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Chang-Chiun Huanga; Chi-Chung Penga; Tsann-Tay Tanga

a

Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei,

Taiwan, Republic of China

To cite this Article Huang, Chang-Chiun , Peng, Chi-Chung and Tang, Tsann-Tay(2008) 'On-Line Tension Control for

Polyester Film Processing', Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 47: 2, 157 — 163

To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/03602550701816035

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03602550701816035

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or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 47: 157–163, 2008

Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 0360-2559 print/1525-6111 online

DOI: 10.1080/03602550701816035

Chang-Chiun Huang1, Chi-Chung Peng2, and Tsann-Tay Tang3

1

Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,

Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

2

Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,

Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

3

Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,

Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

The uniform tension at a preferred value of polyester (PET) of the outer layers on the inner layers when tension is too

films in processing or rewinding is important to product quality, high, and sagging, wrinkling, or railing when the tension

which can be achieved by tension control. Furthermore, the uniform is too low. Because tension and transport speed are

transport speed is helpful in creating uniform film tension. In this linked, a severely fluctuating speed may deteriorate the

article, a simplified version of PET film processing systems, consist-

ing of an unwinding roll, a sensor roller, and a rewinding roll, is tension variation as well as causing defects such as

considered. The unwinding roll and rewinding roll are driven by a ribbing lines, waves, and unevenness in coating thickness.

torque-controlled motor and speed-controlled motor, respectively. Thus, the uniform tension and uniform transport speed at

A control signal to the torque-controlled motor, generated by a con- preferred values will result in higher-quality products and

ventional sliding-mode controller or a fuzzy sliding-mode controller, greater throughput.

regulates the film tension. Moreover, the speed-controlled motor

adjusts the transport speed at the winding section. To improve the Young and Reid[1] modeled the longitudinal and

speed fluctuation, an external proportional-plus-integral- lateral behaviors of webs and designed a PID tension con-

plus-derivative (PID) controller for the speed-controlled motor troller based on the linearized model. Ludwicki and

was implemented. The experimental results demonstrate that fuzzy Unnikrishnan[2] developed a controller based on root locus

sliding-mode control gives the tension response with smaller methods combined with simulations of the time response to

variation than the conventional sliding-mode control does, and the

external PID control for speed diminishes fluctuations in speed, thus meet the dancer position and acceleration requirements for

leading to more uniform tension, while maintaining it at the the unwind section in a film finishing application. Choi,

preferred value. et al.[3] described the tension behavior of a moving tape

by means of the one-dimensional wave equation and

Keywords Fuzzy sliding-mode control; Polyester film; Tension applied the sliding-mode control algorithm to achieve

control desired tension. Sakamoto and Fujino[4] expressed the

web in terms of spring and dashpot elements and included

INTRODUCTION a dancer roll in modeling the web tension system. Simula-

A thin polymer film is generally conveyed to a working tions were performed on the model with a proportional-

zone for processing and wound for storage or final ship- plus-integral (PI) controller and focus on paper as a web.

ment on a rewinding roll by means of roll-to-roll transport Mathur and Messner[5] controlled the torques to the

mechanisms. In the roll-to-roll mechanism, the longitudinal unwinding and rewinding reels in a high-speed, low-tension

behavior, including tension and transport speed, is impor- tape transport system. The multi-input and multi-output

tant to product quality and productivity. For instance, system identification, sequential loop closing technique,

when coating optical films, uniform tension can avoid adaptive ripple cancellation, and fault compensation were

defects such as crossweb lines, bad pasting, and shrinkage incorporated into the control system design. Luo and

(even breakage). In the rewinding process, the film may Wen[6] proposed a multiple-page mapping artificial neural

network with a back-propagation training algorithm which

Address correspondence to Chang-Chiun Huang, Department could decouple the speed and tension control loops,

of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science allowing both loops to operate quasi-independently in

and Technology, 43, Keelung Road, Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan. order to handle the variation of the rewinding roll’s

E-mail: huangcc@mail.ntust.edu.tw

157

158 CHANG-CHIUN HUANG ET AL.

diameter. Knittel, et al.[7] presented a multivariable H1 respectively. For simplicity in modeling, we assumed the

robust control of tension and velocity with two degrees following: that the film is perfectly elastic, that there is

of freedom (2DOF) and gain scheduling to web winding no slippage phenomenon between the roller and the film,

systems. The 2DOF significantly improved disturbance that both the wound-out tension and coulomb friction of

rejection while reducing the coupling between tension and the unwinding roll are zero, and that the sensor roller

velocity. Lin[8] proposed a PI-type observer to estimate and idle rollers do not affect tension. According to the

web tension precisely regardless of the effects of friction mass conservation law for a control volume and very small

and inertia and designed an observer-based tension feed- strain with the film, the dynamic of tension is given by[1]

back controller against the variation of system parameters.

In our simplified PET film processing system, we focus Vr ðtÞTðtÞ

T_ ðtÞ ¼ þ K½Vr ðtÞ Ru ðtÞxu ðtÞ ð1Þ

on the uniform control of PET film tension at a targeted L

level in combination with uniform transport speed at the

where TðtÞ is the tension of the films, Vr ðtÞ is the tangential

rewinding section. The tension behavior modeling is based

velocity of the rewinding roll, K ¼ EA=L; L is the film length

on some assumptions and exhibits nonlinear characteris-

of a span, E is Young’s modulus of the film, A is the cross

tics. Both the conventional sliding-mode controller and

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

the fuzzy sliding-mode controller are adopted to control

and xu(t) is the angular velocity of the unwinding roll.

tension, because they can handle nonlinear systems and

The radii of the unwinding roll and rewinding roll vary

are robust even in the face of modeling uncertainties and

with time, and their change rates are given by[5]

fluctuations in speed (to reduce the speed fluctuation, an

external PID controller for the speed-controlled motor th xr ðtÞ

R_ r ðtÞ ¼ ð2Þ

was also implemented). The performances of our control- 2p

lers are evaluated based on the mean and standard devia- th xu ðtÞ

tions of their responses to tension and speed. R_ u ðtÞ ¼ ð3Þ

2p

System Modeling where Rr(t) and xr(t) are the radius and angular velocity of

the rewinding roll, respectively, and th is the thickness of

A simplified version of PET film processing systems,

the film. Because the speed-controlled motor drives the

shown in Figure 1, is considered in this study and consists

rewinding roll, the tangential velocity of the rewinding roll

of an unwinding roll, a rewinding roll, a sensor roller, and a

can be written as[8]

pair of idle rollers. The film is unwound from the unwind-

ing roll and moved through the idle rollers, which guide the Vr ¼ Rr xr ¼ Rr Kr Ur ð4Þ

film around the sensor roller at a fixed angle. Finally, the

film is wound onto the rewinding roll. The unwinding roll where Kr and Ur denote the speed constant and input volt-

and rewinding roll are driven by two AC servo motors in age of the motor, respectively. The unwinding roll is driven

torque-controlled mode and speed-controlled mode, by the torque-controlled motor. Hence, the torque equilib-

rium at the unwinding roll gives the equation[5]:

d

½Ju ðtÞxu ðtÞ ¼ su Bu xu ðtÞ þ TðtÞRu ðtÞ ð5Þ

dt

where Ju(t) is the total moment of inertia of the unwinding

roll and motor, Bu is the viscous friction coefficient, and xu

is the torque generated by the motor. Substituting

þ KJ ðR4u R4uo Þ into Eq. (5) yields

1

x_ u ðtÞ ¼

Jum þ KJ ðRu ðtÞ4 R4u0 Þ

4th KJ Ru ðtÞ3 xu ðtÞ2

Ku Ut Bu xu ðtÞ þ ð6Þ

2p

where Ku is the torque constant of the motor, Ut is the

input voltage to the motor, Jum is the total moment of iner-

tia of the motor and unwinding roll without the film

FIG. 1. Configuration of the experimental setup. wrapped on, KJ ¼ qtw p=2, q is the film density, tw is the

TENSION CONTROL FOR POLYESTER FILM PROCESSING 159

without films. Therefore, Eqs. (1)–(4) and (6) describe the

dynamic behavior of film tension, and Eq. (4) governs

the transport speed of films at the rewinding section.

Consider a nonlinear system with a single input and

single output of the form

x_ ¼ fðxÞ þ gðxÞu ð7Þ

FIG. 2. Membership function for S and S_ .

y ¼ hðxÞ ð8Þ

where x 2 Rn , u is the input, and y is the output. We

consecutively differentiate the output y in an increasing order we have the varying switching gain tuned by the fuzzy logic

until the minimum order r in which at least one coefficient of u theorem based on the deviation from the sliding surface

and its change in the fuzzy sliding-mode control

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

is defined as the relative degree of the system, which is (FSMC)[14,15]. The concept originates from the fact that

mathematically expressed by the Lie derivatives as[9,10] when the output deviates from the sliding surface (S) and

tends to move toward or away from the sliding surfaceðS_ Þ

yðrÞ ¼ Lrf h þ Lg ðLr1

f hÞu ð9Þ in different degrees, the force driving the output toward the

sliding surface should have a different quantity. The mag-

Lg Lif hðxÞ ¼ 0 0i <r1 ð10Þ nitude of g affects the driving force, and the fuzzy logic the-

Lg Lr1

f hðxÞ ¼

6 0 ð11Þ orem can determine the value of g on the basis of the states

of S and S_ .

where the Lie derivatives are defined as L0f h ¼ h and In general, the fuzzy system is comprised of the fuzzifier,

Lif h ¼ rðLi1

f hÞf, i ¼ 1, 2, . . . . fuzzy knowledge base, fuzzy inference engine, and defuzzi-

Based on the relative degree, a sliding function S is fier[16,17]. In the defuzzifier, we choose two input fuzzy vari-

defined as[11,12] ables, S and S_ , and one output fuzzy variable, g. For S and

X

r1 S_ , the membership functions are defined on the normalized

S ¼ eðrÞ þ Ck eðkÞ ð12Þ domain [-5 5] as shown in Figure 2, where LN, MN, SN,

k¼0 ZO, SP, MP, and LP represent large negative, medium

R

where e ¼ ðy yd Þdt, yd is the desired output, and the negative, small negative, zero, small positive, medium posi-

coefficients Ck, k ¼ 0, 1, . . . , r–1, are real values such that tive, and large positive, respectively. For g, the membership

all the roots of the polynomial sr þ Cr1 sr1 þ þ functions, shown in Figure 3, are defined on the normal-

C1 s þ C0 ¼ 0 are in the left half-plane[13]. The sliding ized domain [0 5] because g is a strictly positive constant,

surface is defined by S ¼ 0. When the output remains on where ZO, SP, MP, and LP stand for zero, small positive,

the sliding surface for t t0 , it implies that y ¼ yd. Taking medium positive, and large positive. In addition, a scaling

the time derivative of S gives factor is used to adjust the domain of the membership func-

X

r tion. As displayed in Table 1, the rule base is built on the

ðrÞ

S_ ¼ ðLrf h þ Lg ðLr1

f hÞu yd þ Ck1 eðkÞ ð13Þ characteristics of the response of S. For example, if the

k¼1

a sign function, the trajectory of the output is always

forced to move toward the sliding surface until it reaches

it moves along it. This can be shown by Lyapunov’s second

stability theorem with the Lyapunov functions

V ¼ 1 S2 > 0 and V_ ¼ gjSj < 0, g > 0. Consequently,

2

the control law becomes

1 ðrÞ

Xr

u¼ ðLr

f h y d Þ þ Ck1 eðkÞ þ g sgnðSÞ ð14Þ

Lg ðLr1

f hÞ k¼1

switching gain g is chosen by the designer, often suffering

from the chattering problem. To alleviate the drawback, FIG. 3. Membership function for g.

160 CHANG-CHIUN HUANG ET AL.

Rule base of FSMC the film tension. The speed-controlled motor regulates its

S angular velocity based on the target transport speed and

S_ LN MN SN ZO SP MP LP radius of the rewinding roll. To improve the speed vari-

ation, an external PID feedback control system to the

LP ZO SP MP LP LP LP LP speed-controlled motor was also implemented as shown

MP SP ZO SP MP MP LP LP in Figure 4, where xrd is the desired angular velocity and

SP MP SP ZO SP SP MP LP KP , KI , and KD are gains of the PID controller.

ZO MP MP SP ZO SP MP MP The target levels—30 N of tension and 1.0 m=sec trans-

SN LP MP SP SP ZO SP MP port speed—are maintained. Conventional sliding-mode

MN LP LP MP MP SP ZO SP control and fuzzy sliding-mode control for tension regu-

LN LP LP LP LP MP SP ZO lation, in tandem with the speed-controlled motor alone

or with an external PID controller, are implemented and

their performances are compared. We consecutively differ-

output trajectory falls far away from the sliding surface entiate Eq. (1) with respect to time t and find that the

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

(LN or LP for S) and has a pronounced tendency to move input Ut appears in the second derivate of T in the first

away from the sliding surface (LN or LP for S_ ), a large instance. Thus, the relative degree is two and the sliding

switching gain (LP) for g that pulls the output toward

R for tension control is S ¼ e€ þ C1e_ þ C0 e, where

surface

the sliding surface is required. Finally, the max–min com- e ¼ ðT Td Þdt and Td is the target tension. Differentiat-

position and center of gravity are adopted for decision- ing S with respect to t and substituting S_ ¼ g sgnðSÞ

making and defuzzification, respectively. yields the following sliding-mode control law:

1 _ Vr T

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ut ¼ V r T þ Vr þ KðV_ r Ru xu Þ

L L

An experimental setup as schematically shown in "

2

Figure 1 was built. Two of S-shaped load cells are located th x u R

þ K V_ r þ u Bu xu

at both sides of the sensor roller, around which the film 2p

Jum þ KJ R4u R4u0

wrapped at an angle of 120. Thus, the total force measured

by the load cells minus the weight of the roller is film’s ten- !#

sion. The values of system parameters are listed in Table 2. 4th KJ R3u x2u

þ TRu þ þ C1e€ þ C0e_

In practice, the tension response usually fluctuates. This 2p

paper deals with maintaining a target level of tension KKu Ru

with less fluctuation; furthermore, maintaining the þ g sgnðSÞ ð15Þ

Jum þ KJ ðR4u R4u0 Þ

uniform transport speed at the rewinding section can

enhance tension control performance. The voltage signal In conventional sliding-mode control, there are two coeffi-

to the torque-controlled motor, generated by conventional cients—C0 and C1—of the sliding surface and the switching

gain g to be chosen. In fuzzy sliding-mode control, how-

ever, the gain g is self tuned by the fuzzy logic theorem

TABLE 2 based on S and S_ . The scaling factors fS , fS_ , and fg for

System parameters membership functions S, S_ , and g are chosen by the design-

Symbol Value er. Three gains, KP, KI, and KD of the external PID control-

ler to the speed-controlled motor also need to be selected.

q 680 kg=m3

These choices can be justified by simulation results. As a

th 1.9 10 4 m

consequence, the choice of C0 ¼ 130, C1 ¼ 1, g ¼ 1.5,

tw 0.4 m

fS ¼ 0.0025, fS_ ¼ 2.510 6, fg ¼ 0.2, KP ¼ 1.11210 2,

L 0.8 m

KI ¼ 43.29, and KD ¼ 2.79310 3 gives good simulation

Rr0 2.25 10 2 m

performance in tension and speed responses. The simulation

Ru0 2.25 10 2 m

Rr ð0Þ 2.25 10 2 m

Ru ð0Þ 6.25 10 2 m

E 6.52379 107 N=m2

Jum 8.85 10 4 kg m2

Bu 2.0 10 3 N m sec=rad

Kr 27.932 rad=sec Volt

Ku 0.2391 N m=volt FIG. 4. An external PID control for the speed-controlled motor.

TENSION CONTROL FOR POLYESTER FILM PROCESSING 161

in tandem with an external PID controller for the speed-

controlled motor are shown in Figure 5.

In the experiment, the tension and speed responses

usually fluctuate; thus, their levels and uniformity are eval-

uated by the mean and standard deviation of tension and

speed data. Angular velocities of the unwinding and

rewinding rolls are obtained from encodings of AC motors.

The transport speed at the rewinding section is the product

of the angular velocity and radius of the rewinding roll,

where the radius is estimated by integrating Eq. (2). The

target speed divided by the radius gives the target angular

velocity of the winding roll, which can be converted by

Eq. (4) into the required input voltage to the speed-

controlled motor. By way of demonstration, Figures 6 and 7

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

conventional sliding-mode control and fuzzy sliding-

mode control in cooperation with PID control. In Table 3,

transport speed.

denoted by m and r, respectively—in responses to tension

and speed for our implementation of the controllers. No

matter the type of tension and speed control used, the

mean tension and speed are maintained at levels near to

the target values. When applied to either method of speed

regulation, fuzzy sliding-mode control can significantly

reduce the standard deviation of tension in comparison

with conventional sliding-mode control. The speed-

controlled motor with an external PID controller can

FIG. 5. Simulation results in terms of (a) tension and (b) transport reduce the standard deviation of speed and also helps to

speed. reduce the standard deviation of tension. Thus, fuzzy

162 CHANG-CHIUN HUANG ET AL.

TABLE 3

Mean and standard deviations of tension and speed

responses

Tension Transport speed

Controller m r m r

SMC 29.549 0.960 0.998 0.024

FSMC 30.158 0.367 1.005 0.017

SMC 29.772 0.828 1.007 0.013

FSMC 30.139 0.348 1.007 0.013

Cooperated with an external PID controller for the speed-con-

trolled motor

Downloaded By: [2007-2008-2009 Konkuk University - Seoul Campus] At: 06:29 21 July 2010

The torque-controlled motor provides the required torque,

generated either by conventional sliding-mode control or

by fuzzy sliding-mode control, to the unwinding roll to

regulate the film tension. Fuzzy sliding-mode control yields

less fluctuation in the tension response than does conven-

tional sliding-mode control, because its self-tuned switch-

ing gain alleviates the chattering problem and enhances

resistance to fluctuations in speed. The external PID

controller helps lessen fluctuations in tension, particularly

in the case of conventional sliding-mode control.

REFERENCES

1. Young, G.E.; Reid, K.N. Lateral and longitudinal dynamic behavior

and control of moving webs. ASME J. Dyn. Sys. Meas. Ctrl. 1993,

115, 309–317.

2. Ludwicki, J.E.; Unnikrishnan, R. Automatic control of unwind

tension in film finishing applications. IEEE International Conference

on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, pp 774–779,

1995.

3. Choi, S.B.; Cheong, C.C.; Kim, G.W. Feedback control of tension in

a moving tape using an ER brake actuator. Mechatronics 1997, 7,

53–66.

4. Sakamoto, T.; Fujino, Y. Modelling and analysis of a web tension

control system. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electro-

FIG. 7. Experimental results by FSMC in terms of (a) tension and (b) nics, pp 358–362, 1995.

transport speed. 5. Mathur, P.D.; Messner, W.C. Controller development for a prototype

high-speed low-tension tape transport. IEEE Transactions Ctrl. Sys.

Tech. 1998, 6, 534–542.

sliding-mode control, for tension, and the external PID 6. Luo, F.L.; Wen, C. Multiple-page mapping artificial neural network

control and speed-controlled motor, for speed, yield the algorithm used for constant tension control. Exp. Sys. Apps. 1997,

13, 307–315.

most uniform tension and speed.

7. Knittel, D.; Laroche, E.; Gigan, D.; Koc, H. Tension control for wind-

ing systems with two-degrees-of-freedom H1 ontrollers. IEEE Trans-

actions Indus. Apps. 2003, 39, 113–120.

CONCLUSIONS 8. Lin, K.C. Observer-based tension feedback control with friction and

In our experimental setup, the radius of the rewinding inertia compensation. IEEE Transactions Ctrl. Sys. Tech. 2003, 11,

roll increases as more and more films wrap around the roll. 109–118.

The speed-controlled motor regulates the angular velocity 9. Sastry, S.S.; Isidori, A. Adaptive control of linearizable systems. IEEE

Transactions Automatic Ctrl. 1989, 34, 1123–1131.

of the rewinding roll, maintaining the tangential speed of

10. Slotine, J.J.; Li, W. Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall: New

the roll at a preferred value; consequently, the speed fluctu- Jersey, pp. 276–309, 1991.

ation occurs and detracts from the tension’s uniformity. An 11. Huang, Y.J.; Way, H.K. Output-sliding control for a class of

external PID controller for the speed-controlled motor is nonlinear systems. ISA Transactions 2001, 40, 123–131.

TENSION CONTROL FOR POLYESTER FILM PROCESSING 163

12. Huang, Y.J.; Kuo, T.C. Robust control for nonlinear time-varying 15. Antic, D.; Dimitrijevic, S. Non-minimum phase plant control using

systems with application to a robotic manipulator. Intl. Jrn. Sys. fuzzy sliding mode. Elec. Lett. 1998, 34, 1156–1158.

Sci. 2002, 33, 831–837. 16. Lee, C.C. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller—

13. Yoo, B.; Ham, W. Adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control of nonlinear Part I. IEEE Transactions Sys. Man Cybernetics 1990, 20,

system. IEEE Transactions Fuzzy Sys. 1998, 6, 315–321. 404–418.

14. Lin, F.J.; Chiu, S.L. Adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control for PM 17. Lee, C.C. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller—

synchronous servo motor drives. IEE Proc.—Ctrl. Theory App. Part II. IEEE Transactions Sys. Man Cybernetics 1990, 20,

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