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Diamond Engineer: Tunnel Series

Training 2

Angel Francisco Martinez

Application Engineer
01 Introduction
02 Construction Stages
03 Demo
04 Post - Processing
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2D vs 3D tunnels with soil springs

Structural analysis gives importance to the uncertainty of load, acting on the structure. Hence, it conducts the
member design for the largest member force obtained by combining various results systematically
2D vs 3D tunnels w/ ground elements
Ground analysis focuses more on the uncertainty of construction step and material itself, it is important to understand
physical state inside the ground. As a result, solid elements need to be used in modeling to reflect the ground shape and
construction situation; and non-linear anisotropic materials and in-situ stress states need to be considered to reflect the
actual on-site conditions as much as possible.
WHY model Tunnels in 3D FEM?

Ground displacements associated with tunnel excavations occur in vector directions X-Y-Z,
thus to accurately represent ground behavior during tunnel excavation processes,
detailed 3D numerical analysis is vital.

Modeling tunnels in 3D is becoming more attractive because of

limitations of the 2D modeling and because it captures the
response of tunnel excavations more accurately.
Work flow for FEM analysis

Automatic generation of shared

surfaces function

[Import or automatically generate 3D

layers through actual field data]
Modeling Analysis section
자동 요소망 생성

Check shared surfaces

Check results
Define analysis conditions and Hybrid Mesh generation
run the high performance analysis
Construction stage analysis

3D Analysis considering construction stages when constructing Open Cut Tunnel

Stability during construction stages applying SIG placing method for reviewing the appropriateness and stability of foundation

Construction Stages Stage2 Excavation Analysis Results

Stage3 SIG placing Y-dir. Displacement diagram
Stage1 Original ground

Failure Diagram

Stage4 Box Construction
Vertical Stress Diagram

Stage6 Additional Load

Stage5 Banking
Axial Force Diagram
Model from Training 1
Static to Sequential Excavations

Open static model

Terrain and strata 4 tunnel lining segments

w/tunnel and rock bolts
Static Results for ground and support structures

Total Ground Displacements Total Tunnel Displacements

Axial forces on rock bolts Axial forces on lining

Show CS stages of model
Show CS stages of model

The LDF keeps track of the Internal Forces of a deactivated element and
loads it in stages according to the factor assigned for each construction
stage, rather than loading it all at once.
Show CS stages of model

The ground stress from the non-linear

analysis results in the previous stage is
coupled and slope stability analysis is
CS Analysis Case
Construction stage analysis

Excavation 2 Final Stage

Excavation 1

Excavation 1 Excavation 2 Final Stage

(Modeling Assistants)

Wizard for easy construction stages set up

• Use CS wizard to efficiently define the construction stages.
• Remove and Activate sets in sequence.


Stage Simulator

Check the defined construction stage as a

video. It can be used in analyses that
incorporate construction stages (Static/Slope
analysis, Seepage/Consolidation analysis).
Tunnel Wizard
Tunnel Wizard
Tunnel Wizard

Input Mesh Size and soil properties.

Tunnel Wizard
3D tunnel connection

Total Tunnel Displacements

Mirror Image

Total Ground Displacements


Iso- Volume- Max Displacements

Stresses on lining Axial forces on lining

Material Status
• Plastic Status of Ground Element
• Safety Result (Mohr-Coulomb) Calculate Factor of Safety for each element based on MC
failure criteria. In case that Safety Factor is less than 1.2, it can be identical with plastic
failure region.
3D-2D Wizard
When checking the results after 3D analysis, use the cut
section & clipping function to check the arbitrary section
result contours.

Multi-Stage Animation

Flight Simulation
The Perspective view function from the View toolset below can be used to check the
interior information and results of a 3D model.
Time History Probe

Dynamic Report
Save the model information before analysis and the result information after analysis as a 3-dimensional
PDF document. Adjusting the 3D view on the PDF document and checking the cross-section information,
similar to the operations in the program, is possible. Hence, the 3D model/analysis result information can
all be checked on one PDF document without the model/result files.
• Tunnels have wide range of analysis and excavation methods.
• FEM allows for more accurate representation of all local conditions and coupling of multiple types
of analysis.
• 2D is advantageous when terrain is simple and tunnel segment is straight only.
• The 3D FEM allows for accurate simulation of terrain and sequential construction process.
• Modeling in 3D can be more time consuming and should be carried out after it was determined 2D
model has hit limit.
Assignment 2
Tunnel Wizard

Start File
Tunnel Wizard

Tunnel Wizard

Shotcrete and Rock Bolts

Tunnel Wizard

Tunnel Wizard

Tunnel Wizard

Tunnel Wizard

Analysis Case
Tunnel Wizard

3D CS Tunnel

Send to: grow@midasoft.com

Review for training 2:

Post Processor & Wizards

Integrated Solver Optimized for the next generation 64-bit platform

Finite Element Solutions for Geotechnical Engineering