of potassium-containing foods in diet may be helpful in maintaining the density
and strength
Zinc: Interaction of zinc with other nutrient
 A Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) for zinc of 40 milligrams per day was set by the National
Academy of Sciences in 2000 for all adults 19 years and older. The establishment of
this limit was largely related to the ability of zinc - particularly supplemental zinc - to
impair the status of other nutrients.
 The most important of these nutrients are copper and calcium. Even at moderate doses
of 18-20 milligrams that can easily be obtained from food, zinc can compromise the

body's supply of copper unless foods rich in copper are also included in the diet. When
few foods high in calcium are included in the diet, high levels of zinc intake (usually
obtained from supplements) can also decrease absorption of calcium from the intestine
into the body.
 Although zinc is associated with these potential detrimental effects on copper and
calcium, it is also supportive of other nutrients. The best studied of these nutrients in
vitamin A. Without zinc, vitamin A cannot be effectively transported around the body,
and cannot efficiently be mobilized when it is needed.
Iodine: Interaction of iodine with other nutrient
 The conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodthyronine (T3) requires the removal of an
iodine molecule from T4. This reaction requires the mineral selenium. The iodine
molecule that is removed gets returned to the body's pool of iodine and can be reused
to make additional thyroid hormones.
 If body is deficient in selenium, the conversion of T4 to T3 is slowed, and less iodine
is available for the thryoid to use in making new hormones.
 Animal studies have shown that arsenic interferes with the uptake of iodine by the
thyroid, leading to goiter. In addition, dietary deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc
and/or iron can exaggerate the effects of iodine deficiency.
Selenium: Interaction of selenium with other nutrient
 Selenium is indirectly responsible for keeping the body's supply of at least three other
nutrients intact: these three other nutrients are vitamin C, glutathione, and vitamin E.
Although the chemistry of these relationships is complicated, it centers on an enzyme
(protein molecule in the body that helps "jump start" a chemical reaction) called
glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme cannot function without selenium. Both iron
deficiency and copper deficiency appear to increase the risk of selenium deficiency.
Manganese: Interaction of manganese with other nutrient
High doses of manganese may inhibit the absorption of iron, copper, and zinc.
Alternatively, high intakes of magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper and zinc may
inhibit the absorption of manganese.
Interaction of magnesium with other nutrient
 The relationship between magnesium and calcium is one of the most actively
researched, and yet not fully understood mineral-to-mineral relationships. On one hand,
magnesium is required in order for calcium to maintain a balanced role in the body's

metabolism. On the other hand, magnesium can compete with calcium and prevent
calcium from trigger certain events, like the relay of a nerve message or the contraction
of a muscle.
 Because of the complex relationship between calcium and magnesium, healthy diets
almost always need to contain foods rich in both minerals. Magnesium also has an
important relationship with potassium, and helps regulate the movement of potassium
in and out of our cells.
 Finally, because magnesium can be attached to certain building blocks of protein (called
amino acids), increased intake of protein can sometimes help improve the body's
magnesium status.
Chromium: Interaction of chromium with other nutrient
 Diets high in simple sugars increase the urinary excretion of chromium and rob the
body of some of the chromium it needs. Diets rich in whole grains can also decrease
absorption of chromium, since whole grains contain a compound called phytic acid,
which can bind to chromium, form an insoluble complex, and prevent it from being
 Whole grains, however, contain significant amounts of chromium, and the activity of
phytic acid in grains does not prevent us from getting chromium from whole grain
 As a result, a diet rich in whole grains is still unlikely to increase our risk of chromium
deficiency. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increases the absorption of chromium.
Vitamin and Co-enzyme interaction

Vitamin Coenzyme Form

Thiamine Thiamine pyrophosphate
Niacin (nicotinic acid) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
Pantothenic acid Coenzyme A
Pyridoxal, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal phosphate
Pyridoxamine (Vitamin
Cobalamin (Vitamin 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin methylcobalamin
B12) Methylcobalamin
Biotin Biotin-lysine complexes (biocytin)

Lipoic acid Lipoyl-lysine complexes (lipoamide)
Folic acid Tetrahydrofolate
Ascorbic acid Ascorbate
(Vitamin C)

Carbohydrate metabolism takes place in the cell cytoplasm the fluid region between the
cell membrane and the nucleus. The breakdown of carbohydrates realise adenosine
triphosphate, a high-energy compound which requires to body cells and pyruvate, essential to
initiate fat and protein metabolism. Thiamine, niacin, pyridoxamine and pantothenic acid
interact with each other and with digestive enzymes during the metabolic process to initiate
various chemical reactions to break down carbohydrates, as well as fatty acids and proteins.
Vitamin B6 converted into an active form of B-6 called pyridoxal 5-phosphate which
utilized to make more than 100 enzymes, including enzymes that help make amino acids.
Vitamin C has a specific role in the synthesis of one protein which is collagen. One-fourth of
body consists of collagen which is a very strong protein used to build and strengthen skin,
blood vessels, connective tissues, bones and teeth. Collagen also protects and supports organs
and other soft tissues. One of the amino acids used to build collagen: hydroxyproline which is
only synthesized when vitamin C is available. Vitamin K is essential for producing a group of
proteins called Gla proteins. Four of the Gla proteins prevent excessive bleeding by making
blood clot. Vitamin K-dependent proteins are active in the central nervous system, which help
produce compounds essential for brain cell membranes and may promote the growth of
Protein: Interaction of protein with other nutrient
Various proteins bind and carry certain vitamins and minerals including iron, copper,
calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, fat. Inadequate protein intake may impair the function of these
Carbohydrate: Interaction of Carbohydrate with other nutrient
 Carbohydrates present in the body require thiamine for their metabolism, as thiamine
pyrophosphate is a coenzyme for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, the
main breakdown product of carbohydrate.
 Presence of excess carbohydrate in diet increase thiamine requirement also helps in
functioning of fat and protein

Dietary fibre: Interaction of dietary fibre with other nutrient
 It reduce the absorption and/or increase the excretion of several minerals, including
calcium and iron.
Fat: Interaction of fat with other nutrient
 The presence of excess fat in diet decreases thiamine requirement addition of essential
fatty acid to a low pyridoxine diet offers protection against the development of
deficiency sign due to pyridoxine deficiency.
Lipoic acid: Interaction of Lipoic acid with other nutrient
 Vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q, glutathione, and NADH all require lipoic acid for their
efficient recycling in the body. Deficiency of these antioxidant nutrients will reduce
synthesis of lipoic acid in the body.
 Lipoic acid gets its two sulfur atoms primarily from the sulfur-containing amino acid
methionine. For this reason, methionine deficiency can reduce the body's ability to
make lipoic acid.
 Deficiency of other sulfur-containing amino acids, like cysteine and taurine, can also
prevent lipoic acid synthesis in our cells.
Choline: Interaction of Choline with other nutrient
 SAM cycle (s-adenosyl-methionine cycle), choline adequacy is closely related to the
adequacy of many other nutrients.
 These nutrients include vitamins B-6, B-12, and folate; the amino acids serine and
glycine; and the molecules betaine, sarcosine, and ethanolamine.
 Throughout the SAM cycle, all of these molecules are actively exchanging chemical
components - and especially chemical structures called methyl groups - in order to keep
the body supplied with adequate amounts of SAM. In the context of the
 SAM cycle, one of choline's jobs is to keep methyl groups cycling around for eventual
donation to SAM.
 The movement of methyl groups around the SAM cycle is particularly dependent on
folic acid, which is particularly good at accepting methyl groups from other molecules.
For this reason, folate deficiency is especially likely to disrupt SAM cycle balance and
in the process, choline status as well.
Interaction of omega-3 fatty acid with other nutrient
Vitamin E, the primary fat-soluble antioxidant, protects omega-3 fats from oxidation.
Oxidation is a chemical process that produces free radical.